The World Factbook (1982)/Jamaica

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
Jamaica

JAMAICAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Jamaica.jpg
(See reference map III)

LANDEdit

11,422 km2; 21% arable, 23% meadows and pastures, 19% forested, 37% waste, urban, or other

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm

Coastline: 1,022 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 2,295,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 1.2%

Nationality: noun—Jamaican(s); adjective—Jamaican

Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian 3.4%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 0.9%

Religion: predominantly Protestant, some Roman Catholic, some spiritualist cults

Language: English

Literacy: government claims 82%, but probably only about one-half of that number are functionally literate

Labor force: 1,006,900, including 269,000 unemployed (1980); 30% in agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining, 10% manufacturing/mining, 14% public administration, 4% construction, 11% commerce, 4% transportation and utilities, 16% services; 26% unemployed; shortage of technical and managerial personnel

Organized labor: about 33% of labor force (1980)

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Jamaica

Type: independent state within Commonwealth since August 1962, recognizing Elizabeth II as head of state

Capital: Kingston

Political subdivisions: 12 parishes and the Kingston-St. Andrew corporate area

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 7 August

Branches: Cabinet headed by Prime Minister; 60-member elected House of Representatives; 21-member Senate (13 nominated by the Prime Minister, eight by opposition leader); judiciary follows British tradition under a Chief Justice

Government leader: Prime Minister Edward P. G. SEAGA; Governor General Florizel GLASSPOLE

Suffrage: universal, age 18 and over

Elections: at discretion of Governor General upon advice of Prime Minister but within five years; latest held 30 October 1980

Political parties and leaders: Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward Seaga; People's National Party (PNP), Michael Manley

Voting strength: (1980 general elections) approx. 58.8% JLP (51 seats in House), 41.2% PNP (9 seats)

Communists: Communist Party of Jamaica; Worker's Party of Jamaica; Worker's Party of Jamaica, Trevor Munroe

Other political or pressure groups: New World Group (Caribbean regionalists, nationalists, and leftist intellectual fraternity); Rastafarians (Negro religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New Creation International Peacemakers Tabernacle (leftist group); Workers Liberation League (a Marxist coalition of students/labor)

Member of: CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB, IFAD, IPC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, Pan American Health Organization, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $2.4 billion (1980), $1,089 per capita; real growth rate 1981, 1% est.

Agriculture: main crops—sugarcane, citrus fruits, bananas, pimento, coconuts, coffee, cocoa, tobacco

Major industries: bauxite mining, textiles, food processing, light manufactures, tourism

Electric power: 1,400,000 kW capacity (1981); 2.2 billion kWh produced (1981), 974 kWh per capita

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1981 est.); alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, citrus fruits and fruit products, rum, cocoa

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1981 prov.); fuels, machinery, transportation and electrical equipment, food, fertilizer

Major trade partners: exports—US 37%, UK 25%, Canada 8%; imports—US 37%, UK 10%, Canada 6% (1978)

Budget: revenue $0.8 billion, expenditure $1.3 billion (1981)

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Jamaican dollar=US$0.5613

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 370 km, all standard gauge (1.435 m), single track

Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km improved earth

Pipelines: refined products, 10 km

Ports: 2 major (Kingston, Montego Bay), 10 minor

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in and 1 leased out

Airfields: 42 total, 22 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network with 111,000 telephones (5.0 per 100 popl.); 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station; 8 AM, 11 FM, and 9 TV stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 511,000; 378,000 fit for military service; no conscription; 31,000 reach minimum volunteer age (18) annually

Supply: dependent on UK and US

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1982, $33.2 million; about 2.3% of central government budget