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The World Factbook (1990)/Grenada

 

Grenada


World Factbook (1990) Grenada.jpg

 See regional map III



Geography


Total area: 340 km²; land area: 340 km²

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains

Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Land use: 15% arable land; 26% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 47% other

Environment: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

Note: islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically with St. Vincent and the Grenadines


People


Population: 84,135 (July 1990), growth rate -0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: -33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Grenadian(s); adjective—Grenadian

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

Religion: largely Roman Catholic; Anglican; other Protestant sects

Language: English (official); some French patois

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 36,000; 31% services, 24% agriculture, 8% construction, 5% manufacturing, 32% other (1985)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force


Government


Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint George's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Little Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)

Constitution: 19 December 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Ministers of Government (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Paul SCOON (since 30 September 1978);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE (since 13 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas Brathwaite; Grenada United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric Gairy; The National Party (TNP), Ben Jones; New National Party (NNP), Keith Mitchell; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence Merryshow; New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard Coard

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Representatives—last held on 13 March 1990 (next to be held by March 1996); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2

Communists: about 450 members of the New Jewel Movement (pro-Soviet) and the Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (pro-Cuban)

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAS, DECS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Albert O. XAVIER; Chancery at 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 265-2561; there is a Grenadian Consulate General in New York; US—Chargé d'Affaires James F. COOPER; Embassy at Ross Point Inn, Saint George's (mailing address is P. O. Box 54, Saint George's); telephone [440] 1731 or 1734

Flag: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative divisions


Economy


Overview: The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on the traditional production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and 90% of exports and employs 24% of the labor force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner, followed by agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but with a more favorable private investment climate since 1983, it is expected to grow. Despite an impressive average annual growth rate for the economy of 5.5% during the period 1984-88, unemployment remains high at about 26%.

GDP: $129.7 million, per capita $1,535; real growth rate 5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 26% (1988)

Budget: revenues $74.2 million; expenditures $82.3 million, including capital expenditures of $27.8 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $31.8 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—nutmeg 35%, cocoa beans 15%, bananas 13%, mace 7%, textiles; partners—US 4%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago

Imports: $92.6 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—machinery 24%, food 22%, manufactured goods 19%, petroleum 8%; partners—US 32%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada

External debt: $108 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 11,400 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced, 280 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and 90% of exports; bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, and mace account for two-thirds of total crop production; world's second-largest producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg and mace; small-size farms predominate, growing a variety of citrus fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and vegetables

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-88), $60 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $61 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $32 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural—dollars); 1 EC dollar (ECS) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (ECS) per US$1—2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Communications


Highways: 1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved; 100 km unimproved

Ports: Saint George's

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: automatic, island-wide telephone system with 5,650 telephones; new SHF links to Trinidad and Tobago and St. Vincent; VHF and UHF links to Trinidad and Carriacou; stations—1 AM, no FM, 1 TV


Defense Forces


Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA