United States Code/Title 5/Part III/Chapter 21

United States Code, Title 5, Part III
the United States Government
Chapter 21. Definitions

§ 2101. Civil service; armed forces; uniformed servicesEdit

For the purpose of this title—

(1) the “civil service” consists of all appointive positions in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the Government of the United States, except positions in the uniformed services;
(2) “armed forces” means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard; and
(3) “uniformed services” means the armed forces, the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service, and the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

§ 2101a. The Senior Executive ServiceEdit

The “Senior Executive Service” consists of Senior Executive Service positions (as defined in section 3132 (a)(2) of this title).

§ 2102. The competitive serviceEdit

(a) The “competitive service” consists of—

(1) all civil service positions in the executive branch, except—
(A) positions which are specifically excepted from the competitive service by or under statute;
(B) positions to which appointments are made by nomination for confirmation by the Senate, unless the Senate otherwise directs; and
(C) positions in the Senior Executive Service;
(2) civil service positions not in the executive branch which are specifically included in the competitive service by statute; and
(3) positions in the government of the District of Columbia which are specifically included in the competitive service by statute.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section, the “competitive service” includes positions to which appointments are made by nomination for confirmation by the Senate when specifically included therein by statute.

(c) As used in other Acts of Congress, “classified civil service” or “classified service” means the “competitive service”.

§ 2103. The excepted serviceEdit

(a) For the purpose of this title, the “excepted service” consists of those civil service positions which are not in the competitive service or the Senior Executive Service.

(b) As used in other Acts of Congress, “unclassified civil service” or “unclassified service” means the “excepted service”.

§ 2104. OfficerEdit

(a) For the purpose of this title, “officer”, except as otherwise provided by this section or when specifically modified, means a justice or judge of the United States and an individual who is—

(1) required by law to be appointed in the civil service by one of the following acting in an official capacity—
(A) the President;
(B) a court of the United States;
(C) the head of an Executive agency; or
(D) the Secretary of a military department;
(2) engaged in the performance of a Federal function under authority of law or an Executive act; and
(3) subject to the supervision of an authority named by paragraph (1) of this section, or the Judicial Conference of the United States, while engaged in the performance of the duties of his office.

(b) Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer of the United States Postal Service or of the Postal Rate Commission is deemed not an officer for purposes of this title.

§ 2105. EmployeeEdit

(a) For the purpose of this title, “employee”, except as otherwise provided by this section or when specifically modified, means an officer and an individual who is—

(1) appointed in the civil service by one of the following acting in an official capacity—
(A) the President;
(B) a Member or Members of Congress, or the Congress;
(C) a member of a uniformed service;
(D) an individual who is an employee under this section;
(E) the head of a Government controlled corporation; or
(F) an adjutant general designated by the Secretary concerned under section 709 (c) of title 32;
(2) engaged in the performance of a Federal function under authority of law or an Executive act; and
(3) subject to the supervision of an individual named by paragraph (1) of this subsection while engaged in the performance of the duties of his position.

(b) An individual who is employed at the United States Naval Academy in the midshipmen’s laundry, the midshipmen’s tailor shop, the midshipmen’s cobbler and barber shops, and the midshipmen’s store, except an individual employed by the Academy dairy (if any), and whose employment in such a position began before October 1, 1996, and has been uninterrupted in such a position since that date is deemed an employee.

(c) An employee paid from nonappropriated funds of the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Army and Air Force Motion Picture Service, Navy Ship’s Stores Ashore, Navy exchanges, Marine Corps exchanges, Coast Guard exchanges, and other instrumentalities of the United States under the jurisdiction of the armed forces conducted for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of the armed forces is deemed not an employee for the purpose of—

(1) laws administered by the Office of Personnel Management, except—
(A) section 7204;
(B) as otherwise specifically provided in this title;
(C) the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938;
(D) for the purpose of entering into an interchange agreement to provide for the noncompetitive movement of employees between such instrumentalities and the competitive service; or
(E) subchapter V of chapter 63, which shall be applied so as to construe references to benefit programs to refer to applicable programs for employees paid from nonappropriated funds; or
(2) subchapter I of chapter 81, chapter 84 (except to the extent specifically provided therein), and section 7902 of this title.

This subsection does not affect the status of these nonappropriated fund activities as Federal instrumentalities.

(d) A Reserve of the armed forces who is not on active duty or who is on active duty for training is deemed not an employee or an individual holding an office of trust or profit or discharging an official function under or in connection with the United States because of his appointment, oath, or status, or any duties or functions performed or pay or allowances received in that capacity.

(e) Except as otherwise provided by law, an employee of the United States Postal Service or of the Postal Rate Commission is deemed not an employee for purposes of this title.

(f) For purposes of sections 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1216, 1221, 1222, 2302, and 7701, employees appointed under chapter 73 or 74 of title 38 shall be employees.

§ 2106. Member of CongressEdit

For the purpose of this title, “Member of Congress” means the Vice President, a member of the Senate or the House of Representatives, a Delegate to the House of Representatives, and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.

§ 2107. Congressional employeeEdit

For the purpose of this title, “Congressional employee” means—

(1) an employee of either House of Congress, of a committee of either House, or of a joint committee of the two Houses;
(2) an elected officer of either House who is not a Member of Congress;
(3) the Legislative Counsel of either House and an employee of his office;
(4) a member of the Capitol Police;
(5) an employee of a Member of Congress if the pay of the employee is paid by the Secretary of the Senate or the Chief Administrative Officer of the House of Representatives;
(7) the Architect of the Capitol and an employee of the Architect of the Capitol;
(8) an employee of the Botanic Garden; and
(9) an employee of the Capitol Guide Service.

§ 2108. Veteran; disabled veteran; preference eligibleEdit

For the purpose of this title–

(1) “veteran” means an individual who–
(A) served on active duty in the armed forces during a war, in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been authorized, or during the period beginning April 28, 1952, and ending July 1, 1955;
(B) served on active duty as defined by section 101 (21) of title 38 at any time in the armed forces for a period of more than 180 consecutive days any part of which occurred after January 31, 1955, and before October 15, 1976, not including service under section 12103 (d) of title 10 pursuant to an enlistment in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard or as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve;
(C) served on active duty as defined by section 101 (21) of title 38 in the armed forces during the period beginning on August 2, 1990, and ending on January 2, 1992; or
(D) served on active duty as defined by section 101 (21) of title 38 at any time in the armed forces for a period of more than 180 consecutive days any part of which occurred during the period beginning on September 11, 2001, and ending on the date prescribed by Presidential proclamation or by law as the last date of Operation Iraqi Freedom;

and who has been discharged or released from active duty in the armed forces under honorable conditions;

(2) “disabled veteran” means an individual who has served on active duty in the armed forces, has been separated therefrom under honorable conditions, and has established the present existence of a service-connected disability or is receiving compensation, disability retirement benefits, or pension because of a public statute administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs or a military department;
(3) “preference eligible” means, except as provided in paragraph (4) of this section—
(A) a veteran as defined by paragraph (1)(A) of this section;
(B) a veteran as defined by paragraph (1)(B), (C), or (D) of this section;
(C) a disabled veteran;
(D) the unmarried widow or widower of a veteran as defined by paragraph (1)(A) of this section;
(E) the wife or husband of a service-connected disabled veteran if the veteran has been unable to qualify for any appointment in the civil service or in the government of the District of Columbia;
(F) the mother of an individual who lost his life under honorable conditions while serving in the armed forces during a period named by paragraph (1)(A) of this section, if—
(i) her husband is totally and permanently disabled;
(ii) she is widowed, divorced, or separated from the father and has not remarried; or
(iii) she has remarried but is widowed, divorced, or legally separated from her husband when preference is claimed; and
(G) the mother of a service-connected permanently and totally disabled veteran, if—
(i) her husband is totally and permanently disabled;
(ii) she is widowed, divorced, or separated from the father and has not remarried; or
(iii) she has remarried but is widowed, divorced, or legally separated from her husband when preference is claimed;
but does not include applicants for, or members of, the Senior Executive Service, the Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service, the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service, or the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Drug Enforcement Administration Senior Executive Service;
(4) except for the purposes of chapters 43 and 75 of this title, “preference eligible” does not include a retired member of the armed forces unless—
(A) the individual is a disabled veteran; or
(B) the individual retired below the rank of major or its equivalent; and
(5) “retired member of the armed forces” means a member or former member of the armed forces who is entitled, under statute, to retired, retirement, or retainer pay on account of service as a member.

§ 2109. Air traffic controller; SecretaryEdit

For the purpose of this title—

(1) “air traffic controller” or “controller” means a civilian employee of the Department of Transportation or the Department of Defense who, in an air traffic control facility or flight service station facility—
(A) is actively engaged—
(i) in the separation and control of air traffic; or
(ii) in providing preflight, inflight, or airport advisory service to aircraft operators; or
(B) is the immediate supervisor of any employee described in subparagraph (A); and
(2) “Secretary”, when used in connection with “air traffic controller” or “controller”, means the Secretary of Transportation with respect to controllers in the Department of Transportation, and the Secretary of Defense with respect to controllers in the Department of Defense.