Translation:Records of the Three Kingdoms/Volume 01

Records of the Three Kingdoms by Chen Shou
Volume 1: Annals of Emperor Wu
Original text by Chen Shou in black. Annotated text by Pei Songzhi in green. Translated by User:GreaterBear and User:IBayern. UNFINISHED.


Annals of Emperor Wen


1Edit

太祖武皇帝,沛國譙人也,姓曹,諱操,字孟德,漢相國參之後。

Emperor Wu of Wei, posthumous title Emperor Taizu, was from his hometown of Qiao, Pei County. He bore the surname Cao (曹), name Cao (操), and the courtesy name of Mengde (孟德). He was a descendent of the Han dynasty official Cao Shen (曹參), who had held the office of Grand Chancellor (相國).

2Edit

太祖一名吉利,小字阿瞞。王沈魏書曰:其先出於黃帝。當高陽世,陸終之子曰安,是為曹姓。周武王克殷,存先世之後,封曹俠於邾。春秋之世,與於盟會,逮至戰國,為楚所滅。子孫分流,或家于沛。漢高祖之起,曹參以功封平陽侯,世襲爵土,絕而復紹,至今適嗣國於容城。桓帝世,曹騰為中常侍大長秋,封費亭侯。司馬彪續漢書曰:騰父節,字元偉,素以仁厚稱。鄰人有亡豕者,與節豕相類,詣門認之,節不與爭;後所亡豕自還其家,豕主人大慙,送所認豕,并辭謝節,節笑而受之。由是鄉黨貴歎焉。長子伯興,次子仲興,次子叔興。騰字季興,少除黃門從官。永寧元年,鄧太后詔黃門令選中黃門從官年少溫謹者,配皇太子書,騰應其選。太子特親愛騰,飲食賞賜與衆有異。順帝即位,為小黃門,遷至中常侍大長秋。在省闥三十餘年,歷事四帝,未甞有過。好進達賢能,終無所毀傷。其所稱薦,若陳留虞放、邊韶、南陽延固、張溫、弘農張奐、潁川堂谿典等,皆致位公卿,而不伐其善。蜀郡太守因計吏修敬於騰,益州刺史种暠於函谷關搜得其牋,上太守,并奏騰內臣外交,所不當為,請免官治罪。帝曰:「牋自外來,騰書不出,非其罪也。」乃寑暠奏。騰不以介意,常稱歎暠,以為暠得事上之節。暠後為司徒,語人曰:「今日為公,乃曹常侍恩也。」騰之行事,皆此類也。桓帝即位,以騰先帝舊臣,忠孝彰著,封費亭侯,加位特進。太和三年,追尊騰曰高皇帝。養子嵩嗣,官至太尉,莫能審其生出本末。續漢書曰:嵩字巨高。質性敦慎,所在忠孝。為司隷校尉,靈帝擢拜大司農、大鴻臚,代崔烈為太尉。黃初元年,追尊嵩曰太皇帝。吳人作曹瞞傳及郭頒世語並云:嵩,夏侯氏之子,夏侯惇之叔父。太祖於惇為從父兄弟。嵩生太祖。

Taizu's first name was Jílì (吉利), meaning lucky or fortunate; Cao Cao's nickname was Aman (阿瞞). Wáng Chén (王沈) and the Weishu (魏書)[1] both said that Cao Cao's body and spirit came from the Yellow Emperor. In the reign of Gaoyang (高陽), the son of Lu Zhong was named An (安) and had the surname of Cao (曹). After King Wu of Zhou destroyed the Shang dynasty and honoured[2] his ancestors, he gave the Cao family Xia (俠) and Chu (邾). During the Spring and Autumn Period, many states formed coalitions, leading to the Warring States period, and the states were destroyed along with the state of Chu (楚)[3]. The Cao family dispersed in all directions, and found a new home in Pei County. After the beginning of the Han dynasty and Emperor Gaozu (高祖)'s reign, Cao Shen (曹參) was granted the title of Marquis of Pingyang (平陽侯) because of his achievements. This hereditary noble land is still now part of Rongcheng (容城). During the reign of Emperor Huan (桓), Cao Teng (曹騰) served as Central Regular Attendant (中常侍)[4], as the Empress's Chamberlain (大長秋), and was granted the title of Marquis of Fei (費). Sima Biao (司馬彪), who wrote the Continuation of the Hanshu[5], said: Cao Teng's father Jie (節)[6], courtesy name Yuánwěi (元偉), was known for his kindness and moral character. Once, neighbours of Cao Jie owned hogs of the same type (or kind) as Cao Jie's hogs. They believed Cao Jie's hogs to be theirs, so they took Cao Jie's hogs back home while Cao Jie did not protest. Once the neighbours returned to their home and found their hogs, they were exceedingly embarrassed, so they returned Cao Jie's hogs and thanked Cao Jie. Cao Jie laughed and accepted their thanks. This action was praised by the people[7] of Cao Jie's community. Cao Jie's eldest son was Bóxìng (伯興), his second son was Zhòngxìng (仲興), and his third son was Shūxìng (叔興). Cao Teng's courtesy name was Jìxìng (季興). In his youth, Cao Teng became an official as an eunuch Attendant at the Yellow Gates. On the first year of Eternal Peace (Yǒngníng or 永寧), Empress Dowager Deng (鄧太后) ordered the leader of the Attendants of the Yellow Gates to select young and meticulous eunuchs from the attendants of the Yellow Gates with the intention of pairing those eunuchs with the crown prince; Cao Teng was selected. The crown prince especially adored Cao Teng, so Cao Teng was rewarded with special food unlike the other eunuchs. After the succession of Emperor Shun (順)[8], Cao Teng reached the rank of Central Regular Attendant (中常侍) and the Empress's Chamberlain (大長秋). During the some thirty years of Cao Teng's service serving four emperors, he expressed his abilities fully and was never hurt.[9] During Cao Teng's tenure, the people he recommended and promoted: Yú Fàng (虞放) of Chenliu (陳留郡), Biān Sháo (邊韶), Yán Gù (延固) of Nanyang (南陽郡), Zhāng Wēn (張溫), Zhāng Huàn of Hongnong (弘農郡), Táng Xī (堂谿) of Yingchuan (潁川郡), et cetera were all good and fair ministers of the Han central government.[10] The Administer of Shu Commandery (蜀郡太守) treated Cao Teng with utmost respect and honor and sent a letter to Cao Teng which the Inspector of Yi Province (益州刺史) Zhǒng Gǎo (种暠)[11] found evidence of this letter at Hangu Pass (函谷關), and reported this to the Emperor, saying that Cao Teng as an interior official (內臣)[12] should not be conversing with border officials, which was improper, and that Cao Teng should have had his ranks removed, his responsibilities relieved, and that he should serve punishment.[13] The Emperor said: "Even though a letter was written to Cao Teng, Cao Teng did not reply. Therefore there has not been a crime." He then rejected the evidence of Zhǒng Gǎo (种暠). However, Cao Teng did not mind Zhǒng Gǎo (种暠)'s reporting, and often praised Zhǒng Gǎo, thinking that Zhǒng Gǎo was a person of great integrity and moral character. After Gǎo became Minister of the Masses (司徒), he would say: "I could only have achieved the rank of Minister because of Central Attendant Cao. All of the matters that Cao Teng handled he handled in such a way. After the succession of Emperor Huan, because of Cao Teng's years of service of the former emperors, he granted Cao Teng the rank of Marquis of Fei (費) and granted Cao Teng the extra position of Tèjìn (特進), literally "Special Advance"[14] During the third year of Utmost Harmony (太和三年), Cao Teng was given the posthumous name of Emperor Gao[15] Cao Teng's foster son Cao Song (曹嵩) inherited his property and marquisate and reached the rank of Grand Marshal (太尉), but nothing can be found of his original roots or family. The Continuation of the Hanshu said that the courtesy name of Cao Song was Jùgāo (巨高), and that he was prudent and cautious in handling affairs as well as being loyal and filial. Cao Song was originally a Colonel-Director of Retainers (司隷校尉) before serving concurrently as Minister of Finance (大司農) and Minister Herald (大鴻臚) in the court of Emperor Ling. He eventually attained the rank of Grand Commandant (太尉) after replacing Cuī Liè (崔烈). During the first year of Yellow Beginning (黃初元年), Cao Song was given the posthumous name of Emperor Tai (太皇帝)[15]. The people of Wu (吳人) who made the Cao Man Chuan and Guō Bān (郭頒) both once said: "Song[16] was a son of the Xiahou lineage and the paternal uncle of Xiahou Dun (夏侯惇). Thus, the fathers of Taizu[17] and Xiahou Dun were brothers. Cao Song gave birth to Taizu (太祖)[17]

3+ UnfinishedEdit

Emperor Wu was clever and very calm when dealing with things. However, he had crazy ambition and always went his own way. He never cared the behaver and study. So, the others didn't believe that such a person would do great things. But Qiao Xuan from Liang and He from Nanyang. Qiao told the Emperor:'This kingdom will fall in chaos. The one without talents to rule the world can't deal with the chaos, but you might be the chosen one.'

NotesEdit

  1. Book of Wei
  2. Or saved
  3. where Cao Cao's family lived
  4. An influential court position and the highest position held by eunuchs
  5. The continuation of the Book of Han was written by Sima Biao (司馬彪) as an extension of the original work by Ban Gu (班固). Not to be confused with the Houhanshu or Book of Later Han by Fan Ye (范曄), which included references from the Continuation of the Hanshu.
  6. Cao Jie, also known as Cao Meng (曹萌) in some sources
  7. 鄉黨, which could also refer to the scholar-gentry
  8. The former crown prince whom Cao Teng served
  9. May have a multitude of meanings. The original phrase is: 好進達賢能,終無所毀傷
  10. Original phrase: 皆致位公卿,而不伐其善。
  11. This name could be pronounced in a multitude of names: see and
  12. Meaning an official serving within the capital.
  13. Such communication was improper since it was often evidence that the interior official was taking bribes from the often powerful administrators of the provinces, or else plotting a rebellion.
  14. This position was the equivalent of the three Ministers and was first established during the Western Han dynasty.
  15. 15.0 15.1 This was given as he was the ancestor of Cao Pi who founded the state of Wei (魏).
  16. Cao Song
  17. 17.0 17.1 Emperor Taizu of Wei, or Cao Cao (曹操).