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Appendix D:

Weights and Measures


Mathematical Notation
Mathematical Power Name

1018 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion
1015 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion
1012 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion
109 or 1,000,000,000 one billion
106 or 1,000,000 one million
103 or 1,000 one thousand
102 100 one hundred
101 or 10 ten
100 or 1 one
10-1 or 0.1 one tenth
10-2 or 0.01 one hundredth
10-3 or 0.001 one thousandth
10-6 or 0.000 001 one millionth
10-9 or 0.000 000 001 one billionth
10-12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one trillionth
10-15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one quadrillionth
10-18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 one quintillionth
 

Metric Interrelationships

Conversions from a multiple or submultiple to the basic units of meters, liters, or grams can be done using the table. For example, to convert from kilometers to meters, multiply by 1,000 (9.26 kilometers equals 9,260 meters) or to convert from meters to kilometers, multiply by 0.001 (9,260 meters equals 9.26 kilometers)


Prefix Symbol Length,
weight,
capacity
Area Volume

exa E 1018 1036 1054
peta P 1015 1030 1045
tera T 1012 1024 1036
giga G 109 1018 1027
mega M 106 1012 1018
hectokilo hk 105 1010 1015
myria ma 104 108 1012
kilo k 103 106 109
hecto h 102 104 106
deka da 101 102 103
basic unit 1 meter, 1 meter2 1 meter3
1 gram,
1 liter
deci d 10-1 10-2 10-3
centi c 10-2 10-4 10-6
milli m 10-3 10-6 10-9
decimilli dm 10-4 10-8 10-12
centimilli cm 10-5 10-10 10-15
micro u 10-6 10-12 10-18
nano n 10-9 10-18 10-27
pico p 10-12 10-24 10-36
femto f 10-15 10-30 10-45
atto a 10-18 10-36 10-54
 

Equivalents
Unit Metric Equivalent US Equivalent

acre 0.404 685 64 hectares 43,560 feet2
acre 4,046.856 4 meters2 4,840 yards2
acre 0.004 046 856 4 kilometers2  0.001 562 5 miles2, statute
are 100 meters2 119.599 yards2
barrel (petroleum, US) 158.987 29 liters 42 gallons
barrel (proof spirits, US)  151.416 47 liters 40 gallons
barrel (beer, US) 117.347 77 liters 31 gallons
bushel 35.239 07 liters 4 pecks
cable 219.456 meters 120 fathoms
chain (surveyor's) 20.116 8 meters 66 feet
cord (wood) 3.624 556 meters3 128 feet3
cup 0.236 588 2 liters 8 ounces, liquid
degrees, celsius (water boils at 100°C,
freezes at 0°C)
multiply by 1.8 and add 32
to obtain °F
degrees, fahrenheit subtract 32 and divide
by 1.8 to obtain °C
(water boils at 212°F,
freezes at 32°F)
dram, avoirdupois 1.771 845 2 grams 0.062 5 ounces, avoirdupois 
dram, troy 3.887 934 6 grams 0.125 ounces, troy
dram, liquid (US) 3.696 69 milliliters 0.125 ounces, liquid
fathom 1.828 8 meters 6 feet
foot 30.48 centimeters 12 inches
foot 0.304 8 meters 0.333 333 3 yards
foot 0.000 304 8 kilometers 0.000 189 39 miles, statute
foot2 929.030 4 centimeters2 144 inches2
foot2 0.092 903 04 meters2 0.111 111 1 yards2
foot3 28.316 846 592 liters 7.480 519 gallons
foot3 0.028 316 847 meters3 1,728 inches3
furlong 201.168 meters 220 yards
gallon, liquid (US) 3.785 411 784 liters 4 quarts, liquid
gill (US) 118.294 118 milliliters 4 ounces, liquid
grain 64.798 91 milligrams 0.002 285 71 ounces, avdp.
gram 1,000 milligrams 0.035 273 96 ounces, avdp.
hand (height of horse) 10.16 centimeters 4 inches
hectare 10,000 meters2 2.471 053 8 acres
hundredweight, long 50.802 345 kilograms 112 pounds, avoirdupois
hundredweight, short 45.359 237 kilograms 100 pounds, avoirdupois
inch 2.54 centimeters 0.083 333 33 feet
inch2 6.451 6 centimeters2 0.006 944 44 feet2
inch3 16.387 064 centimeters3 0.000 578 7 feet3
inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.029 761 6 pints, dry
inch3 16.387 064 milliliters 0.034 632 pints, liquid
kilogram 0.001 tons, metric 2.204 623 pounds, avdp.
kilometer 1,000 meters 0.621 371 19 miles, statute
kilometer2 100 hectares 247.105 38 acres
kilometer2 1,000,000 meters2 0.386 102 16 miles2, statute
knot (1 nautical mi/hr) 1.852 kilometers/hour 1.151 statute miles/hour
league, nautical 5.559 552 kilometers 3 miles, nautical
league, statute 4.828 032 kilometers 3 miles, statute
link (surveyor's) 20.116 8 centimeters 7.92 inches
liter 0.001 meters3 61.023 74 inches3
liter 0.1 dekaliter 0.908 083 quarts, dry
liter 1,000 milliliters 1.056 688 quarts, liquid
meter 100 centimeters 1.093 613 yards
meter2 10,000 centimeters2 1.195 990 yards2
meter3 1,000 liters 1.307 951 yards3
micron 0.000 001 meter 0.000 039 4 inches
mil 0.025 4 millimeters 0.001 inch
mile, nautical 1.852 kilometers 1.150 779 4 miles, statute
mile2, nautical 3.429 904 kilometers2 1.325 miles2, statute
mile, statute 1.609 344 kilometers 5,280 feet or 8 furlongs
mile2, statute 258.998 811 hectares 640 acres or 1 section
mile2, statute 2.589 988 11 kilometers2  0.755 miles2, nautical
minim (US) 0.061 611 52 milliliters 0.002 083 33 ounces, liquid
ounce, avoirdupois 28.349 523 125 grams 437.5 grains
ounce, liquid (US) 29.573 53 milliliters 0.062 5 pints, liquid
ounce, troy 31.103 476 8 grams 480 grains
pace 76.2 centimeters 30 inches
peck 8.809 767 5 liters 8 quarts, dry
pennyweight 1.555 173 84 grams 24 grains
pint, dry (US) 0.550 610 47 liters 0.5 quarts, dry
pint, liquid (US) 0.473 176 473 liters 0.5 quarts, liquid
point (typographical) 0.351 459 8 millimeters 0.013 837 inches
pound, avoirdupois 453.592 37 grams 16 ounces, avoirdupois
pound, troy 373.241 721 6 grams 12 ounces, troy
quart, dry (US) 1.101 221 liters 2 pints, dry
quart, liquid (US) 0.946 352 946 liters 2 pints, liquid
quintal 100 kilograms 220.462 26 pounds, avdp.
rod 5.029 2 meters 5.5 yards
scruple 1.295 978 2 grams 20 grains
section (US) 2.589 988 1 kilometers2 1 mile2, statute or 640 acres 
span 22.86 centimeters 9 inches
stere 1 meter3 1.307 95 yards3
tablespoon 14.786 76 milliliters 3 teaspoons
teaspoon 4.928 922 milliliters 0.333 333 tablespoons
ton, long or deadweight  1,016.046 909 kilograms 2,240 pounds, avoirdupois
ton, metric 1,000 kilograms 2,204.623 pounds, avdp.
ton, register 2.831 684 7 meters3 100 feet2
ton, short 907.184 74 kilograms 2,000 pounds, avoirdupois
township (US) 93.239 572 kilometers2 36 miles2, statute
yard 0.914 4 meters 3 feet
yard2 0.836 127 36 meters2 9 feet2
yard3 0.764 554 86 meters3 27 feet3
yard3 764.554 857 984 liters 201.974 gallons