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Tycho Brahe: a picture of scientific life and work in the sixteenth century/Notes

< Tycho Brahe: a picture of scientific life and work in the sixteenth century
 

NOTES.

A.—SPECIMEN OF TYCHO'S EARLY OBSERVATIONS WITH THE CROSS-STAFF.

1564 Oct. 20 mane, distantia inter Saturnum et Jovem.

1. Posito transversario in loco stato qui est partium 3500, reperi punctarum in transversario, a se invicem elongationem 1162, quibus juxta operationem proveniunt 39814/35 cui numero in tabula gnomonica competunt 18 gr. 21 m. distantia syderum quæsita.

2. Collocato eodem in puncto 3700 pinnularum distantia reperiebatur 1233 quibus juxta operationem debentur 39933/37 hisqve ex tabula respondent gradus ut antea, sed minuta numero 25 fere. Discrepat itaqve observatio in 3 [sic] tantum circiter minutis, quod admodum parum est. Erat autem sine dubio vera distantia 18g 22′ infallibiliter. Stadius distantiam ponit 1818g 8, differentia 0g 14′ parva (tantum erroris facit, amborum semidiameter additus 0g 8 ita 6). Qvam Carellus constituit 15g 20′ diff. 3g 2′ Magna.

The above observations are calculated by the rule of Gemma Frisius (De Radio astronomico et geometrico liber, Antwerp, 1545, cap. 15): Multiplico igitur maximum tabulæ numerum, nempe 1200 per pinnularum interstitium, producuntur autem . . . , atqve hunc numerum divido per transversarii locum. In the first observation 1162 × 12003500 = 39814/35; Gemma's Tabula gnomonica G. Peurbachii then gives the required angle thus:—

398 18° 20′ 57″
399 18° 23′ 32″
400 18° 26′ 7″

 

 

B.—LIST OF TYCHO BRAHE'S PUPILS AND ASSISTANTS.

In the Danske Magazin, 4th Series, vol. ii. p. 32, the Rev. Dr. Rördam has communicated a list of Tycho Brahe's pupils, found on a loose sheet of paper (without heading or other description) in the Royal Library of Copenhagen. The handwriting seems to be that of Johannes Aurifaber or Hans Crol, who had charge of Tycho's workshop, and whose writing frequently occurs in the volumes of original observations (Danske Magazin, 4th Series, vol. ii. p. 327). The list must have been written in 1588 or 1589, as Odd Einarsen (No. 13 on the list) became Bishop of Skalholt in 1588, and Longomontanus, who is not mentioned, arrived in 1589.

1. Petrus Jacobi.[1]

2. N. Fionius.[2]

3. N.

4. Gellius Sascerides Hafniensis.

5. Andreas Wiburgensis, agit nunc pastorum siue ecclesiasten Wiburgi in Gutlandia.[3]

6. Jacobus Hegelius siue Hegelun, agit hypodidasculum in Selandia Sorae; bene scribit et est bonus musicus, ingenij mercurialis.

7. Seuerinus N., turbator, phantasta.

8. Elias Olaj Cymber.

9. M. Nicolaus Norwegianus, præco diuini verbi Hafnie, in arce regia.[4]

10. Rudolphus Groningensis, in primis non erat studiosus, creatus procuratione Tychonis in studiosum Hafnie, vbi deposuit Bacchanten, fuit apud Tychonem per 3 annos.[5]

11. Joannes Buck Cymber, natus non procul a Collingo, in pago Nabul, fuit optimi ingenij, occisus iactu lapidis ab altero quodam studioso Hafnie.

12. Andreas Jacobi Lemwicensis Gutlandus, siue Cymber, fortasse alicubi pastor in Gutlandia.

Hi 9 uno eodemque tempore accesserunt, menstruoque spacio vel vltra, petentes et obtinentes discesseerunt.

13. Otto Wislandus Islandus, episcopus in Islandia, est mediocris grammaticus aliasque non ignarus.[6]

14. Joannes Wardensis Cymber, sacellanus in quodam pago in Gutia.[7]

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21. David Joannis Sascerides, Gellij frater, fuit hic per semissem anni.

22. Jacobus N. Malmogiensis, egit in hac insula diaconum, et fuit studiosus, is primus literas obligationis dedit ad triennium, nunc est sacellanus Malmogiæ, vel eius loci in vicinia, degit tamen Malmogiæ, non fuit autem hic diutius quam sesquiannum.

23. Christiernus Joannis Ripensis,[8] accessit eodem tempore quo antedictus Jacobus N. Malmogiensis discessit, nempe anno 1586 circa finem Aprilis, videlicet 27 Aprilis.[9] Discedebat anno 90, 23 Aprilis.[10]

24. Petrus Richterus Haderslebiensis, fuit hic fere per semi annum.

25. Iuarus Hemmetensis Cymber, de pago Hemme in Cymbria, vbi pater eius pastorem agit, fuit hic per semestre, fuit poetici ingenij.[11]

26. Sebastianus, regiæ mensæ alumnus, fuit Borussus, vertit librum danicum in idioma germanicum, non dedit operam mathesi, fuit hic per mensem vnum vel alterum.

27. Joannes Hamon Dekent, Anglus nobilis, fuit hic studiosus, fuit hic per quadrantem anni, et ingenij mercurialis, musicus, et alias mediocriter eruditus.[12]

28. Joannes Joannis Wensaliensis Cymber, fuit hic per sesquianum, erat astrictus autem ad 3 annos.

29. Ego.[13]

30. M. Nicolaus Collingensis.

31. Martinus Ingelli Coronensis.[14]

32. Christiernus N. de Ebenthod oppido Cymbrie, hue missus a Falcone Göye,[15] fuit proximus qui post Christiernum Joannis Ripensem accessit, fuit …[16]

To supplement the above list I add the names of the other pupils or assistants, as far as their names are known, with references to places in this volume where further information about them is given.

Paul Wittich.

Longomontanus (1589–97).

Cort Axelsen of Bergen (Conradus Aslacus), at Hveen 1590–93, afterwards Professor of Divinity at Copenhagen, edited Tycho's Oration on Astrology in 1610.

Joh. Isaacsen Pontanus, for three years at Hveen,[17] born at Elsinore of Dutch parents in 1571, some time Danish historiographer, died in Holland 1639.

Willem Janszoon Blaeu, p. 127.

Franz Gansneb Tengnagel von Camp, pp. 242, 301, &c.

Georg Ludwig Froben, p. 253.

Claus Mule, pp. 240 and 283.

At Wandsbeck and in Bohemia Tycho was assisted by Johannes from Hamburg (p. 280); Johannes Müller; Johannes Eriksen; Melchior Joestelius; Ambrosius Rhodius; Matthias Seyffart; Paul Jensen Colding; and Simon Marius.

 

 

C.——TYCHO'S OPINION ABOUT ASTROLOGICAL FORECASTS, FROM A LETTER TO HEINRICH BELOW, DATED THE 7TH DECEMBER 1587.

Meinen freuntlichen grues mitt wunschung alles guettes alzeitt beforr. Edler, Ehrnvester, freundtlicher lieber Schwager vnd besonder vortraweter freundt. Neben Danksagung fur vielfeltige erzeigete wolthaten kan ich dir freundtlicher wolmeinung nicht verhalten, das ich dein schreiben habe entpfangen vnd darinne ein Copie des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fursten vnd Herren Herßog Vlrichs zu Mechelburg an Dir geschriebene brieffs, worauß ich erfahre, das ihr furstliche Gnade begehrett von mir gnedichlich zu wissen, welcher meines erachtens von den beiden Prognosticatoribus Tobia Moller vnd Andrea Rosa dem Zcill neher zutrifft, ihndem daß der eine ihn diesem zukunfftigen 88 Jhar den Regenten des Jhars Jovem vnd Venerem, der ander Saturnum vnd Martem seßet, darahn sie nicht alleine keinstheils einig sein, sondern wie ihr Furstliche Gnade schreibet, gahr widerwertiger meinung haben; dan der eine machyt beide beneficos Planetas, der ander beide maleficos (wie sie die Astrologi nennen) zum Regenten im selbigen Jhar, welchs gar contrarie bedeuttung bringett. Hierauff kan ich dir freundlicher meinung nicht bergen, das wiewoll ich in die Astrologische Sachen, welche bedeuttung auß dem gestirn herholen vnd weissagunge tractiren, mich nicht gerne einlaeße, dieweill darauff nicht vhill zu bawen ist, Sondern allein die Astronomiam, welche, den wunderlichen lauff des gestirns erforschett, in einen genwißen vnd rechtmessigen ordung zu bringen mich eßliche Jhar her bemuhet, dan darahn kan durch rechtgeschaffene Instrumenten nach Geometrisch vnd Arithmetisch grundt vnd gewisheit die eigentliche warheitt durch langwirigen fleiß vnd arbeitt gefunden werden, So habe ich doch nach ihrer Furstlicher gnaden begerung beide Prognostica, die du mihr zuschickest, (die ich doch nicht, wie du gemeinett hast, zuvor gehatt habe, dan ich niemals pflege solche practicen wider zu kauffen, noch zu lesen, ne bonas horas male collocem), durchgesehen, den mangel, worahn es hafftett, das sie so widerwertige Judicia stellen, daraus zu suchen, vnd Befinde, das sie in ihre Rechnung gar vnterscheidliche fundament gebraucht haben; dan der eine, nemlich Mollerus, Bawett sein Calculation auf des hocherfarnen Copernici rechnung, der ander, Rosa, auff die alte durch des Königs Alphonsi in Hispanien liberalitet gemache Tabeln, die man darumb Alphonsinische nennett. Hirauß kömpt es, das der eine den anfang des Jhars in aequinoctio verno seßet ahm 10 tag martii Bey Neun vhr nach mittage, der ander ahm selbigen tag, aber vmb 2 Stunden nach der vorgehende Mitternacht, daß also zwischen beide ihre rechnung schier 19 ganße Stunden verlauffen, in welchen der himmel sich gar vil vorendern thutt, vnd kan gar ein ander Astrologish Judicium darauß fallen, ebensowol als wen dar ein ganßes Jhar oder noch mehr zwischen wehre: Das darumb nicht zu vorwundern ist, das diese beide Astrologi in domino Anni nicht vberein stimmen, weil sie den auß der Figura Caeli introitus Solis in Arietem, wan daß vorbemelte aeqvinoctium vernum geschicht, pflegen herholen. Wiewol es auch lichtlich geschehn kan, das wan sie schon gleichmessige Tabeln vnd rechnungen volgeten, das sie gleichwoll in Dominis Anni vnd ihren ganßen weissagungen gar widerwertige meinungen können fürgeben, das darauß leichtlich zu probiren ist, daß wan man hundertt der Prognosticken lisset, so befindett sich doch gahr selten, das einer mitt dem andern concordirett, dan sie bawen nicht alle auff gleichformige grundt ihn ihren Judiciis vnd haben vntherscheidliche process vnd ahnleitungen. Es sein auch diese Astrologische weissagungen wie ein cothurnus, den man kan auff ein jeder Bein ziehen, gros vnd kein, wie man will, darumb ich auch niemals darvon ettwas Sonderlichs gehalten habe. Das ich aber Kong. Mag. meinen Gnedigsten Herren jhärlich ein solches Astroogisch Prognosticon untherteniglich zustelle, mus ich in dem nach ihre May. befell vnd willen thun, wiewoll ich selbst nicht vill darauf halte vnd nicht gerne mitt solchen zweiffelhafftigen praedictionibus vmbgehe, darin man die eigenttliche warheitt nicht durchauß erforschen mag, wie sonst in Geometria vnd Arithmetica, darauff die Astronomia durch hulff der vleissigen observation ihm lauff des Himels gebawet wirtt. Dennoch dieweill ihr Furstliche Gnade gnedichlich begertt von mir zu wissen, welchen won den beiden ich Beifellig sey, was den dominis Anni also widerwertiger weiß von ihnen gestellet thutt ahnlangen, So kan ich hierauff nicht anders sagen, dan das ihrer beiden rechnung vnd iudicium gehtt auß ein vormeinten vnrichtigen grundt; dan weder die Alphonsinischen noch die Copernianischen Tabeln, welchen sie folgen, geben den justen lauff der Sonnen, wie er ahn sich selbst am Himmel geschichtt, vnd ist hierinne kein geringe vnterscheidt, wie auß meiner eigenen Restitution vnd vornewrung in Rechnung des lauffs der Sonnen zu sehen ist, welche ich auf eßliche vorgehende Jharen durch große vnd rechtmessige Instrumenten augenscheinlich vom Himel selbst her ab durch fleißige observation vnd warnemungen genomen habe, auß welchen sich befindet, das des Jhars Anfang in aequinoctio verno, darauß die Astrologi ihre vrtheil nennem, geschicht ahm 10 tag Martii 82/3 stunde nach der vorigen Mitternacht, welchs bey 7 stunden speder ist, als Andreas Rosa geseßt hat, und 12 stunden fruer, als Tobias Mollerus meinett, darauß den vhil ein andere constitution des himmels zur Zeitt des aequinoctii einfeltt, als ein jetzlicher von ihnen gefunden hat, worauff auch ein ander vrtheill folgett vnd auch wol andere domini Anni, wie ſie es nennen, (darauß doch nicht vhil zu holen ist), mögen geseßt werden. Was aber meine meinung sey ahnlangende Astrologische gißung vber dis kunfftige 88 Jhar, habe ich Königl. May. meinen gnedigsten Herren ihn einen geschriebenen Prognostick vnterteniglich auffgezeignett, welchs ich auch ihre Furstliche Gnade gerne wolte vnterteniglich mitteilen, aber ich hab keine vberige Exemplar darvon, wan ihr Furstliche Gnade lasset bey ihr May.darumb ahnlangen, wird ihr Furst. Gna. wol ein abschrifft dar von bekomen. Ich bin darinne genßlich nicht der meinung, daß solche gahr große vorenderunge in diesen negstkunftigen Jhar vorhanden sein, als die Astrologi auß eßlichen altten reimen, die sie den Regiomontano zumessen, furgeben, dan ich befinde im Constitution des Himels keine Sonderliche vrsachen darzu, sondern achte, das dis kunfftige Jhar wird den vorgehenden gleichmeßig sein vnd in zimlichen guten wesen in allen Sachen sich erzeigen, aleine wo zuuor krieg vnd vneinigkeitt aufferweckt ist, dar möchte es wol ettwas weitter einreißen. Vnd kan ihr Furstliche gnade meine meinung vom Astrologischen judicio vber das ganße Jhar auß vorbemelten Prognostico, welchs ich Köng. May. meinen gnedigsten herren vnterteniglich habe zugestellt, weitter erfahren. Dis habe ich auff dein guttwilliges schreiben vnd beger nicht wöllen vntherlassen zu antworten. Bitte gar deinstlich, du wollest vnbeschwert sein vnd mitt erster gelegenheitt ihr Furstliche Gnade hierauff meine antwortt vnd meinunge vnterteniglichen von meinettwegen zu vorstehn geben. Worin ich sonst ihre Furstliche gnaden zu willen vnd gefallen sein kan, bin ich alzeitt mitt aller deinstlichkeitt vnterteniglich erböttig.

[The remainder of the letter is about paper for Tycho's books; see above, p. 163, footnote.]

 

 

D.—KEPLER'S ACCOUNT OF TYCHO BRAHE'S LAST ILLNESS.

[Written in the volume of Observations for 1600-1601. Compare Observationes Hassiacæ, publicante W. Snellio, Lugd. Bat., 1618, p. 83.]

Die 13 Octobris Tycho Brahe Dominum a Mincowitz ad coenam Illustriss. Domini a Rosenberch comitatus, retenta præter morem urina consedit. Cum paulo largius biberetur sentiretque vesicæ tensionem valetudinem civilitati posthabuit. Domum reversus urinam reddere amplius haud potuit.

Erat hujus morbi initio ☾ in opposito ♄, & 🜨to ♂ in ♉, & ♂ eodem loco quern sibi Tycho orientem gradum constituerat.

Transactis quinque diebus insomnibus, cum gravissimo cruciatu vix tandem urina processit, & nihilominus impedita. Insomnia sequebantur perpetua, febris interna & paulatim delirium, ratione victus, à qua prohiberi non poterat, malum exasperante. Ita die 24 Octobris cum delirium aliquot horis remisisset, victa natura inter consolationes, preces & suorum lachrymas placidissime expiravit.

Ab hoc itaque tempore series observationum Coelestinm interrupta est, finisque impositus 38 annorum observationibus.

Nocte, quam ultimam habuit, per delirium, quo omnia suavissima fuere, creberrime hæc verba iteravit, quasi qui carmen texit.

Ne frustra vixisse videar.

Quem procul dubio ceu colophonem operibus suis addere, eaque his verbis Posteritatis memoriæ & usibus dedicare voluit.

 

 

E.—COMPARISON OF TYCHO BRAHE'S POSITIONS OF STANDARD STARS WITH MODERN RESULTS.

The following table gives the places for 1586 (anno 1585 completo) of Tycho's nine standard stars (Progymn., p. 204), and their positions for the same epoch, computed from those of Bradley for 1755, with the proper motions of Auwers (Neue Reduction der Bradley'schen Beobachtungen, vol. ii.).

Observed AR. Observed Dec. Computed AR. Computed Dec.
α Arietis 26º 0' 30" +21º 28' 30" 26º 0' 44."7 +21º 27' 33".0
α Tauri 63 3 45 +15 36 15 63 4 11.2 +15 35 35.6
μ Geminorum 89 29 10 +22 38 30 90 28 41.0 +22 37 48.5
β Geminorum 109 58 0 +28 57 45 109 57 47.9 +28 56 19.1
α Leonis 146 32 45 +13 57 45 146 33 19.7 +13 56 56.9
α Virginis 195 52 10 -8 56 20 195 52 36.4 -8 58 22.0
δ Ophiuchi 238 11 20 -2 33 15 238 11 9.8 -2 33 21.5
α Aquilæ 292 37 20 +7 51 20 292 38 36.2 +7 50 35.8
α Pegasi 341 2 30 +13 0 40 341 3 1.3 +12 59 47.1

The differences between Bradley and Tycho are shown in the next table. The effect of refraction (which Tycho thought insensible above Zen. Dist. 70º or Declination -14º for Uraniborg), is seen at a glance, and I have therefore in the last column given the difference of declination corrected for mean refraction.

 
Bradley minus Tycho.
∆ α ∆ α cos δ ∆ δ ∆ δ'
α Arietis +14".7 +13".7 -57".0 -17".4
α Tauri +26.2 +25.2 -39.4 +9.6
μ Geminorum -29.0 -26.7 -41.5 -3.6
β Geminorum -12.1 -10.6 -85.9 -56.5
α Leonis + 34.7 +33.7 -48.1 +4.4
α Virginis +26.4 +26.1 -122.0 +0.6
δ Ophiuchi -10.2 -10.2 +6.5 +88.1
α Aquilæ +76.2 +75.4 -44.2 -19.5
α Pegasi +31.3 +30.4 -52.9 -0.1
 

From the third and fifth columns we find the probable errors of Tycho's standard right ascensions = ±24".1, and of his standard declinations = ±25".9. Of course the accuracy of most of his star-places must be much less, as they were neither as often nor as carefully determined as those of the standard stars, and were vitiated not only by refraction, but also by aberration and nutation. See above, pp. 351 and 353.

 

 

F.—ON THE ALLEGED ERROR OF TYCHO'S MERIDIAN LINE.

In order to remove any doubt which the reader might have as to the correctness of the opinion set forth above on p. 360, that the azimuth error of 15' detected in some of the instruments in November 1586 does not prove all Tycho's instruments to have been erroneously placed during all the years previous to 1586, I have tested the matter by calculation. Azimuths were never very extensively observed at Hveen, and the only series of observations sufficient for my purpose was that made in the beginning of 1582, when a number of altitudes and azimuths of bright stars were measured. Many of these were taken too near the meridian to be of any use in this case, but there are many observations made in the prime vertical, by which a great error in the assumed zero of the azimuth circle would easily be detected. I have made use of all the observations taken in or near the prime vertical during March 1582 (except of a few which were vitiated by some great error of copying, observing, or in the identification of the star), and of one observation of a Tauri in azimuth 69º on February 25.[18] The following mean declinations for 1582 were computed from Auwers' Bradley the reductions to apparent declinations for 1st March being appended:—

 
α Tauri +15 35' 0" +4"
β Herculis +22 27 50 -20
κ Ophiuchi +10 5 45 -17
α Herculis +14 56 20 -12
α Ophiuchi +12 56 14 -18
α Lyræ +38 26 50 -19
β Cygni +27 8 32 -10
ι Cygni +50 52 36 -18
γ Cygni +38 57 48 -12
 

Assuming the observed altitudes to be correct, the azimuth corresponding to each altitude was computed by the formula

 

cos A = sin φ sin h - sin δ/cos φ cos h

 

in which δ is the apparent declination, h the observed altitude corrected for refraction, and ϕ the latitude of Uraniborg, 55° 54′ 26″. The computed and observed azimuths were found to be in excellent agreement, the differences only in nine cases exceeding 3′. Thirty-six observations of nine stars gave the correction to the observed azimuths (counted from 0° to 360° from south through west) = -0′.4 ± 0′.30. Of course this result is affected by the errors of observation in the altitudes, but at any rate it shows most conclusively that Tycho Brahe's azimuth circles were adjusted with the same care which we have seen he bestowed on his other instruments; and the assertion that Tycho from 1579 to 1586 had all his instruments set 15′ wrong in azimuth is hereby proved to have been utterly without foundation.

 

 

G.—HUET'S ACCOUNT OF THE STATE OF HVEEN IN 1652.

 

[From P. D. Huetii Commentarius de rebus ad eum pertinentibus, Amsterdam, 1718, 12mo. After describing the great celestial globe, the author relates how he started for Hveen, with only one companion, on the 26th May 1652, and after telling the story about the origin of the name of Insula Scarlatina and praising the hospitable reception by the Lutheran clergyman, he continues on p. 86.]

 

Humaniter ergo excepti, postquam paululum interquievimus, multa ab hospite nostro, aliisque adstantibus Huenæ incolis percontatus sum de Tychone, deque Vraniburgica arce, cujus visendæ gratia istuc venissem: quodque mirere, incognita sibi esse hæc nomina uno ore professi sunt omnes, nec quicquam se de iis accepisse. At cum virum quemdam valde senem superesse rescivissem in insula, misi qui eum ad me adducerent. Rogatus ille a me numquid de Tychone Braheo inaudisset aliquando, deque condita olim ab eo istic arce quam Vraniburgi nomine decorasset, & per annos unum & viginti incoluisset; se vero respondit non Tychonem modo & Vraniburgum nosse, sed & in Tychonis famulatu fuisse per aliquod tempus, & operam quoque suam ad hanc exstruendam arcem contulisse. Tychonem autem referebat hominem fuisse violentum, impotentem, iracundum, famulos & villicos male multantem, ebriosum quoque et mulierosum; cum uxorem duxisset ex infima natalis villæ suæ Knudstrupii plebe rustica, ex qua liberos multos suscepisset, atque hac affinitate, velut sibi probrosa, magnopere offensam fuisse illustrem Braheorum gentem. Tum subjecit bonus ille vir, si istuc venissem spectandi Vraniburgi causa, irritum me laborem suscepisse, quippe solo æquata omnia, vixque superesse parietinarum vestigia. Cujus rei causas cum ab eo, & jam ante Hafniæ a viris doctis exquisivissem, varias ac plane discrepantes commemorabant. Hi enim Tychonem ipsum, e Dania excedentem opus suum diruisse dicebant, cum satis tamen constet res suas Huenicas & Vraniburgicas colono & famulis aliquot procurandas reliquisse; quippe fundi hujus fructus in totum vitæ tempus fuisse ei a Frederico Rege concessos. Erant qui dicerent hostiles Suecorum copias pervasisse in insulam, stragemque hanc edidisse; quod non ignorasset profecto vetus ille Huenæ incola qui ad turbidas Freti Sundici tempestates & rapidissimos ventos rei causam referebat; quibus facile concussse fuerant ædes leviter materiatæ: cum præsertim de tuendis sartis tectis Astronomicæ domus parum omnino laborarent aulici viri, quibus clientelæ jure, post Tychonem, Regis beneficio obtigerat.

 

 

H.—CATALOGUE OF THE VOLUMES OF MANUSCRIPT OBSERVATIONS OF TYCHO BRAHE IN THE ROYAL LIBRARY, COPENHAGEN.

[Compiled by means of the list in Bugge's Observationes astronomicæ (1784), compared with the library catalogues and the volumes themselves, with the kind assistance of Dr. C. Bruun, chief librarian. The MSS. form part of the so-called Old Royal collections, Gamle Kongelige Samlinger, the numbers of which are added in brackets.]

I. Original Observations.

Observationes astronomicæ a solstitio Hiberno anni 1577 ad annum 1582; maxima ex parte autographum, 4to, 197 ff. [No. 1825, 4to.]

Observationes ab anno 1582 usque ad annum 1587; ex parte autogr. In folio, 500 ff. [No. 311, fol.]

Observationes astronomicæ ab anno 1587 ad 1590 usque ad Jan. 26. In folio, 344 ff. [No. 312, fol.]

Observationes astronomicæ ab anno 1590 usque ad a. 1595. In folio, 340 ff. [No. 313 fol.]

Observationes planetarum super annum 1595 institutæ. In folio, 173 ff. [No. 314 fol.]

Observationes cometæ anni 1590, nec non cometæ 1596 apparentis. [No. 315 fol.]

Observationes planetarum et fixarum anno 1596 et 1597 ad d. 15 Mart.; narratio de occasione interruptarum observationum et discessus mei; obs. continuatæ Wandesburgi a 20 Oct. 1597. Adjectus est in fine catalogue fixarum ad annum 1588 completum.[19] In folio, 151 ff [No. 316 fol.]

Liber observationum Tychonis Brane pro 1598 Wandesburgi, nec non observationes astronomicæ factæ Wittebergæ a solstitio hyberno præcedente annum 1599, et variæ aliæ in Arce Benatica factæ eodem anno. In folio, 167 ff. [No. 317 fol.]

Observationes astronomicæ annorum 1600 et 1601 in Arce Caesarea regni Bohemici Benatica & Pragæ habitæ per instrumenta Tychonis Brahe. Accedunt observationes, quas anno 1600 factas Keplerus e Stiria Tychoni misit. In folio, 171 ff. [No. 318 fol.]

Observationes [autographæ] cometarum a. 1577 et a. 1580 et observationes [apographæ] cometarum qui annis 1582, 1585, 1590, 1593 et 1596 apparuerunt.[20] 4to. [No. 1 826, 4to.]

2. Copies of Observations, Miscellaneous Computations, &c.

Observationes Lipsiæ annis 1563-65, Rostochii 1568, Augustas Vindelicorum 1569-70, Heridsvadi, Hafniæ et in insula Hvena 1573-81 factæ, præmissis excerptis ex observationibus G. Frisii et Regiomontani.[21] 4to, 280 ff. modern binding. [No. 1824. 4to.]

Observationes septem Cometarum 1577-96. 4to. [No. 1827, 4to.]

Fasciculus continens theoriam Solis per Observationes Lunæ ad ilium et fixas, Lunaria 1582, 1586, 1590, 1593. Observationes Veneris 1586, Jovis 1593, Saturni 1590. 4to, 145 fol., modern binding. [No. 1830, 4to.]

Computatio observationum Solis, Lunæ et planetarum 1599 et 1600 & comparatio cum tabulis. 4to. [No. 1829, 4to.]

Fasciculus observationum Brunei, variorum annorum ex quibus 1590 1598, 1599 et 1600 expressi sunt. Addita sunt excerpta ex quodam libro MSo ex collegio Pragensi a M. Baccliatio Tychon, communicata. 4to, 478 ff., modern binding. [No. 1828, 4to.][22]

Tychonis Brahei stellarum octavi orbis inerrantium accurata restitutio. [No. 306, fol., presentation copy to King Christian IV.]

Idem liber [No. 307, fol., presented to Johannes Adolph, Bishop of Lübeck.]

Observationes qusedam astronomicse habitae 1589 per Quadrantem orichalcicum Tychonis Brahe, divisionum satis capacem, in diversis locis Daniæ ad eruendas eorum Poli elevationes. 4to. [No. 1831, 4to, by Elias Olai, see above p. 123, footnote.]

Collectio observationum Tychonis Brahei in L. Baretti Historia Coelesti omissarum per Erasmum Bartholinum. In Folio.[23] [No. 310, fol., includes the observations of comets.]

About the copies of observations in the Hofbibliothek at Vienna and at the Paris Observatory, see above, p. 372 et seq. The three astrological MSS. [No. 1820-21, 1822, 1823, 4to] are described above, p. 145 et seq.

 

 

I. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY.

The titles of Tycho Brahe's own publications (including the posthumous Oratio de disciplinis mathematicis and the observations published by Snellius and in the Historia Cœlestis) have already been given in full in the text. The following is a complete chronological catalogue of books and memoirs containing biographical details or investigations of Tycho's scientific work, omitting popular accounts in which nothing new occurs.

Tychonis Brahei, Equitis Dani, Astronomorum Coryphæi, Vita. Authore Petro Gassendo, Regio Matheseos Professore. Accessit Nicolai Copernici, G. Peurbachii & J. Regiomontani, Astronomorum celebrium Vita. Editio secunda, auctior & correction Hagæ Comitum MDCLV. 4to, lx. + 384 pp. [of which 287 pp. about Tycho Brahe; 1st edition published in 1654; pagination of the two editions agree. About Gassendi's sources, see his letters in his Opera, vol. vi. pp. 518-527].

Encomion Regni Daniae. Det er Danmarckes Riges Lof. Af J. L. Wolf. Kjöbenhavn, 1654. 4to [pp. 525-529 about the island of Hveen].

Le Grand Atlas ou cosmographie Blaviane, en laquelle est exactment descritte la terre, la mer et le ciel. A Amsterdam, 1663, fol. [Large map of Hveen, with letterpress in vol. i. p. 61 et seq., and figures of Tycho's instruments.]

P. J. Resenii Inscriptions Hafnienses, Stellæburgenses, Uraniburgenses, &c. Hafniæ, 1668. 4to [p. 310 et seq. are given a number of inscriptions at Uraniborg and Stjerneborg, and a letter from Tycho Brahe to Peucer, all of which are reprinted by Weistritz in his first volume].

Voyage d'Uranibourg ou Observations astronomiques faites en Danemarck, par M. Picard. Paris, 1681, fol. [Reprinted in the Recueil des observations faites en plusieurs voyages, Paris, 1693, fol.; and in Picard's Ouvrages de inathematiques, Amsterdam, 1736, 4to, pp. 61-99.]

Epistolæ ad Joannem Kepplerum scriptæ. Ed. M. G. Hanschius. Lipsiae, 1718, fol. [On pp. 102 et seq. letters from Tycho, see above, p. 290 et seq.]

Pet. Dan. Huetii, Episcopi Abrincensis, Commentarius de rebus ad eum pertinentibus. Amstelodami, 1719. 12mo [pp. 81-89 about Tycho Brahe and Hveen].

Tychonis Brahe relatio de statu suo post discessum ex patria in Germaniam et Bohemiam ad M. Andr. Velleium ex manuscripto edita a G. B. Casseburg. Jenae, 1730. 4to, 23 pp. [The same is more correctly printed in Dänische Bibliothec oder Sammlung von alten und neuen gelehrten Sachen aus Dänemarck, III. Stück. Copenhagen, 1740. 8vo, p. 177 et seq.]

Singularia historico-literaria Lusatica, oder historische und gelehrte Merckwürdigkeiten derer beyden Marggrafthumer Ober- und Nieder-Lausitz, 27ste Sammlung, 1743. 8vo [contains, p. 177 et seq., four letters from Tycho to Scultetus, see above, p. 133].

Cimbria Literata. A Joh. Mollero. Hafniæ, 1744. Tom. ii., fol. [contains on pp. 103-118 a biography of Tycho Brahe, with some interesting details].

Samling af adskillige nyttige og opbyggelige Materier, saa vel gamle som nye. Kjöbenhavn, 1745. 8vo, v.-vii. Stykke [vol. ii.]; Den store vidtberömte Danske Astronomus … Tyge Brahe … Hans Liv og Endeligt. [By Mag. Malthe and the editor, O. Bang, fills about 183 pp., chiefly founded on Gassendi, but also containing a few new details].

Portraits historiques des hommes illustres de Danemark. Par T. de Hofman. Sixième Partie. Copenhague, 1746. 4to [pp. 2-30 life of Tycho Brahe, some new documents].

Danske Magazin, indeholdende allehaande Smaa-Stykker og Anmærkninger til Historiens og Sprogets Oplysning. Andet Bind. Kjöbenhavn, 1746. 4to. [Nos. 18 to 24, pp. 161-372, "Rare og utrykte Efterretninger om Tyge Brahe," by Jacob Langebek. In vol. iii., 1747, there is an account of Tycho's sister Sophia, pp. 12-32 and 43-53, in which occurs the only known Danish poem by Tycho Brahe. The engravings in vol. ii. are borrowed from Hofman's Portraits.]

Lebensbeschreibung des berühmten und gelehrten Dänischen Sternsehers, Tycho von Brahe, aus der Dänischen Sprache in die Deutsche übersetzt von Philander von der Weistritz. Kopenhagen und Leipzig, 1756. 2 vols. 8vo. [Vol. i. is a translation of the biography in Bang's Samling, vol. ii. of the papers in Danske Magazin, vol. ii.; the Danish original mentioned in Houzeau and Lancaster's Bibliographie, vol. ii., No. 6193, never existed. The portrait is borrowed from Hofman. The translator's name was C. G. Mengel.]

Observations de Mars faites en 1593 par T. B., tirées des manuscrits par J. de Lalande. Mémoires de l'Acad. des sc. de Paris, 1757.

Observations de Saturne et de Jupiter en 1593 par Tycho. Ibid, 1763. [See above, p. 375.]

Om Forskiellen imellem Tycho Brahes og Picards Meridian af Uraniborg. Ved [J. S.] Augustin. Skrifter, som udi det Kgl-Videnskabernes Selskab ere fremlagde og nu til Trykken befordrede. XII. Bind. Kjöbenhavn, 1779. 4 to, pp. 191-216.

Histoire de l'Astronomie moderne. Par M. Bailly. Tome i. Paris, 1779. 4to [pp. 377-389, 398-424 contain an account of Tycho's scientific work].

Samraenligning mellem de 1672 af Hr. Picard og de nyere i Skaane gjorte Observationer og Opmaalinger for at bestemme de tre Punkters, Uraniborgs, Rundetaarns og Lund's Observatoriers Situation. Af C. C. Lous. Nye Sarnling af det kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter. I., 1781. 4to, pp. 142-155.

Observationes astronomicæ annis 1781, 1782, & 1783 institutæ in observatorio Regio Hafniensi, auctore Thoma Bugge. Hauniæ, 1784. 4to [pp. xiii.-xix. about Tycho's MS. observations].

De meritis Tychonis Brahe in Astronomiam Mechanicam. O. Schilling et A. P. Weller. Upsaliae, 1792. 4to, 13 pp. [Merely short descriptions of Tycho's instruments, and a plate with twelve small figures of them.]

Geschichte der Mathematik. Von A. G. Kästner. Zweiter Band. Göttingen, 1797. 8vo [pp. 377-416 life of Tycho, pp. 613-660 reviews of his books; compare vol. iii. p. 469].

Histoire des Mathematiques par J. F. Montucla. 2me edition. 1798. Tome i. 4to [pp. 653-674 about Tycho and his scientific work].

Geographische Länge und Breite von Benatek wo Tycho Brahe vor 203 Jahren beobachtet hat … Von Aloys David. Abhandlungen der Königl. Böhm. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Prag, 1802. [Résumé in Zach's Monatliche Correspondenz, vi., 1802, p. 468 et seq.]

Trigonometrische Vermessungen zur Verbindung der K. Prager Sternwarte mit dem Lorenzberg, und zur Bestimmung der geogr. Breite und Länge des Ortes auf dem Hradschin, wo Tycho Brahe beobachtet. Abhandlungen, &c. Prag, 1805. [Résumé in Monatl. Corr., xii. p. 248].

Méridienne d'Uranibourg. Par M. Delambre. Connaissance des Tems pour l'an 1816. Paris, 1813, pp. 229-239.

Extrait d'une lettre de M. Schumacher. Connaissance des Tems pour l'an 1820, pp. 385-387 [also about the meridian, compare Zach's Correspondence astronomique, Tome i., pp. 338 and 402].

Histoire de l'Astronomie moderne par M. Delambre. Tome i. Paris, 1821. 4to [pp. 148-260 reviews of Tycho's principal books].

Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 63 (Band iii.). [On an album belonging to Tycho's son, and on a portrait of Tycho in watercolours (above, p. 263), by Biela.]

Fornlemningar af Tycho Brahes Stjerneborg och Uraniborg på Öen Hvén, aftäckte åren 1823 och 1824. Stockholm, 1824. 8vo, 27 pp., 1 plate.

Samlingar for Nordens. Fornälskare. Tredje Tomen. Af N. H. Sjöborg. Stockholm, 1830. 4to [pp. 71-83 about the state of Hveen in 1814, with 2 plates].

Tycho de Brahe als Homeöpath. Von W. Olbers. Schumacher's Jahrbuch für 1836, pp. 98-100.

Letter from Tycho Brahe to Thomas Savelle. A collection of letters illustrative of the progress of science in England … edited by J. O. Halliwell. London, 1841. 8vo, pp. 32-33.

Historiske Efterretninger om det store kongelige Bibliothek i Kjöbenhavn. Ved E. C. Werlauff. 2den Udgave. Kjöbenhavn, 1844. 8vo [52-60 and p. 411, about Tycho's MSS. at Copenhagen].

Observations cometae anni 1585 Uraniburgi habitæ a Tychone Brahe. Edidit H. C. Schumacher. Altonæ, 1845. 4to, 32 pp., 2 plates.

Urania, Aarbog for 1846, udgiven af J. L. Heiberg. Kjöbenhavn. 8vo [pp. 55-170, Hveen tilforn Danmarks Observatorium, on the state of the ruins at Hveen in 1845, with 14 plates].

T. B. Mikowee: T. Brahe; ziwotopisni nastin, ku 300 leté památce jeho narozeni. Prag, 1847. 8 vo [contains some information about the fate of Tycho's relations after his death].

Bestimmung der Bahn des Cometen von 1585 nach den … Originalbeobachtungen Tycho's. Astronomische Nachrichten, Band xxix. pp. 209-276. [By C. A. F. Peters, the most important investigation of the accuracy of Tycho's observations. About the orbits of the other comets, see above, p. 159 et seq.]

De hellige tre Konger Kapel i Roskilde Domkirke. Af E. C. Werlauff. Kjöbenhavn, 1849 [p. 17 et seq. about Tycho's prebend].

Historiske Efterretninger om Anders Sörensen Vedel. Af C. F. Wegener, 291 pp. fol. [Appendix to Den Danske Krönike af A. S. Vedel, trykt paany. Kjöbenhavn, 1851.]

Danske Magazin. Tredie Række. 3die Bind [pp. 79-80, Letter from Tycho Brahe to Valkendorf of 1 598]. 4de Bind [pp. 263- 264, Royal Letter to Tycho Brahe about the tenant Rasmus Pedersen, of 17 November 1592].

Ueber den neuen Stern vom Jahre 1572. Von Prof. Argelander. Astronomische Nachrichten, vol. lxii. pp. 273-278.

Tychonis Brahe Dani Observationes septem Cometarum. Ex libris manuscriptis qui Havniæ in magna bibliotheca Regia adservantur nunc primum edidit F. R. Friis. Havniæ, 1867. 4to, viii. + 120 pp., 5 plates.

Die Ruinen von Uranienborg und Stjerneborg im Jahre 1868. Von H. L. d'Arrest. Astronomische Nachrichten, lxxii. pp. 209-224.

Tycho Brahe und seine Verhältnisse zu Meklenburg. Von G. C. F. Lisch. Jahrbücher des Vereins für meklenburgische Geschichte, xxxiv. 20 pp., 8vo.

Minder om Tyge Brahes Ophold i Böhmen. Af F. R. Friis. Dansk Tidsskrift, i., 1869, 8vo, pp. 225-236 and 257-269.

Tyge Brahe's Haandskrifter i Wien og Prag. Af F. R. Friis. Danske Samlinger, iv., 1869, 8vo, pp. 250-268.

Danske Magazin. Fjerde Række. 2det Bind. Bidrag til Tyge Brahes Historie, af H. J. Rördam, pp. 16-34; Bidrag … af F. R. Friis, pp. 324-328. [About Gellius; list of some of Tycho's pupils; the sale of Knudstrup; Parsbjerg's complaint of Jessenius, above, p. 311, footnote.]

Tyge Brahe. En historisk Fremstilling efter trykte og utrykte Kilder af F. E. Friis. Kjöbenhavn, 1871. 8vo, 386 pp.

"Tyge Brahe, en historisk … af F. R. Friis," kritisk betragtet af J. Dreyer. Kjöbenhavn, 1871, 8vo, 19 pp.

Joannis Kepleri Astronomi Opera Omnia. Ed. C. Frisch, 8 vols. Frankofurti et Erlangæ, 1858-71. 8vo. [Contains many abstracts from letters between Tycho and Kepler, and the Vita Kepleri in vol. viii. is a valuable source for the last years of Tycho's life.]

Tycho Brahe und J. Kepler in Prag. Eine Studie von Dr. J. von Hasner. Prag, 1872. 8vo, 47 pp.

Breve og Aktstykker angaaende Tyge Brahe og hans Slægtninge. Samlede og udgivne af F. R. Friis. Kjöbenhavn, 1875, 8vo 169 pp.

Tyge Brahes meteorologiscke Dagbog holdt paa Uraniborg for Aarene 1582-1597. Udgiven af det kgl. danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Kjöbenhavn, 1876, 8vo, iv. + 263 + lxxv. pp.

On a portrait of Tycho Brahe. By Samuel Crompton. London, 1878 (Mem. Lit. Phil. Soc. of Manchester, vol. vi. pp, 77-81 [compare Nature, xv. p. 406 and xvi. p. 501].

Tychonis Brahei et ad eum doctorum virorum Epistolae ab anno 1568 ad annum 1587 nunc primum collectae et editae a F. R. Friis. Havniæ, 1876-86. 4to, 112 pp., 2 plates.

Astronomische, meteor, und magn. Beobachtungen an der K.K. Sternwarte zu Prag im Jahre 1880. 4to [on pp. iii.-iv. about some instruments at Prague alleged to have been Tycho's].

F. Dvorsky: Nové zpravy o Tychonu Brahovi a jeho rodine. Published in the Časopis Musea Královstvi Českeho, vol. lvii., 1883, pp. 60-77.

Carteggio inedito di Ticone Brahe, Giovanni Keplero e di altri celebri astronomi e matematici dei secoli xvi. e xvii. con Giovanni Antonio Magini. Tratto dall' Archivio Malvezzi de' Medici in Bologna, pubblicato ed illustrato da Antonio Favaro. Bologna, 1886. 8vo, 522 pp.

Tychonis Brahe Triangulorum planorum et sphaericorum Praxis Arithmetica. Qua maximus eorum, praesertim in Astronomicis usus compendiose explicatur. Nunc primum edidit F. I. Studnička. Pragae, 1886, 4to, 2 + 20 ff. [Facsimile.]

Aus Tycho Brahe's Brief wechsel. Von F. Burckhardt. Wissenschaftliche Beilage zum Bericht über das Gymnasium 1886-87. Basel, 1887. 4to, 28 pp.

Elias Olsen Morsing og hans Observationer. Ved F. R. Friis. Kjöbenhavn, 1889. 8vo, 28 pp. and 4 plates.

  1. Peter Jacobsen Flemlöse.
  2. From the island of Fyen; name evidently forgotten.
  3. His name occurs in the observations of February 1582 (Hist. Cœl., p. 6); probably it was he who examined the pockets of Reymers (see above, p. 275).
  4. Niels Lauridsen Arctander died 1616 as Bishop of Viborg (Jutland).—Rördam.
  5. Observed, among other things, comet 1585 (Obs. Comet., p. 63), occurs in the diary in 1586 and 1588.
  6. Odd Einarsen, Bishop of Skalholt in 1588.
  7. Perhaps this is Joannes Bernssön, "unus ex meis familiaribus," by whom Tycho sent a letter to H. Rantzov in 1585.
  8. Afterwards Professor in the University; born 1567, died 1642 as Bishop of Aalborg. He was at Hveen 1586–90, observed the comet of 1593 at Zerbst in Anhalt, and the solar eclipse of 1598 in Jutland (Hist. Cœl., p. 819).
  9. Agrees with diary.
  10. Remark about departure added afterwards (Rördam).
  11. Died 1629 as Bishop of Ribe in Jutland (Rördam).
  12. Probably Dekent should be de Kent. In the diary we read under 2nd November 1587: "Hamon abiit." Could he have been John Hammond, afterwards physician to Henry, Prince of Wales?
  13. Probably Hans Crol (see above and p. 211), died 30th November 1591.
  14. i.e., from Landskrona.
  15. Falk Gjöe, a friend and kinsman of Tycho, to whom the latter addressed a Latin poem printed at Uraniborg.
  16. Paper worn at the corner; a few words lost (Rördam).
  17. According to Pontoppidan, quoted in Bang's Samlinger, ii. p. 279 (Weistritz, i. P. 73).
  18. Historia Cœlestis, p. 34 et seq. My copy of this work formerly belonged to Professor Schjellerup of Copenhagen, who corrected a great many of the errors in the observations of fixed stars (by comparing with Bartholin's copy) including fortunately those of 1582.
  19. The catalogue has columns for RA, Decl., Long., Lat., and Magn., but very little has been filled in.
  20. The original observations of the comets of 1582 and 1585 are in the folio volume for 1582-86.
  21. These excerpts fill two leaves. There are also some notes on the comets after the year 1500, and among the observations are astrological notes and comparisons with ephemerides. In several places the observations have afterwards been verified or reduced by means of the great globe, e.g., under 1570, 5th March, where there is written in the margin: "Manu Christiani Severini Longomontani recentius scriptum;" and on the next page: "Manu Tychonis, sed recentius, scriptum." This volume has often been quoted above in Chapters ii. to v. It is the volume referred to in Connaissance des Temps for 1820, p. 386.
  22. I have not seen this volume myself. Dr. Bruun informs me that it has originally consisted of two bundles, the first begins "Observationes ☉ Die 27 Februarii," and consists of 260 leaves; the second is headed "Astronomicæ Observationes anni 1598," and consists of 218 leaves. It is written in the same hand as No. 1829, 4to. Bugge's No. 6 (p. xvii. last two lines) could not be identified, and the last and third last items on Bartholin's list (Werlauff's Historiske Efterretninger om del store kgl. Bibliothek, 1844, p. 54) are not now at the Royal Library. One of these is an 8vo volume of observations, 1563-74 (originals?), which probably was lost in Paris, or on the way back in 1707.
  23. Bartholin's corrected copy of Barrettus is mentioned above p. 374.