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URUGUAYEdit

World Factbook (1982) Uruguay.jpg
(See reference map IV)

LANDEdit

186,998 km2; 84% agricultural land (73% pasture, 11% cropland), 16% forest, urban, waste, and other

Land boundaries: 1,352 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (fishing 200 nm)

Coastline: 660 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 2,961,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.6%

Nationality: noun—Uruguayan(s); adjective—Uruguayan

Ethnic divisions: 85-95% white, 5% Negro, 5-10% mestizo

Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly)

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 90.5% for those 15 years of age or older

Labor force: 1.07 million (1975); 19.8% agriculture, 29.0% industry, 51.2% service

Organized labor: government authorized non-Communist union activities in 1981 for the first time since 1973 military takeover

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Type: republic, government under military control

Capital: Montevideo

Political subdivisions: 19 departments with limited autonomy

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; most recent constitution implemented 1967 but large portions are currently in suspension and the whole is under study for revision; legal education at University of the Republic at Montevideo; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August

Branches: executive, headed by President; since 1973 the military has had dominant influence in policymaking; bicameral legislature (closed indefinitely by presidential decree in June 1973), Council of State set up to act as legislature; national judiciary headed by court of justice

Government leader: President Gregorio ALVAREZ Manfredini

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: projected for 1984

Political parties and leaders: political activities were permitted in mid-1981 for the first time since the military takeover in 1973; parties are scheduled to hold internal elections to choose leaders in November 1982

Voting strength (1971 elections): 40.8% Colorado, 40.1% Blanco, 18.6% Frente Amplio, 0.5% Radical Christian Union

Communists: 5,000-10,000 including former youth group and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: Christian Democratic Party (PDC); Communist Party (PCU), proscribed in 1973; Socialist Party of Uruguay (PSU), proscribed in 1973; National Liberation Movement (MLN)—Tupamaros, leftist revolutionary terrorist group, proscribed and now virtually annihilated

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

ECONOMYEdit

GDP: $9.9 billion (1980), $3,400 per capita; 88% consumption, 17% gross investment, −5.0% foreign; real growth rate 1978, 2.5%

Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing (20 million sheep, 9.5 million cattle), 1979; main crops—wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs; caloric intake (1977), 3,036 calories per day per capita, with high protein content

Major industries: meat processing, wool and hides, textiles, footwear, cement, petroleum refining

Steel: rolled products 43,398 metric tons produced (1978)

Electric power: 715,000 kW capacity (1981); 3.5 billion kWh produced (1981), 1,160 kWh per capita

Exports: $1,059 million (f.o.b., 1980); wool, hides, meat, textiles

Imports: $1,625 million (f.o.b., 1980); crude petroleum (26%), metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial chemicals

Major trade partners: exports—33% EC, 11% US, 40% LAFTA; imports—44% LAFTA (15% Brazil, 17% Argentina), 9% US, 19% EC (1979)

Aid: economic commitments—US including Ex-Im (FY70-80) $61 million; from other Western countries, ODA and OOF (1970-79) $62 million; military—US (FY70-80) $39 million

Budget: (1979 est.) revenue, $1,063 million; expenditure, $1,014 million

Monetary conversion rate: 9.16 pesos=US$1 (1980 annual average)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 2,795 km, all standard gauge (1.435 m) and government owned

Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Freight carried: highways 80% of total cargo traffic, rail 15%, waterways 5%

Ports: 4 major (Montevideo, Colonia, Fray Bentos, Paysandu), 6 minor

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in

Airfields: 129 total, 85 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; 279,000 telephones (9.9 per 100 popl.); 85 AM, 4 FM, and 20 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 686,000; 557,000 fit for military service; no conscription

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $211.7 million; 18.6% of central government budget