The World Factbook (1982)/Pakistan

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Pakistan.jpg
(See reference map VIII)


803,000 km2 (includes Pakistani part of Jammu-Kashmir); 40% arable, including 24% cultivated; 23% unsuitable for cultivation; 34% unreported, probably mostly waste; 3% forested

Land boundaries: 5,900 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; 200 nm exclusive economic zone)

Coastline: 1,046 km


Population: 93,106,000, excluding Junagadh, Manavadar, Gilgit, Baltistan, and the disputed area of Jammu-Kashmir, (July 1982); average annual growth rate 2.9%

Nationality: noun—Pakistani(s); adjective—Pakistani

Religion: 97% Muslim, 3% other

Language: official, Urdu; total spoken languages—7% Urdu, 64% Punjabi, 12% Sindhi, 8% Pushtu, 9% other; English is lingua franca

Literacy: 24% (1980)

Labor force: 24.45 million (1981 est.); 52% agriculture, 21% industry, 27% services.

Organized labor: 5% of labor force


Official name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Type: parliamentary, federal republic; military seized power 5 July 1977 and temporarily suspended some constitutional provisions

Capital: Islāmābād

Political subdivisions: four provinces—Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, and North-West Frontier—with the capital territory of Islamabad and certain tribal areas centrally administered; Pakistan claims that Azad Kashmir is independent pending a settlement of the dispute with India, but it is in fact under Pakistani control

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; President Zia's government has established Islamic Shariat courts paralleling the secular courts and has introduced Koranic punishments for criminal offenses

National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March

Government leader: President and Chief Martial Law Administrator Gen. Mohammad ZIA-UL-HAQ

Suffrage: universal from age 18

Elections: opposition agitation against rigging elections in March 1977 led to military coup; military promised to hold new national and provincial assembly elections in October 1977 but postponed them; in 1979 elections were postponed indefinitely

Political parties and leaders: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), pro-Bhutto wing, Mrs. Z. A. Bhutto, moderate wing, Ghulam Mustapha Jatoi; Tehrik-i-Istiqlal, Asghar Khan; National Democratic Party (NDP), Sherbaz Mazari (formed in 1975 by members of outlawed National Awami Party—NAP—of Abdul Wali Khan, who is de facto NDP leader); the above two are the main groups in the Movement for Restoration of Democracy (MRD), formed in February 1981; Pakistan National Party (PNP), Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo (Baluch elements of the former NAP); Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Pakistan (JUP), Maulana Shah Ahmed Noorani; Pakistan National Alliance (PNA), a disintegrating coalition of six parties including Pakistan Muslim League (PML)—Pir of Pagaro group; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Tofail Mohammed; Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI), Fazlur Rahman

Communists: party membership very small; sympathizers estimated at several thousand

Other political or pressure groups: military remains strong political force

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISCON, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, RCD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO


GNP: $27.8 billion (FY81 est.), $332 per capita; average annual real growth, 5.7% (FY79-81)

Agriculture: extensive irrigation; main crops—wheat, rice, sugarcane, and cotton

Fishing: catch 304,500 metric tons (FY81 est.)

Major industries: cotton textiles, food processing, tobacco, engineering, chemicals, natural gas

Electric power: 3,920,000 kW capacity (1980); 17.64 billion kWh produced (1980), 207 kWh per capita

Exports: $2,958 million (f.o.b., FY81); primarily rice, cotton (raw and manufactured), carpets, rugs and mats, petroleum products, leather

Imports: $5,486 million (f.o.b., FY81; petroleum crude and products, sugar, machinery, tea, medicaments, chemicals, iron and steel

Major trade partners: US, UK, West Germany, Saudi Arabia, Japan, China

Budget: FY81—current expenditure, $3,213.7 million; capital expenditures, $2,669.8 million

Monetary conversion rate: 9.9 rupees=US$1 (February 1973 through January 1982)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


Railroads: 8,815 km total (1981); 535 km meter gauge (1.000 m), 7,670 km broad gauge (1.676 m), 610 km narrow gauge (0.762 m); 1,022 km double track; 286 km electrified; government owned

Highways: 80,500 km total (1981); 23,500 km paved, 23,000 km gravel, 3,100 km improved earth, 30,900 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: negligible

Pipelines: 230 km crude oil; 1,600 km natural gas

Ports: 2 major, 4 minor

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 111 total, 92 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m, 27 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 41 with runways 1,200-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international radiocommunication service over microwave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic radiocommunications poor; broadcast service good; 314,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 27 AM, no FM, 16 TV stations; 1 ground satellite station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 21,754,000; 14,795,000 fit for military service; 1,108,000 reach military age (17) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1982, $1.77 billion; about 27% of central government budget