The World Factbook (1990)/Norfolk Island


Norfolk Island (territory of Australia)

World Factbook (1990) Norfolk Island.jpg

See regional map X


Total area: 34.6 km²; land area: 34.6 km²

Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 75% other

Environment: subject to typhoons (especially May to July)

Note: located 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean


Population: 2,533 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Norfolk Islander(s); adjective—Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutiny; more recently, Australian and New Zealand settlers

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Uniting Church in Australia, and Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official) and Norfolk—a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA


Long-form name: Territory of Norfolk Island

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: Kingston (administrative center), Burnt Pine (commercial center)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1957

Legal system: wide legislative and executive responsibility under the Norfolk Island Act of 1979; Supreme Court

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Administrator H. B. MACDONALD (since NA 1989), who is appointed by the Governor General of Australia;

Head of Government—Assembly President and Chief Minister John Terence BROWN (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Assembly—last held NA (next to be held NA); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(9 total) percent of seats by party NA

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band


Overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The number of visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached almost 30,000 in 1986. Revenues from tourism have given the island a favorable balance of trade and helped the agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.


Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.4 million; expenditures $3.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

Exports: $1.8 million (f.o.b., FY85); commodities—postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia Palm, small quantities of avocados; partners—Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports: $16.3 million (c.i.f., FY85); commodities—NA; partners—Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 3,210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit, cattle, poultry

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1—1.2784 (January 1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


Highways: 80 km of roads, including 53 km of sealed roads; remainder are earth formed or coral surfaced

Ports: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m (Australian owned)

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service with Sydney; 987 telephones (1983); stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia