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The World Factbook (1990)/Brunei

 

Brunei


World Factbook (1990) Brunei.jpg

 See regional map IX



Geography


Total area: 5,770 km²; land area: 5,270 km²

Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundary: 381 km with Malaysia

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 79% forest and woodland; 18% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia


People


Population: 372,108 (July 1990), growth rate 7.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 52 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bruneian(s); adjective—Bruneian

Ethnic divisions: 64% Malay, 20% Chinese, 16% other

Religion: 60% Muslim (official); 8% Christian; 32% Buddhist and indigenous beliefs

Language: Malay (official), English, and Chinese

Literacy: 45%

Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor force is foreign (1988); 50.4% production of oil, natural gas, and construction; 47.6% trade, services, and other; 2.0% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1984)

Organized labor: 2% of labor force


Government


Long-form name: Negara Brunei Darussalam

Type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular—daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Executive branch: sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Sultan and Prime Minister Sir Muda HASSANAL BOLKIAH Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)

Political parties and leaders: Brunei National United Party (inactive), Anak Hasanuddin, chairman; Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now banned) Abdul Latif bin Abdul Hamid, chairman

Suffrage: none

Elections: Legislative Council—last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan and no elections are planned

Communists: probably none

Member of: ASEAN, ESCAP (associate member), IMO, INTERPOL, OIC, UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Date Paduka Haji MOHAMED SUNI bin Haji Idris; Chancery at 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-0159; US—Ambassador Christopher H. PHILLIPS; Embassy at Teck Guan Plaza (corner of Jalan McArthur), Bandar Seri Begawan (mailing address is P. O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan); telephone [673](2) 29670

Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands


Economy


Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 70% of GDP. Per capita GDP of $9,600 is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $9,600; real growth rate 2.5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment: 2.5%, shortage of skilled labor (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion (1987); expenditures $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $2.07 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products; partners—Japan 55% (1986)

Imports: $800 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; food, beverages, tobacco; consumer goods; partners—Singapore 31%, US 20%, Japan 6% (1986)

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced, 2,580 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction

Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $143.7 million

Currency: Bruneian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1—1.8895 (January 1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985); note—the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year


Communications


Railroads: 13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line

Highways: 1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another 52 km under construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved

Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters

Ports: Kuala Belait, Muara

Merchant marine: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 418 km; natural gas, 920 km

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200, 1 Boeing 737-200)

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m

Telecommunications: service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); stations—4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT


Defense Forces


Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces, including air wing, navy, and ground forces; British Gurkha Battalion; Royal Brunei Police; Gurkha Reserve Unit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 104,398; 60,242 fit for military service; 3,106 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $197.6 million, 17% of central government budget (FY86)