Translation:Exposition of the First Epistle to the Corinthians

Exposition of the First Epistle to the Corinthians
by Pelagius (c. 360 – 420/418), translated from Latin by Wikisource
Translator's Note: The following is translated using Alexander Souter's edition of the Latin text. I have chosen to take a conservative reading and have not translated the questioned parts of the text. I have tried to give a literal translation of the Latin, as far as is possible, which sometimes has meant some inelegant constructions in the English. In some cases, difficulties in resolving the contextual meanings have necessitated giving a second possible translation in square brackets, or in giving the original Latin concerned in square brackets.


1 Paul. Which name he prepended in the epistles, so we would know their authorship. A called apostle of Jesus Christ. In this way he is an apostle of Christ Jesus. By the will of God. It is the will of God to call anyone, to call to faith, [but] their free choice [sponte], and their free trust [or their decision to trust], as confirmed in Acts: 'I was not incredulous at this heavenly vision.' And Sosthenes, 2 to the brethren of the church of God that is in Corinth. Brothers, he says, not apostles. For this reason he writes to lead them, because he was himself a teacher, and he was greatly concerned. Sanctified in Christ Jesus. By baptism sanctification is effected. Called to be holy. He shows that those who form the church, you may know are holy any and stainless, because the church has neither stain nor wrinkle, and this idea he wrote to them to keep it intact, not to throw away that holiness. For this written letter condemns those patterns [or inventions, possibly as in new heresies; Latin auctoritate]. With all who call upon the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ. A chosen priest is to call upon God, as it says: 'Thus you will bless my son Israel, invoking my Name over him;' and the psalmist said: 'And Samuel invoked your Name among them,' which priest would fulfill, because the priest would go down and offer sacrifices, of which another historian spoke: 'I will raise for myself a faithful priest,' which was those from the descendants of Aaron, although the tribe of Levi is treated as one in the Books of Chronicles [Paralipomenon], because they were set aside: thus the ones of Aaron were chosen as high priests, and the others could not send them away [i.e. the rest of Levi could not supersede Aaron?]. In all places, both theirs and ours. Because priests and their associates and apostles in all places are engaged in this, as even now in what is called the 'apostolic church.' 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ. Peace and grace surely no one would wish to lack. 4 I give thanks to my God always for you, for the grace of God, which is given to you in Christ Jesus. First the usual praise calls [encourages] progress, and he himself praises their knowledge, but that knowing which is true wisdom and 'does not inflate' or cause dissent. 5 That you are enriched in all things. In all virtues, which constituted the friends of God and the prophets. In all word and wisdom. Which is, as the New so likewise [tam... quam] the Old Testaments. 6 Just as the testimony of Christ is confirmed in you. Testimony which affirms: 'Every scribe learned in the Kingdom of the Heavens is like a man, the head of household, who from his treasure brings forth the new and the old.' 7 So that you are lacking in no gift. From which Solomon affirms: 'All the good came to me to prepare with her,' that is, with wisdom. Expecting the revealing of our Lord Jesus Christ. He truly expects the coming of Christ, who is prepared in everything: our Lord says His revealing is coming, but the mode of it is hidden from us. 8 Who will confirm you to the end, to be without reproach in the day of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. This doctrine, David also affirmed: 'Confirm me in Your Word,' and again, 'Much peace of they who diligently keep Your Law, and nothing shall offend them.' 9 God is faithful, through Whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. God is faithful, Who will confirm you [or Who has confirmed you] who are called into fellowship with His Son, which fellowship John taught about, and said: 'Since God is light, and there are no darknesses in Him at all: if we say we have fellowship [with Him], and walk in darkness, we lie,' and Paul affirmed: 'If we die with Him, also we will live with Him; if we suffer, we will reign.' This place stands against the Arrians, who in this determine the Son to be lesser, because through Himself all deeds He bears back, to this, before the Father, by whom He calls us to fellowship with the Son. 10 But I beseech you, brothers. From this point he starts to oppose the causes of dissension. By the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ. In which Name you are being saved, and were made to see signs. That you all speak one single thing. That you speak one wisdom. And that there be no schisms among you. Schisms are always produced from contention. Be fixed in perfection in your senses [or discernment] and in your judgment. If you discern and judge as one, then you are truly able to be perfect. 11 For it was indicated to me about you, brothers, by those of Chloe, that there are contentions among you. Observe the way the apostle gives credence to something in his absence, acting with the Scriptures: 'Do not believe vain speech,' and again, 'What you have seen with your eye, speak,' et cetera. But he had this grace, to obtain knowledge in absence from individual churches, as he said to the Colossians: 'And if I am absent in body, yet I am present in spirit, rejoicing and seeing your order,' and the rest. Which therefore he knew about the Corinthians in this way so that when he heard, he did not believe without cause, as though absent, he accomplished his association with them in spirit. 12 I say this as each one of you says: I am of Paul, I of Apollo, I of the true Cephas. He touched on the names of the apostles and pseudo-apostles which they in their wisdom took to themselves for glory, where each of them would say they had obtained their doctrine, which was driving them apart. If therefore he does not permit this of the true apostles, how much more is it forbidden of the false! Ego autem Christi. 13 Is Christ divided? To divide a body with members dissenting. Is Paul crucified for you, or were you baptized in the name of Paul? It is in this way possible to leave behind the example of Christ and take the Old Testament saints as the only source of examples to imitate. Is Abraham crucified for you, or are you baptised in the name of Job? And He the Lord, where he teaches not to look for what is given to other disciples, says to Peter, 'What is it to you? You follow me.' 14 I give thanks to God because I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius, 15 so that no one can say you were baptized in my name: 16 Also I baptized the household of Stephan; I do not know if I baptized any others. Thus he touches on the fact that he baptized few of them, that they should not say 'in my name they were baptized.' 17 Christ did not send me to baptize, but to evangelize. He did not focus on doing the lesser, which many are able to implement; just as today bishops and theirs, if they wish, and deacons are able to fill up the ministerial duties. Not in wise words. In which you glory. So as not to empty the cross of Christ. In fact they empty who gently overlay their presentation with gold [literal; idiomatically 'who use honeyed words']. 18 For the word of the cross is, to those perishing, foolishness. The proclamation of the cross is seen not as power but as foolishness of God, to see the son of God crucified: but the faithful see the power of God, which death is a victory and a surmounting of the devil. But unto us being saved, the power of God. For of the faithful it is making their salvation. 19 For it is Scripture: I will destroy the wisdom of the wise. By choosing fishermen, he rejected the skill of rhetoric and philosophy. It may be asked from where this wisdom which God rejects comes: in Scripture it says that all wisdom is from the Lord God, that is, it comes in its beginning from good nature. For human faculties have the property, that wherever they are aimed they will then by practice little by little advance. This is illustrated by many illiterate men who write poems as exquisite as those which are by the most learned men and admired. Therefore these faculties, which God gave to his creatures to know and inquire after their own will, these they turned to seek after the superfluous and meddlesome. And similarly wealth and strength and all those things which we are able to make bad use of. 20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? That is, doctor [or teacher]. Where is the chief [conquisitor] of this age? Who gains the wisdom of this age, or seeks after other obscure things. Has not [expect affirmative] God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For in the wisdom of God, the world knew not God by wisdom. God made the the created world in wisdom, so that natural wisdom, which God had made and given, would not give such knowledge, but such that men would seek, to find another source of help. God was pleased by the foolishness of the proclamation to save the believing. Not that the proclamation of the cross is really foolish, but it appears so before those people. 23 Because Jews seek a sign. Jews seek signs from their own prophets, and now are not willing to believe them. And Greeks inquire after wisdom. The dialectic arts and rational human wisdom. 23 But we proclaim Christ crucified. Their many doctrines are from that one other demonstration. Which makes Jews stumble. They stumble when they hear of Christ crucified. Or: It is a stumblingblock to them to hear that Christ was able to die, Whom they expected to be immortal. For indeed they said: 'We hear from the law that Christ remains eternally,' not understanding that first He 'should suffer these things and enter into His glory.' And is foolishness to gentiles 24 But to those of us called, both Jew and Greek, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. These Jews and gentiles who believed, come to see that it is the power of God, which conquered death and called men back to life, and the wisdom, which freed us from the dominion of the devil, which before through unbelief they were not able to understand. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than man. Because this foolishness of God precedes all human wisdom, which wisdom did not enable them to be saved through the mystery of the cross. And because His weakness is stronger than man. Death, which none of the great were able to evade, the weakness of the cross surmounted. 26 For you see [your] calling, brothers. He gave examples from these who had believed, so that he could show that there was no benefit in carnal boasting, but in fact injury, while prideful wisdom and fame [or nobility; lit. nobilitatis] inflamed men, they were not willing to be under the wisdom of God. How not many wise after the flesh, not many to strong, not many famous [or noble]. This is obliquely against those who claim to be more learned in the law and braver than the apostles, and more noble than those descended through the priesthood. 27 But God chose those who are foolish in the world to confound the wise, and God chose the weak of the world to confound the strong, and God chose the ignoble of the world and the contemptible. Because those who do not have confidence in themselves are quick to believe. For the glory of the wise and the rich and the strong is always reproved, just as the prophet says: 'Let not the wise glory in their wisdom, nor the strong in their strength, nor the rich in their riches,' but the Lord Himself said this through the prophet, in the prophet himself giving us an example. For some, born of poor mothers, refuse riches, while others who do not know their letters refute the wisdom of this age, with true surrender not resisting, but patiently upholding the cross, refusing to glory in human courage. Therefore, if they choose this form of humility, God gives them the various freedoms. That which is not, to destroy that which is. Those who are not wise, strong, or famous [noble], to disperse those of such type. 27 So that no flesh might glory in the presence of God. All flesh, not spirit, whose glory is such of the flesh. 30 Thus from [through] Him you are in Christ Jesus. If therefore you are through Him, do not refuse to regard Him with admiration. Who has become for us the wisdom of God and righteousness and sanctification. Became for us, Who was always such for Himself, so that certainly we might be made wise and righteous and holy. And redemption. Our salvation. 31 So that as it is in the scriptures: Who glories, let glory in the Lord. Not in himself or in superior comprehension.


1 And when I came to you, brothers, I came. In order to show that human wisdom is not to be admired, therefore he confirms by this example of himself, in which he did not proclaim human wisdom. Not with high words or wisdom I declared to you the Mystery [of God]. He did not wish to give pompous, elegant sermons in proclaiming the divine. 2 But I judged not to know anything among you except Christ Jesus. That is, I have not glory in anything but in Christ. And Him crucified. Which appears to be foolishness before men. 3 And I in weakness and much trembling was before you. But then in this other way he brought the message of God, not boasting or in carnal glory. 4 And my speech and my proclamation. Which he did not wish to go before the Corinthians as a dialectician [logician] or debater, nor to make this seem like some new philosophy, but he demonstrated many powers and miracles. Not in persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and power. Which the art of rhetoric has the colour of persuasiveness in each subject. 5 So that your faith might be not in human wisdom, but in the power of God. In temporal human wisdom you show little, but in the power of God, which is eternal, there is no little profit. 6 But a wisdom we speak before the perfect. Do not think we do not have wisdom, for we have the divine, but you were at that time able to take only the least of it, which now is revealed through faith. A wisdom, however, not this age or of the principles of this age. The rulers or philosophers of this age first grasp the visible wisdom. Who are being destroyed. With their wisdom, they are being destroyed by our evangelism. But we speak the wisdom of God in a Mystery. In the good news, which contains the birth of Christ, His Passion, et cetera. Which is hidden, which God predestined before the age. In foreknowledge and law, before time: for 'many prophets wished to see, and did not see.' For our glory. Who believe. 8 Which none of the principalities of this world knew. Pilate, Caiphas, and so on, are condemned for ignorance, because they were not destined to be ignorant. For if they had known, they would not have crucified the Lord. This place is a defense against the the perverse doctrine of two heresies, Apollonius' and of course Arius', one, as the natural perfection of humans is destroyed, and the other, as God's word is set down as possible, so in this way neither is the discerning of the glory of the Lord said now to be received by humankind, nor is the lack of knowing God, but humanity has these possibilities in nature [a difficult passage; he appears to be saying that knowledge of God is possible for men from their creation, but not inherent in men]. 9 But as it is written: That which eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor has entered the heart of man, that God has prepared for those who serve Him. Certainly it is a celebrated principle of the mind, that they not able to see, who are not willing to believe. Someone said well: Eyes did not see a virgin bear, nor did ears hear: 'Then will the righteous shine out as the sun: who has,' he says, 'ears to hear, let him ear,' and neither in the heart of man did it come that men would share the inheritance of Christ in the future. 10 But these things God has revealed to us through His Spirit. We, who by faith merited [or gained] to receive the Spirit of God, whom it was his wish to show to us. For the Spirit searches all things, even the high things of God. Now they rest in the things God consigned to be secret. 11 For who knows the things which are in a man, except the spirit who is in him? Which thought dwells in the man. And so [no one] knows the things which are of God, except the Spirit of God. 12 But we are not receiving a spirit of this age [or world], but the Spirit who is from God. Whoever is wise to this age, is seen to not have the Spirit of God, but of the world. So that we might know the things that are given to us by God. So that we may know how much were given from God through the advent of Christ. 13 And what we speak, [is not taught] by human words of wisdom, but taught by the Spirit. What now we announce to you, is not from philosophy, or from language [lit. grammar: grammaticis], but from the teaching of the Spirit of God. Interpreting spiritual things spiritually. That said there, is what they are able to hear: for they are not able to comprehend, except those who are from the same kind and similarity. 14 But the animal man is not able to perceive the things which are of the Spirit of God. The one who does not have the Spirit of God, is an animal, who behaves after the manner of animals, who considers there to be nothing after death, and therefore, as animals, join together with the lusts of the belly, and so dying eternal death. For they are foolishness [to him], and he is not able to know, as they are discerned spiritually. These things appear foolish, first, that God was born and suffered and rose from death, second, to disregard one's own good, to turn the other cheek, and the other similar things of Christ's mandates. 15 But the spiritual judges all: but himself is judged by no one. He judges that to be nothing which the carnal man delights in, but he does not care about the judgment of anyone. Or: He discerns and intelligently knows everything spiritual, and the thinking of men he does not know, as it is animal-like. 16 For who has known the thought [or mind] of God, to instruct Him? The thought of God, which is in the power of the spiritual, no one may know without the Spirit of God. But we have the the thought [or mind] of the Lord. Who received the Holy Spirit.


1 And I, brothers, was not able to speak to you as to the spiritual, but as to the carnal. In this way fearful that they would not judge to have the mind of the Lord, because they heard as children, 'Not,' he says, 'that the mind of God was deficient in me, but your strength of hearing was deficient.' As children in Christ. Not [in the carnal] age, but in Christ. 2 I was able to give you milk, not solid food: for you were incapable. But even now you are unable. And the blessed one affirms: 'Therefore put from yourself all malice and hypocrisy, and in the manner of newborn infants, rational, and without guile, desire mil, so that you may grow in health.' Therefore if they are children who have put from themselves all malice, who are not yet perfect in virtue, how will he be rated who is dominated by all malice? For you are carnal. 3 For while you are in emulations and contentions and dissensions, are you not carnal? See in what the life of the carnal is judged to be, not being made common by the flesh, but descending to a carnal mind! And walk after the manner of a man? Those with nothing more than other men, are said to walk after the manner of a man; but in this place in defense of men they are called individual men. 4 For while one says: 'I am of Paul,' but another: 'I am of Apollo,' are you not human? He wants us to be more than human. For who is Apollo? 5 Who really is Paul? They are ministers through whom you believed. If we are nothing, who place themselves in ministry, how much more those who glory in the carnal! And each one, as the Lord gives. 6 I planted, Apollo watered, [but] God gave the increase. This thing is not from us, but is the gift of God, that through my hands were done signs, which excited you to faith, and Apollo strengthened you in doctrine; which as plants without water, so faith without doctrine wastes away. If therefore both the planting and water are God's, why do you ascribe to us, as if we had made any of our virtues? 7 Neither he who plants is anything, nor he who waters, but God Who gives the increase: 8 But the one who plants and the one who waters are one: but one who receives wages after his labours. Unless God gives the increase, we labour without cause. We are workers in another's field, using another's tools: we have nothing of our own except the wages of our labours. 9 We are God's helpers: you are God's husbandry, God's building. Not potentially, but in truth we help tend God's field. 10 After the grace of God, which is given to me. Not after my own virtue. The foundation put down I received by grace, that it should be proclaimed where Christ is not named. As a wise builder I placed a foundation. The inexperienced architect is not able to put down a foundation. Another built on it. Another teacher instructed in addition to the faith which I laid as a foundation. Let each one look to how he builds upon it. With care let them build up a strong and straight lateral wall. 11 But another foundation no one can put down than that which is laid, which is Christ. One is not able to preach another Christ, other than Jesus, whose firmest faith you believe; to this alone be moved, to not be incited by negligent and obnoxious doctrines to gehenna. 12 But if anyone builds upon the foundation. This art is the art of building upon it, is granted to be less in work, that that which can lay a foundation. Not therefore should someone build upon the faith, but learned teachers, who are not able to build a wall [on it] alone, except to construct and to work. Gold, silver, gems to lay down, wood, hay, stubble. In the church, three kinds are good: and there is good, better, and best. But he places gold first, to weave better prose. Or: In strength, not as species, he compared them. Because gold is stronger, he calls it better. There are three kinds which are on the contrary bad: bad, worse, and worst, which are compared to wood, hay, and stubble. 13 For the work he has done will be manifested: for the day of the Lord will manifest it, and it will be revealed in fire, and the fire will test what sort of work each has done. Gold and silver not only do not burn, but radiate splendidly in fire: real wood and the others are burned. Or: he wished to compare the examination of judgement to fire, as is in Scripture customary. 14 If the work which he has built remains, he will receive a reward: 15 if his work burns, he will suffer loss. If he is negligent to teach the word or in example, his will destroy his work, which he did in a dry and weak manner. But he himself will be saved. In his own justice. But so as by fire. For if he will not be saved except by fire, who has his own justice, what of those who neglect to build and even give scandalous example? 16 Do you not know that you are the temple of God? Know you not of whom the temple consists? And the Spirit of God dwells in you. If in one, also in the whole church. 17 If someone violates God's temple, God will destroy this one: for God's temple is holy, which is you. Either: his body sins. Or: one who seduces the church toward depraved doctrines, most certainly will be made an example of in his destruction. The Novatians are accustomed to use this place to oppose pennance [or repentance]; which our response is: where is that written, that they have now no hope for forgiveness? 18 Let no one seduce you. Such as with deceptive flattery. If any of you appear to be wise in this age, let him become foolish, so that he may be wise. This wisdom belonging to the world he censures, which is the human prudence that does not permit one to know the divine. Alternately: If they pay back injury in kind, if they likewise should make themselves to be clean and wise, they become foolish: for in this world it is foolishness to wish to fill up the precepts of the good news: for the one who allows another to strike his jaw, is choosing foolishness, not by nature. 19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness before God. No one is as foolish as the one who wishes, which he cannot do, to vindicate himself, and not reserving his injuries for God, and in this way destroying the vindication of his injuries before God and being open to punishment. For it is written: He apprehends the wise in their astuteness. To flee the hand of God is not to be recommended as astuteness. 20 And again: The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain. They confer nothing of use for salvation [or wellness]. 21 That no one might glory in [a] man. Of course [not] in false apostles and much human wisdom, but not even in us, but in Whom we are and belong to, let there be glory. For all are yours, 22 whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas. We are yours, but you are Christ's. Or the world or life or death, or the present or the future: all things are yours,23 But you are Christ's. All things are created for those who are holy, who having nothing, have all. But if we wish to refer to this to free will, that we are masters of our will, whether to death or life [i.e. turning the will to death or life is always possible for us]. But Christ is God's. Christ is called God's, just as elsewhere 'God' is called 'Christ's,' and this helps us see behind the veil to the Godhead. Others take this to be about the assumed human form which is taken, after it was called anointed.


1 In this way should a man regard us, as ministers of Christ and stewards of the Mysteries of God. Not as equal to Christ. 2 Now this is sought for in stewards, that they should be found faithful? He is inquiring: that is: now do you think think to judge the [our] conscience? 3 But to me it is a little thing, that I should be judged by you or any human day [that is court]. Human judgment I take to be of no weight, as frequently truth and justice are frustrated: for 'humans long not for the day,' Jeremiah affirms. But I do not even judge myself. I, who know my conscious best, judge myself to be nothing. 4 For I am conscious of nothing to [against] me. Which more than all men I should owe glory. If Paul says this, then to us it is said he holds his thoughts. But not in this am I justified: for the One who judges me is the Lord. In which certain ones praise me, that in this way each alien praise does not justify, so as to [in some manuscripts, not] stain with infamy. For each one is that which is before God, not what is said or reckoned. 5 Thus you should not wish to judge before the time, till the Lord comes, who will bring to be visible in the light what is in darkness and manifest the intentions of the heart. 'For man sees the appearance, but God the heart.' And then each will receive his praise from God. That is truly to be praised which is praised by the testimony of God, before which all visible and invisible things are known. 6 But these things, brothers, I have transfigured in myself and Apollos for you, so that in us you may learn in us not to go beyond what is written, to be inflated one against another. So that by our humility you may take up the example, not to venture beyond the teachings of the scriptures, each one turned against the other by another inflating teacher, plundered by evil contentions. 7 For who sees anything different in you? From here he changes their inflation in themselves by eloquent words: who sees anything different in you which is of moment? But what do you have which you did not receive? For what good from you yourselves do you have, which you should have learned that nothing is to be followed but the gift of God? If you received it, why do you glory as though you did not receive it? Which is to glory in your own. 8 Now you are satiated, you are made rich. This ringing way is to be his theme or proclamation. Without us you reign. In need of nothing from us. And I wish that you did reign, so that we also might reign with you! 9 For I think that God has shown us apostles last as ones destined for death. We are the most remote to the race, just as the one directed to death. In which we are made a spectacle to the world and angels and men. They see all our injuries publicly, both angels and men, both holy men and sinners. 10 We are foolish for Christ, but you are prudent in Christ. We are infirm, but you are strong: you are noble, but we are ignoble. For we are foolish in that we uphold Christ in all things; but you wish in this way to be Christ's where you hold to the prudence of the age: we are infirm, because we do not want to be given a recompense; but you consider a great return to be your glory: we have nothing, voluntarily thrown down to poverty; you now vindicate earthly nobility. 11 All to this hour we are hungry and thirsty and we are naked and buffeted. From the start of our proclamation to the present time. And we are unstable. We do not stand on a firm foundation, but wherever the evangel requires to take us. 12 And we labour working with our hands. In addition to the performing of the teaching, which learned office they fill. 13 We are blasphemed and we implore. We beg [pray] God for these who blaspheme us. We bear and endure persecutions. We are made as the dregs of this world. Just as it is written: 'The filthy just one is before the wicked.' As the offscouring of all things until now. Of all the most humble and subjected. 14 I write these things not to confound you, but to admonish you as my dearest children. They are able to be confounded from their glory, if they do not free themselves: for he does not wish for their shame, but perfection. 15 For if ten thousand teachers you have in Christ, yet you have not many fathers. All who now minister to a child, are not able to call themselves fathers. For in Christ Jesus through the gospel I gave birth to you. In new life, which I first proclaimed, recall that you were reformed. 16 I entreat you therefore, to be imitators of me. It is good for children to imitate their parents in all good things. 17 Therefore I sent Timothy to you, who is my dearest child and faithful in the Lord. He is as much more faithful than the others as he is dear. Who will recall to you my ways which are in Christ. Which recall to you both my letters and their example: for one without the other is not able to make progress [prodesse]. Just as in all places in all the churches I teach. In this way always and everywhere my example and doctrine agree. 18 Some as if I am not coming to you. From this place begins the charge of fornication. Are as though inflated. 19 But I will come soon, if the Lord wills. For a time another disturbs them with false wisdom, until the coming of one who proclaims true wisdom. And know not the words of those who are inflated, but the power. I will not weigh the pompous eloquence, but the effect of the conversation, where it makes for strong faith and life. 20 For the kingdom of God is not in words, but in power. This shows nothing produces doctrine [true doctrine; doctrinam] apart from righteous work, which if not made, will not make for persuasion. 21 What do you wish? With a rod shall I come to you, or in a spirit of love and gentleness? The good teacher corrects his disciples in discharging his authority, so that, if they are willing to repent [paenitere], he is present as a most gentle comforter, but if they are not willing, he stands strongly against sins. Just as Peter had a rod against Ananias and Sapphira, and Paul himself against the magus.

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