The World Factbook (1990)/Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein


World Factbook (1990) Liechtenstein.jpg

See regional map V



Geography


Total area: 160 km²; land area: 160 km²

Comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use: 25% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 38% meadows and pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 18% other

Environment: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Note: landlocked


People


Population: 28,292 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Liechtensteiner(s); adjective—Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian and other

Religion: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Language: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and Austria); 54.4% industry, trade, and building; 41.6% services; 4.0% agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture

Organized labor: NA


Government


Long-form name: Principality of Liechtenstein

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular—gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: St. Joseph's Day, 19 March

Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, prime minister, deputy prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Leaders: Chief of State—Prince HANS ADAM von und zu Liechtenstein (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto Hasler; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Herbert Batliner; Christian Social Party, Fritz Kaiser

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Diet—last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(25 total) VU 13, FBP 12

Communists: none

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; has consultative status in the EC

Diplomatic representation: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy; US—the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band


Economy


Overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light industry and some farming. Industry accounts for 54% of total employment, the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10 million annually and accounts for 10% of revenues. Low business taxes (the maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes, provide an additional 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

Budget: revenues $171 million; expenditures $189 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $807 million; commodities—small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery; partners—EC 40%, EFTA 26% (Switzerland 19%) (1986)

Imports: $NA; commodities—machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles; partners—NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced, 5,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Aid: none

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural—francs, franken, or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1—1.5150 (January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Communications


Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads

Civil air: no transport aircraft

Airports: none

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones; stations—no AM, no FM, no TV


Defense Forces


Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland