Open main menu

LIBYAEdit

World Factbook (1982) Libya.jpg
(See reference map VII)

LANDEdit

1,758,610 km2; 6% agricultural, 1% forested, 93% desert, waste, or urban

Land boundaries: 4,345 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (except for Gulf of Sidra where sovereignty is claimed and northern limit of jurisdiction fixed at 32°30′N and the unilaterally proclaimed 100 nm zone around Tripoli)

Coastline: 1,770 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 3,425,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 5.4%

Nationality: noun—Libyan(s); adjective—Libyan

Ethnic divisions: 97% Berber and Arab with some Negro stock; some Greeks, Maltese, Jews, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Religion: 97% Muslim

Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities

Literacy: 35%

Labor force: 900,000, of which about 350,000 are resident foreigners

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Type: republic; major overhaul of the constitution and government structure in March 1977 established a system of popular congresses which theoretically controls the ruling General Secretariat

Capital: Tripoli

Political subdivisions: 10 administrative provinces closely controlled by central government

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Law School, at University of Libya at Benghazi; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September

Branches: paramount political power and authority rests with the Secretariat of the General People's Congress which theoretically functions as a parliament with a cabinet called the General People's Committee

Government leaders: Col. Mu'ammar al-QADHAFI (Chief of State); General Secretary of the General People's Congress Muhammad al-Zarruq RAJAB

Suffrage: universal

Elections: representatives to the General People's Congress are drawn from popularly elected municipal committees

Political parties: none

Communists: no organized party, negligible membership

Other political or pressure groups: various Arab nationalist movements and the Arab Socialist Resurrection (Ba'th) party with small, almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely

Member of: AFDB, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

ECONOMYEdit

GDP: roughly $24.5 billion (1981 est), $6,960 per capita

Agriculture: main crops—wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; 85% of Libya's food is imported

Major industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts

Electric power: 1,950,000 kW capacity (1980); 1.561 billion kWh produced (1980), 1,561 kWh per capita

Exports: $22.5 billion (f.o.b., 1980); petroleum

Imports: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1980); manufactures, food

Major trade partners: imports—Italy, West Germany, US; exports—Italy, West Germany, UK, US, France

Budget: (1980 est.) revenue $15.8 billion; expenditures $11.7 billion, including development expenditure of $8.5 billion

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Libyan pound = US$3.38

Fiscal year: calendar year since 1974

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: none

Highways: 16,250 km total; 7,750 km bituminous and bituminous treated, 8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth

Pipelines: crude oil 3,686 km; natural gas 938 km; refined products 443 km (includes 217 km liquid petroleum gas)

Ports: 3 major (Tobruk, Tripoli, Benghazi), 4 minor, and 5 petroleum terminals

Civil air: 43 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in

Airfields: 98 total, 86 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways, 6 with runways over 3,659 m, 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 33 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 813,000; 479,000 fit for military service; about 35,000 reach military age (17) annually; conscription now being implemented

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $502 million; 6% of central government budget