The perfect dressmaking system (1914)
The Perfect Dressmaking System
For cutting ladies', misses' and children's garments. The Perfect System is not a square or chart. It simply drafts every seam with any tape measure to give perfect lines and perfect fit to any figure.
The Perfect System insures what every woman of today; wants, good lines that are especially adapted to her figure as; well as a good fit. A garment may be made to fit with all the seams placed where they bring out every defect in the figure.
The Perfect System is a system that can not go out of style, for any style must have seams, and seams must come to the lines of the figure to insure a perfect garment. The Perfect System is the most simple, practical and inexpensive system in the world. It is simple because there is no changing, no matter what the size or figure may be. It is practical because you do not have to have a number of pasteboards or some other contrivance with you before you can cut a garment. It is inexpensive because you can use any tape measure.
The Perfect System can be learned by any woman that knows how she wants her garments to look, even if she has never cut a garment in her life. Most women invest each year many times the price of the Perfect System in patterns, patterns that are not cut to their measures and naturally require changing, which is wearisome and often takes more time than the actual making of a garment.
Before taking the measure a line should be placed straight across the chest at the junction of the neck. One down center front from the junction of the neck to waist line. One down center of shoulder, and one from directly under the arm to waist line. One down center of back, and one straight across the back about four inches below the neck.
The beginner should cut patterns from paper until they thoroughly understand the system before cutting a garment. So in case of any mistakes they can be easily rectified without wasting material.
In cutting the waist front, take a paper about twenty-five inches long and twenty inches wide, draw a line straight across this about four inches from top. See 2 to 4. Fig. 1.
In cutting the back, take a paper about twenty inches wide and twenty-one inches long. Draw a line straight across this about six inches from top. See 2 to 4. Fig. 2.
Watch the form and diagram in drafting patterns.
It is much easier to just dot and number your measures on paper until you have taken all the necessary measurements, and then cut from dot to dot.
All measurements should be taken just as the garment is wanted to fit; if some parts are wanted loose and others tight, the measures must be taken that way.
- Neck.—The depth is taken from the straight line at the shoulder to straight line at junction of neck 2 to 2. Width of neck is taken on straight line at junction of neck 1 to 1. But must be placed at top of neck and curved to center front line.
- Shoulder.—From neck at 1 to shoulder point at 3 gives the shoulder length, and from 4 to 4 gives shoulder drop.
- Armeye.—The depth of the armeye should be taken just as low as desired, not leaving anything to trim out 4 to 5.
- Width of Front.—This is taken from center front line to line under the arm 6 to 6. This should come as high up as depth of armseye. Cut straight in half the distance from 4 to 6 and gradually curve up to 4.
- Width of Front at Waist Line.—This is taken from center front to line at under arm at 7 to 8. If unlined waist is desired 3 inches should be added to this measure to give fullness at waist line, or 4 inches for dart in lining.
- Length of Front.—From the junction of the neck at 2 to Waist line at 7.
- Length of Underarm.—From underarm on line up waist line 6 to 9.
- Dart.—This is only to be used when tight lining is desired, not in general use with present styles. Measure back from center front and up from waist line to highest point of bust, then taken up the 4 inches allowed at waist line and taper out to highest part of dart 10.
- Neck.—Measure up center from line across the back 2 to 2. Then the width from center back to line on shoulder, and from straight line up to shoulder on neck 1 to 1.
- Shoulder.—Use the measure for shoulder length that was taken for the front measure, and measure up from 4 to 4 for shoulder drop.
- Armeye.—The depth of the armeye should be taken just as desired, not leaving anything to trim out. 4 to 5.
- Width of Back.—This is taken from center back line to line under arm 6 to 6. This should come as high up as depth of armeye. Cut straight in half the distance from 4 to 6, and then gradually curve up to 4.
- Width of Back at Waist Line.—This is taken from center back to line at under arm 7 to 8. If unlined waist is desired 2 inches should be added to this measure to give fullness at waist line.
- Length of Back.—From junction of neck at 2 to waist line at 7.
Sleeve.—To give comfort and a good fit to the sleeve it must be cut to fit into the waist as well as fit the arm.
Take a paper about twenty-eight inches long and twenty inches wide. Draw a straight line down the center and one across eight inches from the top 1 to 1.
- Measure Around Arm.—Place the tape line loosely close up under the arm 1 to 1. (See Fig. 3.) Half of the measure should be placed on each side of straight line (down the center).
- Top Shape of Sleeve.—Pin the front and back pattern together at underarm, then place it at the lowest part of curve in the front on paper at right side of measure and on line 1. Then cut the same shape as armeye of waist up to 4 in back. Then unpin the waist pattern and place the front (pattern) at the lowest part of curve on paper at left side of measures and on line 1. This is not placed straight as for the right side, but is placed so the lower part of pattern is brought back about two inches. Cut like the pattern to top of curve, then remove front pattern.
- Height of Sleeve.—Measure up center of arm from line around arm to point of shoulder, or to where the shoulder length was taken, then mark this measure up from straight line around the arm on center line 4 to 4. Then curve from the shape of armeye 5 to 5 to highest part of center measure at 4.
- Arm Length.—This should be taken from well up under the arm to hand 2 to 2.
- Bottom of Sleeve.—This measure should be taken loose over the largest part of the hand so the sleeve can be easily slipped on. Half of the hand, measure plus one is placed on the left side and half minus one inch is placed on the right side of center measure at bottom of sleeve length 3 to 3.
- Sleeve Shape.—Dot from measure at line 3 to largest part of arm measure 1 to 1. Fig. 3.
If full sleeve is desired the fullness should be added to the arm and hand size. 1 to 1 and 3 to 3.
The beginner should cut patterns from paper until they thoroughly understand the system. When taking the skirt measures the waist measure should be taken snug. The hip measure is taken seven inches below the waist line, and should be taken easy, but not loose. The front, side and back measures are taken from the waist line to the floor. This is to get the shape. Then if the skirt is to be shorter than the floor length it can be subtracted from the floor length.
For practice use a five gored skirt in the following measures: 25 waist, 40 hips, 38 front, 39 side and 39½ inch back skirt length, and 2¼ yards around the bottom.
Five Gored Skirt.—Divide the waist measure and hip measure into five equal parts (for gores). You then have 5 inches at the waist line and 8 inches at the hip line for each gore. The front gore which is twice the width of the top at the bottom, or 10 inches, leaves 17½ inches for each of the other four gores.
As each gore is cut double, you just have three pieces in a five gored skirt pattern. See Fig. 4.
As the skirt measure is 1½ inches longer in the back than the front, each gore must be ½ inch higher at the back than at the front. See Fig. 4. The difference in skirt lengths from front to back must be made at the top, never at the bottom.
1. Front Gore.——Fold paper in center for front gore, half of the gore measure is used for the front, as it is cut on the double fold. Measure back 2½ inches at waist, and up ½ an inch, down 7 inches for hip depth, and back from center 4 inches, then 38 down center front, 38½ inches at back gore and 5 inches wide at bottom. The front gore should be twice the width of the top at the bottom.
2. Side Gore.—Measure back from the straight edge of paper 5 inches at the waist and up ½ inch, down 7 inches for hip depth and back 8 inches from straight edge. As the bias side of the front gore measures 38½ inches where the side gore is to join on. it must be cut 38½ inches long at the back or bias side of the gore, and 17½ inches wide at the bottom.
3. Back Gore.—Measure back from the straight edge of paper 5 inches at the waist, and up ½ inch, down 7 inches for hip depth and back from straight edge 8 inches. As the bias side of the side gore measures 39 inches where the back gore is to join on, it must be cut 39 inches long at the straight edge and 39½ inches long at the back or bias side of the gore, and 17½ inches wide at the bottom.
Fig. 5 differs from Fig. 4 only in the skirt length. The front length is 1 inch longer in the front than in the side, and ½ inch longer on the side than in the back. Each gore is cut ½ inch lower at the back or bias side at the top than it is at the front. See diagram in Fig. 5.
Fig. 6 differs only from Fig. 4 in the skirt lengths. The front, side and back being the same length, the gores are cut straight across at the top. Both sides of each gore will be the same length.
Plaited or Gathered Skirts.
The skirt shown in Fig. 7 is the same skirt shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, but with allowance for one pleat at each seam and one at center back. Two inches are allowed on seam side of front gore, each side of side gore and seam side of back gore. Also 4 inches at seam in center back.
All gores are pinned together as for plain skirt and basted 2 inches from edge, excepting back seam, which should be sewed up in a ½ inch seam, then marked back 3½ inches from seam. See diagram in Fig. 7. Then this is brought over to center back to make plait.
When plaited or gathered skirt is used, first find the exact size of each gore as for plain skirt. Then add plaits and gathers as desired. Fig. 8 shows skirt with two plaits at side front gore and side (front) of back gore, and gathers at top of center (back).
One Piece Waist.—Cut out the front and back pattern like Figs. 1 and 2. Pin these together at the shoulder line. If the waist is to be opened in the back the front should be layed on the double fold of material. See Fig. 9. The back may be laid on the double fold of material, leaving the seam in front.
2. Place the measure loosely around the full part of the arm, half of this measure should come on each side of the back and front 1 to 1. The sleeve length should be taken from the shoulder point to desired length. If short sleeves are to be used they should not be tapered to the bottom 2 to 2. If long sleeves are desired they should be tapered from 1 to 1 to hand measure at sleeve length 3 to 3.
Diagram 1. Collars.—Pin the waist pattern together at the shoulder line. Then place the center back on the double fold of material. If a yoke is to be used in the front, mark the pattern the shape and depth of yoke desired. (See diagram.) Cut around the shape of neck in back and yoke in front. If no yoke is used, cut all around the shape of the neck. The collar may then be cut any shape or size. If square collar is to be used, as in diagram 1, lines 2 and 2 must come at the same point on armeye.
Diagram 2. Yokes.—Round or V shaped necks should be the same depth from the neck in the front and back 1 and 1, and any desired width on the shoulder, excepting around neck, which should be the same width from the neck as the front and back depth. Mark on the pattern the size and style yoke desired. If the waist is to be opened in the back, the pattern should be pinned together at the shoulder and the center of the front laid on the double fold, then trace around the yoke and cut out in the neck and down the back. If the waist is to open on the side or in the front the back will have to be cut on the double fold of material also, which will require seams on the shoulder. Square yoke depths should be the same as in other yokes and the shoulder width not wider than the depth. A square yoke should be 1½ inches narrower at the bottom than at the shoulder line. See yoke in diagrams 3 and 4,
Diagrams 3 and 4. Gibsons or Other Tucks.—If a gibson tuck is to be used a straight line should be placed from the point of the shoulder to the waist line so it follows the shape of the armeye to the curve. In the back the line should be the same distance from the underarm seam as at the arm. If the tuck is not to be used as a gibson, it must be put in a seam from the shoulder.