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(See reference map V)


92,981 km2; 60% arable, 14% other agricultural, 16% forested, 10% other

Land boundaries: 2,245 km


Population: 10,714,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.0%

Nationality: noun—Hungarian(s); adjective—Hungarian

Ethnic divisions: 92.4% Magyar, 3.3% Gypsy, 2.5% German, 0.7% Jews, 1.1% other

Religion: 67.5% Roman Catholic, 20.0% Calvinist, 5.0% Lutheran, 7.6% atheist and other

Language: 98.2% Magyar, 1.8% other

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: 5,230,000 (1979); 20% agriculture, 33% industry and building, 47% other nonagriculture


Official name: Hungarian People's Republic

Type: Communist state

Capital: Budapest

Political subdivisions: 19 megyes (counties), 5 autonomous cities in county status, 97 jaras (districts)

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory, with both civil law system (civil code of 1960) and common law elements; constitution adopted 1949 amended 1972; Supreme Court renders decisions of principle that sometimes have the effect of declaring legislative acts unconstitutional; legal education at Lorand Eotvos Tudomanyegyetem School of Law in Budapest and two other schools of law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Liberation, 4 April

Branches: executive—Presidential Council (elected by parliament); legislative—parliament (elected by direct suffrage); judicial—Supreme Court (elected by parliament)

Government leaders: Pál LOSONCZI, President, Presidential Council; Gyorgy LÁZÁR, Chairman, Council of Ministers

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: every five years (last election June 1980); national and local elections are held separately

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers Party (MSZMP; sole party); Janos Kadar is First Secretary of Central Committee

Voting strength (1980 election): 7,809,000 (99.3%) for

Communist-approved candidates: 97% of electorate eligible to vote did so

Communists: about 754,000 party members (March 1975)

Member of: CEMA, Danube Commission, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAC, ICAO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO; has applied for membership in IMF and the World Bank


GNP: $52.8 billion in 1980 (at 1980 dollars), $4,931 per capita; 1980 growth rate, 0.3%

Agriculture: normally self-sufficient; main crops—corn, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, wine grapes; caloric intake 3,185 calories per day per capita (1977)

Major industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)

Shortages: metallic ores (except bauxite), copper, high grade coal, forest products, crude oil

Crude steel: 3.9 million metric tons produced (1979), 360 kg per capita

Electric power: 6,103,000 kW capacity (1981); 26.180 billion kWh produced (1981), 2,437 kWh per capita

Exports: $11,117 million (f.o.b., 1979); 28% machinery, 16% industrial consumer goods, 31% raw materials and semimanufactures, 21% food and raw materials for the food industry, energy sources 4% (distribution for 1979)

Imports: $11,919 million (c.i.f., 1979); 22% machinery, 8% industrial consumer goods, 47% raw materials and semi- manufactures, 8% food and raw materials for the food industry, energy sources 15% (distribution for 1979)

Major trade partners: $23,036 million (1979); 68% with Communist countries, 32% with non-Communist countries

Monetary conversion rate: 32.05 forints=US$1 (commercial); 22.57 forints=US$1 (noncommercial)—July 1980

Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years


Railroads: 7,864 km total; 7,615 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 214 km narrow gauge (mostly 0.760 m), 35 km broad gauge (1.524 m), 1,179 km double track, 1,613 km electrified; government owned (1978)

Highways: 29,759 km total; 25,000 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 4,101 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 658 km earth (1980)

Inland waterways: 1,688 km (1980)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,500 km; refined products, 500 km; natural gas, 2,896 km

Freight carried: rail—135.2 million metric tons, 24,6 billion metric ton/km (1980); highway—237.8 million metric tons, 6.2 billion metric ton/km (1980); waterway—est. 4.1 million metric tons, 6.8 billion metric ton/km (excluding international transit traffic)

River ports: 2 principal (Budapest, Dunaujvaros); no maritime ports; outlets are Rostock, GDR; Gdansk, Gdynia, and Szczecin in Poland; and Galati and Braila in Romania (1978)


Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,594,000; 2,085,000 fit for military service; about 67,000 reach military age (18) annually

Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, 18 billion forints; 3.7% of total budget