See regional map V


Total area: 450 km²; land area: 450 km²

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 56% meadows and pastures; 22% forest and woodland; 20% other

Environment: deforestation, overgrazing

Note: landlocked


Population: 51,895 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 18 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun Andorran(s); adjective Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; 61% Spanish, 30% Andorran, 6% French, 3% other

Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic

Language: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and Castilian

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none


Long-form name: Principality of Andorra

Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called verguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parròquies, singular—parròquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julià de Lòria

Independence: 1278

Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and usage

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls)

Judicial branch: civil cases Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); criminal cases Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)

Leaders: Chiefs of State—French Co-Prince François MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de França Louis DEBLE; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanís (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla;

Head of Government—Josep PINTAT Solans (since NA 1984)

Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: General Council of the Valleys—last held 11 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(28 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: negligible

Member of: CCC, UNESCO

Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US; US—includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General Ruth A. DAVIS; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, Barcelona 3, Spain (mailing address APO NY 09286); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flag of Chad which does not have a national coat of arms in the center; also similar to the flag of Romania which has a national coat of arms featuring a mountain landscape below a red five-pointed star and the words REPUBLICA SOCIALISTA ROMANIA at the bottom


Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 12 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—electricity; partners—France, Spain

Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—NA; partners—France, Spain

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,800 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, smuggling, banking

Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

Aid: none

Currency: French franc (plural—francs) and Spanish peseta (plural—pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta (Pta) = 100 céntimos

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1—109.69 (January 1990), 118.38(1989), 116.49(1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05 (1986), 170.04 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Highways: 96 km

Telecommunications: international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to France and Spain; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain