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The World Factbook (1990)/St. Pierre and Miquelon


St. Pierre and Miquelon (territorial collectivity of France)

World Factbook (1990) St. Pierre and Miquelon.jpg

See regional map II


Total area: 242 km²; land area: 242 km²; includes eight small islands in the St. Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Natural resources: fish, deep-water ports

Land use: 13% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: vegetation scanty

Note: located 25 km south of Newfoundland, Canada, in the North Atlantic Ocean


Population: 6,330 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: -6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective—French

Ethnic divisions: originally Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic

Language: French

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education between 6 and 16 years of age

Labor force: 2,510 (1982)

Organized labor: Workers' Force trade union


Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: St. Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: National Day, 14 July

Executive branch: commissioner of the Republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Leaders: Chief of State—President François MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government—Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre MARQUIE (since February 1989); President of the General Council Marc PLANTEGENEST (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS); Union for French Democracy (UDF/CDS), Gerard Grignon

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: General Council—last held September-October 1988 (next to be held September 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(19 total) Socialist and other left-wing parties 13, UDF and right-wing parties 6;

French President—last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995); results—(second ballot) Jacques Chirac 56%, François Mitterrand 44%;

French Senate—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) PS 1; French National Assembly—last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) UDF/CDS 1

Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France, local interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used


Overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the number of ships stopping at St. Pierre has steadily dropped over the years. In March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish quotas for St. Pierre's trawlers fishing in Canadian and Canadian-claimed waters for three years. The agreement settles a longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish exports to a halt. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports come primarily from Canada.

GDP: $NA, per capita $2,495 (1984); real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 13.3% (1987)

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $13.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Exports: $23.3 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts; partners—US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal

Imports: $50.3 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities—meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials; partners—Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 3,970 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Agriculture: vegetables, cattle, sheep and pigs for local consumption; fish catch, 14,750 metric tons (1986)

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $477 million

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Highways: 120 km total; 60 kM paved (1985)

Ports: St. Pierre

Civil air: Air Saint-Pierre

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways, none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,601 telephones; stations—1 AM, 3 FM, no TV; radiotelecommunication with most countries in the world; 1 satellite earth station in French domestic system

Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France