Wikisource:WikiProject Popular Science Monthly/Proofreading guide

Last update: — Ineuw talk 00:55, 18 May 2015 (UTC)



Background informationEdit

  • This manual is focused on the proofreading formats used in The Popular Science Monthly Project. The information here is specifically lays out the style for this project and information on templates and methods which are not not used, are omitted from this guide. Nevertheless, the information provided here may be of help in other projects.
  • This project began in the autumn of 2009 and at the time of this writing in the autumn of 2014 five years later, we have 28 of 87 volumes proofread. The additional volumes no longer deal with the original premise of the publication, but they are available for proofreading.
  • The elements of the project are standardized and consistency is enforced. This applies to the page layout, font sizes, article headers.

Breakdown of the approach used to proofreadEdit

  • The volumes have no table of contents and this was constructed by paging through and collecting article titles, authors, tagging pages containing images and tables - and proofreading the indexes which are located at the back of each volume.
  • The content of the volume indexes revealed what subject needs to be linked to the index (anchored).
  • The titles and the volume indexes collected are stored in 87 offline MSAccess databases which are linked into a single master database. This database contains the nearly 2,500 author names, identifies the list of monthly recurring article sections, formats the multipart article list, formats the main namespace article headers, generates author page headers and the volume indexes.

What was completed overallEdit

  • Article title pages.
  • Index pages at the end of each volume.
  • Pages with images.
  • Pages with tables.
  • Table of contents.
  • Main namespace article pages.
  • Major categorization of the main namespace articles.

What needs to be doneEdit

  • Proofreading of pages.
  • Inserting overlooked tables.
  • Inserting overlooked images.
  • Replacing font size templates with PSM specific font templates.
  • Linking the volume index entry anchors to the titles.

Relevant namespaces, a short explanationEdit

  • Index namespace - Container storing the individual pages of a book.
  • Page namespace - page by page storage contained by the Index container. It is where most of the work takes place, the proofreading of the pages.
  • Transclusion process - links the proofread pages and the Main namespace.
  • Main namespace - Assembled display of the transcluded pages from the Page namespace.

Typographic formatsEdit


  • Hyphenated words, which by themselves are correct, are left as is, being the typesetting style at the time.
  • A hyphen at the end of line is often used to justify the text. Use your judgement if the words should be hyphenated.
  • If the last word of the page is hyphenated, check following page for the complete word and enclose the first part of the hyphenated word at the bottom of the page {{hyphenated word start|comp|complete}} and enclose the second part of the hyphenated word at the top of the following page {{hyphenated word end|lete|complete}} and this will merge the two parts into the word complete when transcluded in the main namespace.
  • The abbreviated form of the hyphenation templates are {{hws}} and {{hwe}} Click to see this example Pages 16 and 17

Single and double quotesEdit

  • Use standard English typewriter double quotes "...." (ANSI 034) or the curved quotes “....”(ANSI 147 and 148), but not Guillemets «....» (ANSI 171 and 187).
  • Check for matching opening and closing quotes and close up the space between the marks and the enclosed text.
  • There is an occasionally used typographical style applied to a series of paragraphs where the beginning of each paragraph is opened without a closing double quotation mark.
  • For single quotes use the standard English typewrite single quote '....' (ANSI 039) They are used to enclose text, within, or in place of, double quotation marks.

Typographic characters, ligatures, and symbolsEdit

  • In some volumes, symbols and characters are ignored by the OCR. These include the em dash (—), currency symbols ($ and £), the temperature indicator º, and the centered decimal point, etc.
  • Check for italics in the text. Referenced publication names are always italicized.
  • Check for the missing 'em—dash' — (ANSI 0151) character. This is available on the advanced editor toolbar, or, by request can be added to the user's Charinsert preference, or use the {{--}}template.
  • Check for ambiguous text. They may be incorrectly rendered scientific, technical, or currency symbols like, fractions , degrees '°' (ANSI 0176), currency '£' symbols {ANSI 0163} or centered decimal points '·' (ANSI 0183).
  • Check for the characters 'ae', and 'oe', which are most likely to be the ligatures of 'æ', (ANSI 0230) and the 'œ' (ANSI 0156). Assumptions can be made of their existence based on the article's subject matter.
  • Characters, symbols and ligatures can also be inserted by using the HTML equivalents. See References for the HTML ANSI codes.
  • All the above mentioned symbols can be had in the "User" selection of the Charinsert gadget. Just post a request in the Scriptorium/help.

Fonts sizes and font templatesEdit

  • Fonts larger than 100% are of no concern. Use any size deemed to be matching the original.
  • For font sizes that are less than 100%, the following list of templates were designed for the project because they include line heights proportional to the font size.[1]
  • {{fs90}} is used to enclose Author names,
  • {{fs90/s}} {{fs90/e}} used to enclose a bloc of paragraphs and/or span pages. When used to span pages, the {{fs90/e}} is placed in the footer of the first page, to terminates the block and {{fs90/s}} is placed in the header of the following page to begin the new block. This way the transcluded text in the main namespace will be enclosed with a single set of templates because headers and footers are excluded. Click on this link to see an example.
  • {{fs85}} 85% font size and 100% line height. - Used exclusively for image captions and subtitled sections of recurring monthly features.
  • {{fs75}} 75% font size and 95% line height. - Used to enhance the diversity of font sizes of article sub-titles.
  • {{fs70}} 70% font size and 90% line height. - Used inline to match the line height of fraction templates {{fs70|{{over||}}}} and {{fs70|{{frac||}}}}.
  • Named font templates are not used in the PSM project
  • Link to the 100% and smaller font size and style comparisons table.


Author namesEdit

  • The main title is followed by the author's name for which there is no template. The name is enclosed in the {{small caps}} template, then the set to font size is 90% always using the {{fs90}} template and then centered on the page.
{{c|{{fs90|{{sc|By AUTHOR NAME}}}}}}


Secondary title font sizesEdit

  • If there is a subtitle below the author's name, it is centered and wrapped with the is 75% font size, using the {{fs75}} template.
  • If there is a secondary subtitle, center it and wrap it with a font size comparable to the original. This may be 100% or if smaller, use the 85% font size {{fs85}} template.
  • Example:This page has one main and five sub titles. Otherwise, article titles consist of one main and, at most, three sub-titles. Since the styles differ, there is good visual contrast, even when the font-size difference is less than 10%. New articles can start anywhere on a page.


  • Contrary to the original scan, proofread paragraphs are not indented. However, there are exceptions in poems in which alternate lines are indented, and indented lists, where inserting a table is not warranted. In such cases there are two templates available:
    • Use {{gap}} template where there is a wide gap or indent in the text.
    • Use {{spaces}} template where there is a short gap or indent in the text.
  • All Roman numeral numbered titles are 90% font size and enclosed with the {{fs90}} template.
  • Use the {{tl|Dropped initial) or {{Di}} template to format an article's first letter.
  • The double height row template {{Dhr}} is used in places where 2 or more empty lines separate paragraphs. This template also accepts a height specification if the space between two sections {{|Dhr|4em}} indicates a vertical spacing of 4em. Click to see this page by opening it in edit mode.
  • If the end of a paragraph is also the end of the page, terminate a page with the {{nop}} template. This prevents the transclusion process from joining this paragraph to the subsequent paragraph. This template must be placed on it's own line and must not be followed by any character or space.

Paragraph titlesEdit

  • Paragraph titles of the CORRESPONDENCE sections are CAPITALIZED LETTERS, centered, and enclosed with the {{fs85}} template.
  • Paragraph titles of the Editor's Table are also the same font size, but the title is italicized.

Paragraph spacing and separatorsEdit

  • Where a line separates topics in the original, paragraph separators are standardized to be {{rule}} of 4em in length, and padded before and after with {{Dhr}}.
End of topic
Start of topic (Header)


  • Poems, without exception, are wrapped starting innermost with the {{fs90/s}} {{fs90/e}} font template, followed by the <poem></poem> tags, and then enclosed in {{block center/s}} {{block center/e}} templates.
  • An alternate mode of achieving these parameters, is using {{block center/s}}<poem style="line-height:105%; font-size:90%;"> and terminating it with </poem>{{block center/e}}.
  • The template order is necessary because the font template line height is not applied to the contents, unless it is the innermost template.
  • The {{block center/s}} template is the most versatile template for multiple paragraphs and page spanning.
  • The <poem></poem> tags can't span pages. In poems that span pages the tag must be terminated at the last line of the poem and inserted anew in the following page.
  • Most poems begin with a double quote which requires the use of the {{Floating quotation mark}} or {{fqm}} template, to retain the proper centering of the poem.
{{block center/s}}<poem style="line-height:105%; font-size:90%;">
{{fqm}}Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipisicing elit,
sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt
ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
Ut enim ad minim veniam,
quis nostrud exercitation ullamco
laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea
commodo consequat."
</poem>{{block center/e}}

"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipisicing elit,
sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt
ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.
Ut enim ad minim veniam,
quis nostrud exercitation ullamco
laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea
commodo consequat."

References, footnotes and endnotesEdit

  • Use the {{smallrefs}} template in the page footer to render footnotes in small font. Footnote references are automatically numbered.
  • Footnotes which span over pages requires a named reference tag on the the page where it begins <ref name=D723>reference text</ref> and a "follow" reference tag on the subsequest page(s) as <ref follow=D723>reference text</ref>. Click to see an example of a footnote spanning two pages.
  • In the main namespace footnotes are converted into numbered endnotes.

OCR shortcomingsEdit

  • The OCR process has difficulty in distinguishing certain characters and commonly misreads the following:
  • Words beginning especially beginning with "W are preceded by a double quotation mark. Compare to the original.
  • Short words beginning with 'w' are occasionally garbled as in 'w T here', which is supposed to be 'where'. Correct these by searching for ' w ' surrounded by spaces.
  • Occasionally, the lowercase 'h' is rendered as 'b'.
  • Words containing 'g' is problematic.
  • Words containing 'p' are often rendered as 'jj'.
  • Uppercase 'N' is often rendered incorrectly.
  • The uppercase "R" is often rendered as 'K' 'E', or 'B'. Spell check finds the error, unless the change is a meaningful word.
  • Ligatures.


  • When a page specific code is required, the .djvu number of the page is used because it guarantees uniqueness. Printed page numbers are not unique or accurate. If the code contains no spaces, then enclosing the code with quotes can be omitted.

Section tagsEdit

  • The codes are made up of the following segments:
  • End of article begin and end section code segments:
 E = End of article
27 = .djvu page number
<section begin=E27 /><section end=E27 />
  • The article following on the same page uses the code segments, except prefixed by 'B' to indicate the beginning section of the article.
 B = Beginning of article
27 = .djvu page number
<section begin=B27 /><section end=B27 />

anchoring section removedEdit

Single image {{FIS}} template layout for center, or offset imagesEdit

  • With the implementation of George Orwell III’s {{FreedImg/span}} {{FIS}}, the abbreviated form) makes Image display and the accompanying caption much simpler. The caption is part of the template.
  • In the offset floating mode the text flows unbroken around the template.
  • PSM only uses the following parameters and unused parameters are to be removed from the template.
  • The required parameters are the File name, image width and the float position.
 | file         = 
 | width        = 500px|250px <!-- 500px is page width -->
 | float        = center|left|right <!-- One of the three -->
 | caption      = 
 | talign       = center|justify <!-- One of the two -->
 | tstyle       = font-variant:small-caps
 | margin-right = 8px <!-- if floating to the left -->
 | margin-left  = 8px <!-- if floating to the right -->
 | tmleft       = 11px <!-- For Caption Indent when justified -->
 | indent       = -11px <!-- For Caption outdent when justified -->
 | cstyle       = margin-top:8px; margin-bottom:8px <!-- no dhr needed -->

Centered image examplesEdit

Offset image examplesEdit

  • Note how the text abuts to the open and close brackets of the template to provide seamless flow without a paragraph break.

Multiple image templatesEdit

One image with two captionsEdit

  • Note: The image and the combined caption width must equal to the overall table width.
Fig. 11.—This represents an ordinary table-glass, the bottom of the glass and the entire rear side, except the upper portion, being seen through the transparent nearer side, and the rear apparently projecting above the front. But it fluctuates in appearance between this and a view of the glass in which the bottom is seen directly, partly from underneath, the whole of the rear side is seen through the transparent front, and the front projects above the back. Fig. 12.—In this scroll the left half may at first seem concave and the right convex, it then seems to roll or advance like a wave, and the left seems convex and the right concave, as though the trough of the wave had become the crest, and vice versa.

Fig. 8.—This drawing may be viewed as the representation of a book standing on its half-opened covers as seen from the back of the book; or as the inside view of an open book showing the pages.
Fig. 10.—The smaller square may be regarded as either the nearer face of a projecting figure or as the more distant face of a hollow figure. Fig. 9.—When this figure is viewed as an arrow, the upper or feathered end seems flat; when the rest of the arrow is covered, the feathered end may be made to project or recede like the book cover in Fig. 8.

Fig. 2.—Flakes of Volcanic Ash. Magnified about 100 diameters. A, flake with a branching rib; B, fragment of a broken hollow sphere of glass; C, fragment with drawn out tubular vesicles; D and E, plain fragments of broken pumice bubbles. (From American Geologist, April, 1893.)
Fig. 3.—A Particle of Volcanic Ash swelled up by Fusion. Magnified 100 diameters.
{|align=center width=500 {{ts|sm85|bc|lh95}} border=1
|[[File:PSM V54 D238 Flakes of volcanic ash.png|frameless|center|240px|]]
|rowspan=2 |[[File:PSM V54 D238 Swelled fused volcanic ash particles.png|frameless|center|240px|]]
|rowspan=2 width=240px {{ts|aj|it|vtb}}|{{sc|Fig. 2.—Flakes of Volcanic Ash.}} Magnified about 100 diameters. A, flake with a branching rib; B, fragment of a broken hollow sphere of glass; C, fragment with drawn out tubular vesicles; D and E, plain fragments of broken pumice bubbles. (From American Geologist, April, 1893.)
|width=240px {{ts|aj|it|vtb}}|{{sc|Fig. 3.—A Particle of Volcanic Ash swelled up by Fusion.}} Magnified 100 diameters.
{|align=center width=500 {{ts|sm85|bc|lh1}}
|colspan=3 |[[File:|frameless|center|500px|]]

Centered captionsEdit

|width=210px {{ts|ac|pt1|vtt|sc}}|
|width=210px {{ts|ac|pt1|vtt|sc}}|

Hanging indent justified text captionsEdit

|width=210px {{ts|aj|it|pt1|vtt}}|
|width=210px {{ts|aj|it|pt1|vtt}}|

Click to see an example of a single image with two short captions.

Two separate images with two captionsEdit

{|align=center width=500 {{ts|sm85|bc|lh1}}
|width=210px |[[File:|frameless|center|240px|]]
|width=210px |[[File:|frameless|center|240px|]]
Centered captionsEdit
Hanging indent justified text captionsEdit

Click to see an example of three images side by side.


Layout templates of tables styles with borders used in The Popular Science Monthly Project.Edit

Formatting codes declared in the table header (which affects the whole table)Edit

  • mc = centers the table on page the order of values are clockwise Top, Right, Bottom and Left. (margin:0 auto 0 auto;)
  • ar|al|ac|aj = aligns the contents of all cells. Base this universal alignment by the content alignment of the majority of columns.
  • bc = border collapse. If omitted, cell borders are double .
  • border/border=1 = single line border of every cell.
  • bt|br|bb|bl = single line border around the table. where
  • |-ac|bb = when declared on a table row indicator, aligns content with a single line bottom border of a row of cells.
  • sm90|lh12 = font size of 90% and the matching line height of 120%.
  • sm85|lh11 = font size of 85% and the matching line height of 110%.
  • pt.5|pb.5 = cell padding of .5em top OR bottom.
  • ptb.5 = cell padding of .5em top AND bottom.
  • pr1|pl1 TO pr5|pl5 = cell padded 1em to 5em (increments of 1em) on the right OR left of the cell.
  • The template top row is the header for centered column titles with padding top and bottom of the cells.
  • The template second row is the first row padded on the top.
  • The template third row is no padding.
  • The template fourth row is the last table row, padded on the bottom.

Table layout for tables with single line borders for various font sizes, and matching line height.Edit

{|{{ts|mc|ar|bc|bt|br|bb|bl}} <!-- border = 1 --> (standard 100% font size and matching standard line height of 140%)

{|{{ts|sm90|lh12|mc|ar|bc|bt|br|bb|bl}} <!-- border = 1 --> (90% font size and matching line height)

{|{{ts|sm85|lh1|mc|ar|bc|bt|br|bb|bl}} <!-- border = 1 --> (85% font size and matching line height)

Sample layout of 90% font size and 120% line height single border tableEdit

center table column title center table column title center table column title
left right right
left right right
left right right

Sample layout of 90% font size and 120% line height double border table common in the PSM projectEdit

center table column title center table column title center table column title
left right right
left right right
left right right

An analysis of table designEdit

Click this link to see this page.

Dictionary and spell checkEdit

  • Using the spell check of the browser is sufficient.
  • Bad spelling in the original is indicated by . The {{sic}} template is invisible in read mode, but in edit mode indicates that a previous editor was aware of the error.
  • Outdated, but correct spelling, is left as is.
  • Spelling variations of English words are to be accepted as it is.
  • An alphabetic list of archaically spelled words and proper names collected from the Volumes can be found on this page.
  • An alphabetic list of archaic spellings and proper names collected from Volume 1, can be found on this page., although the list need to be cleaned up.
  • Recommended word reference Wiktionary.

Managing the Contributors' listEdit

Comments on the contentsEdit

For students of science, technology and social history, the publication provides a fascinating view through the window of the printed word, and what a view it is. To read the articles promulgated by the great minds of 19th century, the depth and diverse range of subjects covered is a mine, of pure gold. The language, the terminology, and the spelling of the day, coupled with an occasional tone of condescension employed in addressing the reading audience, enhances the experience.

The publication aimed to reach a wide audience by disseminating information, and publicizing issues of wide ranging interest for the emerging 19th century middle class thirsty for knowledge. The novel approach of fusing the perceived desire of the public, and serving as a platform for the dissemination of academic thought, was well received.

Of great interest is the level of scientific knowledge and the social issues of the day. It's somewhat eerie to read that the then prevailing views expressed on matters of public health, education, nutrition, employment, natural resources and pollution are still familiar in our time. The knowledge espoused range from the quaint to the surprisingly advanced, with many theories still in the process of being debated and formulated when this is written.

The typesettingEdit

The display of increased confidence in the viability of the enterprise is palpable as indicated by proudly published reviews on on this page of the June 1872 issue. There was a positive reception by the press, the academic community, and the interested public. Subtle changes appear progressively after this issue. The typesetting style is progressively streamlined and displays increased professionalism.

The composition is progressively improved and the payoff for the Wikisource proofreader is the reduced frequency of typographical embellishments. The number of quotes, italics and em dashes used on the pages are no more than a couple per page, and that's good news. Of course there are some extreme exceptions, like idiosyncratic writing where the word "practical", enclosed in quotes, appears nine times on a single page.

After spending time at a daily paper, observing Linotype machines in operation, surrounded by typesetters and proofreaders at work, a sense of amazement is felt when one considers that these pages were manually set character by character, space by space, block by block, to a justified paragraph format, laid inversely and with very few errors.

Subject and styleEdit

While random sampling of articles by topic, an interesting relationship can be discerned between the article's subject, the typographical style, and even the word count per page. Articles on morality, religion, and religious thought, contain an increased number of typographical embellishments to emphasize their absolute, exhorting, admonishing and cautionary messages. This is indicated by an increased number of em—dashes, double quotes, single quotes, italics, and capitalized text. There is a lot of rolling of the holy.


PSM article title templatesEdit

  • This is the list of title templates designed specifically for the project. All template names begin with the letter "P". The multiple templates of similar names reflect changes in the original style. Many changes are minor, but separate templates also allow the use of different font styles and sizes when a greater range of web fonts is available, to match the original as closely as possible.
Description Recurring
Note Template Shortcut Name
Article title No Article titles of all Volumes PSMTitle Pt Page
Correspondence section title 1 Yes From Volume 3 to Volume 47 PSMCorrespondence Pcor Page
Correspondence section title 2 Yes From Volume 48 to Volume 56 PSMCorrespondence2 PCor2 Page
Correspondence section title 3 Yes Volume 57 only PSMCorrespondence3 PCor3 Page
Discussion and Correspondence Yes From Volume 57 to Volume 69 PSMDiscuss&Correspond PD&C Page
Editor's Table 1 Yes From Volume 1 to Volume 47 no dot PSMEditorsTable Pedit Page
Editor's Table 2 Yes From Volume 48 to Volume 57 with dot PSMEditorsTable2 Pedit2 Page
End of article graphic rule No Terminates articles when ending in mid page PSM rule Page
Entertaining Varieties Yes From Volume 20 to Volume 22 PSMEntVar Page
Monthly first article title 1 No From Volume 1 to Volume 48 December PSMPage1Title Page
Monthly first article title 2 No From Volume 48 January to Volume 57 June PSMPage1Title2 Page
Monthly first article title 3 No From Volume 57 July to the end of Volume 87 PSMPage1Title3 Page
Monthly first article title 4 No Begins from Volume 88 PSMPage1Title4 Page
Fragments of Science Yes From Volume 48 November to Volume 57 May PSMFragmentsOfScience Pfos Page
General Notices Yes From Volume 48 November to Volume 56 December PSMGeneralNotices Pgn Page
Index header with underline Yes From Volume 1 to Volume 56 PSMIndex Page
Index header without underline Yes From Volume 57 to Volume 87 PSMIndex2 Page
Link to PSM article No Link to a main namespace article PSM link Main
Literary Notes Yes From Volume 1 to Volume 47 October PSMLitNotes Plit Page
Literary review paragraph template No Incorporates Hanging indent and pagraph padding PSMLitReview Plr Page
Minor Paragraphs Yes From Volume 48 November to Volume 57 May PSMMinorParagraphs Pmp Page
Miscellany Yes From Volume 1 to Volume 10 December PSMMisc Pmm Page
Navigator to index scans and images No Links to project Index scans and commons images Psm Wikiproject
Notes title 1 Yes From Volume 1 to Volume 47 October PSMNotes Pn Page
Notes title 2 Yes From Volume 48 November to Volume 57 May PSMNotes2 Pn2 Page
Obituary Note (single) Yes Volume 2 April PSMObitNote POn2 Page
Obituary Notes (plural) Yes From Volume 35 May to Volume 47 October PSMObitNotes POn Page
Obituary Yes From Volume 35 May to Volume 47 October PSMObitTitle POb Page
Page display frame bottom No Main namespace article frame bottom PSMLayoutBottom Main
Page display frame top No Main namespace article frame top PSMLayoutTop Main
Popular Miscellany Yes From Volume 10 January to Volume 47 October PSMPopMisc Pm Page
Project home page link No Project link of convenience PSMProjectHome Wikiproject
Project pages title No Template of convenience TPSMProject Wikiproject
Publications received 1 Yes From Volume 2 May to Volume 57 May PSMPubRec Ppr Page
Publications received 2 Yes From Volume 48 to Volume 50 PSMPubRec2 Ppr2 Page
Scientific Literature 1 Yes From Volume 48 November to Volume 57 May PSMScientificLiterature Psl Page
Scientific Literature 2 Yes From Volume 57 June to Volume 63 September PSMScientificLiterature2 Psl2 Page
Shorter Articles Yes From Volume 63 September to Volume 68 PSMShorterArticles Psa Page
Shorter Articles2 Yes From Volume 69 to Volume 70 No dot PSMShorterArticles2 Psa2 Page
Shorter Articles And Correspondence Yes Used when both articles are on the same page PSMShorterArticlesAndCorrespondence Psac Page
Shorter Articles And Discussion Yes Used when both articles are on the same page PSMShorterArticlesAndDiscussion Psad Page
Table of Contents No Table of contents title PSMToC Main
Table required template No Maintenance template PSMTable Page
The Progress of Science Yes From Volume 57 to Volume 68 with dot PSMProgressOfScience Pps Page
The Progress of Science Yes From Volume 68 to Volume 87 no doth PSMProgressOfScience2 Pps2 Page
Volume title page 1 No From Volume 1 to Volume 47 TPSM Page
Volume title page 2 No From Volume 48 to Volume 56 TPSM2 Page
Volume title page 3 No From Volume 57 to Volume 87 TPSM3 Page

Monthly recurring section title listEdit

Monthly recurring section titles
Discussion and Correspondence
Editor's Table
Entertaining Varieties
Fragments of Science
General Notices
Literary Notices
Minor Paragraphs
Miscellany and Popular Miscellany
Publications Received
Scientific Literature
Shorter Articles
The Progress of Science

ANSI HEX UNICODE and HTML characters and symbolsEdit

Character ANSI-No Unicode-No ANSI-Hex Unicode-Hex HTML4-Entity
' ' 32 32 0x20 U+0020
! 33 33 0x21 U+0021
" 34 34 0x22 U+0022 &quot ;
# 35 35 0x23 U+0023
$ 36 36 0x24 U+0024
% 37 37 0x25 U+0025
& 38 38 0x26 U+0026 &amp ;
' 39 39 0x27 U+0027
( 40 40 0x28 U+0028
) 41 41 0x29 U+0029
* 42 42 0x2A U+002A
+ 43 43 0x2B U+002B
, 44 44 0x2C U+002C
- 45 45 0x2D U+002D
. 46 46 0x2E U+002E
/ 47 47 0x2F U+002F
0 48 48 0x30 U+0030
1 49 49 0x31 U+0031
2 50 50 0x32 U+0032
3 51 51 0x33 U+0033
4 52 52 0x34 U+0034
5 53 53 0x35 U+0035
6 54 54 0x36 U+0036
7 55 55 0x37 U+0037
8 56 56 0x38 U+0038
9 57 57 0x39 U+0039
: 58 58 0x3A U+003A
; 59 59 0x3B U+003B
< 60 60 0x3C U+003C &lt ;
= 61 61 0x3D U+003D
> 62 62 0x3E U+003E &gt ;
? 63 63 0x3F U+003F
@ 64 64 0x40 U+0040
A 65 65 0x41 U+0041
B 66 66 0x42 U+0042
C 67 67 0x43 U+0043
D 68 68 0x44 U+0044
E 69 69 0x45 U+0045
F 70 70 0x46 U+0046
G 71 71 0x47 U+0047
H 72 72 0x48 U+0048
I 73 73 0x49 U+0049
J 74 74 0x4A U+004A
K 75 75 0x4B U+004B
L 76 76 0x4C U+004C
M 77 77 0x4D U+004D
N 78 78 0x4E U+004E
O 79 79 0x4F U+004F
P 80 80 0x50 U+0050
Q 81 81 0x51 U+0051
R 82 82 0x52 U+0052
S 83 83 0x53 U+0053
T 84 84 0x54 U+0054
U 85 85 0x55 U+0055
V 86 86 0x56 U+0056
W 87 87 0x57 U+0057
X 88 88 0x58 U+0058
Y 89 89 0x59 U+0059
Z 90 90 0x5A U+005A
[ 91 91 0x5B U+005B
\ 92 92 0x5C U+005C
] 93 93 0x5D U+005D
^ 94 94 0x5E U+005E
_ 95 95 0x5F U+005F
` 96 96 0x60 U+0060
a 97 97 0x61 U+0061
b 98 98 0x62 U+0062
c 99 99 0x63 U+0063
d 100 100 0x64 U+0064
e 101 101 0x65 U+0065
f 102 102 0x66 U+0066
g 103 103 0x67 U+0067
h 104 104 0x68 U+0068
i 105 105 0x69 U+0069
j 106 106 0x6A U+006A
k 107 107 0x6B U+006B
l 108 108 0x6C U+006C
m 109 109 0x6D U+006D
n 110 110 0x6E U+006E
o 111 111 0x6F U+006F
p 112 112 0x70 U+0070
q 113 113 0x71 U+0071
r 114 114 0x72 U+0072
s 115 115 0x73 U+0073
t 116 116 0x74 U+0074
u 117 117 0x75 U+0075
v 118 118 0x76 U+0076
w 119 119 0x77 U+0077
x 120 120 0x78 U+0078
y 121 121 0x79 U+0079
z 122 122 0x7A U+007A
{ 123 123 0x7B U+007B
124 124 0x7C U+007C
} 125 125 0x7D U+007D
~ 126 126 0x7E U+007E
127 127 0x7F U+007F
128 8364 0x80 U+20AC &euro ;
129 129 0x81 U+0081
130 8218 0x82 U+201A &sbquo ;
ƒ 131 402 0x83 U+0192 &fnof ;
132 8222 0x84 U+201E &bdquo ;
133 8230 0x85 U+2026 &hellip ;
134 8224 0x86 U+2020 &dagger ;
135 8225 0x87 U+2021 &Dagger ;
ˆ 136 710 0x88 U+02C6 &circ ;
137 8240 0x89 U+2030 &permil ;
Š 138 352 0x8A U+0160 &Scaron ;
139 8249 0x8B U+2039 &lsaquo ;
Œ 140 338 0x8C U+0152 &OElig ;
141 141 0x8D U+008D
Ž 142 381 0x8E U+017D
143 143 0x8F U+008F
144 144 0x90 U+0090
145 8216 0x91 U+2018 &lsquo ;
146 8217 0x92 U+2019 &rsquo ;
147 8220 0x93 U+201C &ldquo ;
148 8221 0x94 U+201D &rdquo ;
149 8226 0x95 U+2022 &bull ;
150 8211 0x96 U+2013 &ndash ;
151 8212 0x97 U+2014 &mdash ;
˜ 152 732 0x98 U+02DC &tilde ;
153 8482 0x99 U+2122 &trade ;
š 154 353 0x9A U+0161 &scaron ;
155 8250 0x9B U+203A &rsaquo ;
œ 156 339 0x9C U+0153 &oelig ;
157 157 0x9D U+009D
ž 158 382 0x9E U+017E
Ÿ 159 376 0x9F U+0178 &Yuml ;
160 160 0xA0 U+00A0 &nbsp ;
¡ 161 161 0xA1 U+00A1 &iexcl ;
¢ 162 162 0xA2 U+00A2 &cent ;
£ 163 163 0xA3 U+00A3 &pound ;
¤ 164 164 0xA4 U+00A4 &curren ;
¥ 165 165 0xA5 U+00A5 &yen ;
¦ 166 166 0xA6 U+00A6 &brvbar ;
§ 167 167 0xA7 U+00A7 &sect ;
¨ 168 168 0xA8 U+00A8 &uml ;
© 169 169 0xA9 U+00A9 &copy ;
ª 170 170 0xAA U+00AA &ordf ;
« 171 171 0xAB U+00AB &laquo ;
¬ 172 172 0xAC U+00AC &not ;
173 173 0xAD U+00AD &shy ;
® 174 174 0xAE U+00AE &reg ;
¯ 175 175 0xAF U+00AF &macr ;
° 176 176 0xB0 U+00B0 &deg ;
± 177 177 0xB1 U+00B1 &plusmn ;
² 178 178 0xB2 U+00B2 &sup2 ;
³ 179 179 0xB3 U+00B3 &sup3 ;
´ 180 180 0xB4 U+00B4 &acute ;
µ 181 181 0xB5 U+00B5 &micro ;
182 182 0xB6 U+00B6 &para ;
· 183 183 0xB7 U+00B7 &middot ;
¸ 184 184 0xB8 U+00B8 &cedil ;
¹ 185 185 0xB9 U+00B9 &sup1 ;
º 186 186 0xBA U+00BA &ordm ;
» 187 187 0xBB U+00BB &raquo ;
¼ 188 188 0xBC U+00BC &frac14 ;
½ 189 189 0xBD U+00BD &frac12 ;
¾ 190 190 0xBE U+00BE &frac34 ;
¿ 191 191 0xBF U+00BF &iquest ;
À 192 192 0xC0 U+00C0 &Agrave ;
Á 193 193 0xC1 U+00C1 &Aacute ;
 194 194 0xC2 U+00C2 &Acirc ;
à 195 195 0xC3 U+00C3 &Atilde ;
Ä 196 196 0xC4 U+00C4 &Auml ;
Å 197 197 0xC5 U+00C5 &Aring ;
Æ 198 198 0xC6 U+00C6 &AElig ;
Ç 199 199 0xC7 U+00C7 &Ccedil ;
È 200 200 0xC8 U+00C8 &Egrave ;
É 201 201 0xC9 U+00C9 &Eacute ;
Ê 202 202 0xCA U+00CA &Ecirc ;
Ë 203 203 0xCB U+00CB &Euml ;
Ì 204 204 0xCC U+00CC &Igrave ;
Í 205 205 0xCD U+00CD &Iacute ;
Î 206 206 0xCE U+00CE &Icirc ;
Ï 207 207 0xCF U+00CF &Iuml ;
Ð 208 208 0xD0 U+00D0 &ETH ;
Ñ 209 209 0xD1 U+00D1 &Ntilde ;
Ò 210 210 0xD2 U+00D2 &Ograve ;
Ó 211 211 0xD3 U+00D3 &Oacute ;
Ô 212 212 0xD4 U+00D4 &Ocirc ;
Õ 213 213 0xD5 U+00D5 &Otilde ;
Ö 214 214 0xD6 U+00D6 &Ouml ;
× 215 215 0xD7 U+00D7 &times ;
Ø 216 216 0xD8 U+00D8 &Oslash ;
Ù 217 217 0xD9 U+00D9 &Ugrave ;
Ú 218 218 0xDA U+00DA &Uacute ;
Û 219 219 0xDB U+00DB &Ucirc ;
Ü 220 220 0xDC U+00DC &Uuml ;
Ý 221 221 0xDD U+00DD &Yacute ;
Þ 222 222 0xDE U+00DE &THORN ;
ß 223 223 0xDF U+00DF &szlig ;
à 224 224 0xE0 U+00E0 &agrave ;
á 225 225 0xE1 U+00E1 &aacute ;
â 226 226 0xE2 U+00E2 &acirc ;
ã 227 227 0xE3 U+00E3 &atilde ;
ä 228 228 0xE4 U+00E4 &auml ;
å 229 229 0xE5 U+00E5 &aring ;
æ 230 230 0xE6 U+00E6 &aelig ;
ç 231 231 0xE7 U+00E7 &ccedil ;
è 232 232 0xE8 U+00E8 &egrave ;
é 233 233 0xE9 U+00E9 &eacute ;
ê 234 234 0xEA U+00EA &ecirc ;
ë 235 235 0xEB U+00EB &euml ;
ì 236 236 0xEC U+00EC &igrave ;
í 237 237 0xED U+00ED &iacute ;
î 238 238 0xEE U+00EE &icirc ;
ï 239 239 0xEF U+00EF &iuml ;
ð 240 240 0xF0 U+00F0 &eth ;
ñ 241 241 0xF1 U+00F1 &ntilde ;
ò 242 242 0xF2 U+00F2 &ograve ;
ó 243 243 0xF3 U+00F3 &oacute ;
ô 244 244 0xF4 U+00F4 &ocirc ;
õ 245 245 0xF5 U+00F5 &otilde ;
ö 246 246 0xF6 U+00F6 &ouml ;
÷ 247 247 0xF7 U+00F7 &divide ;
ø 248 248 0xF8 U+00F8 &oslash ;
ù 249 249 0xF9 U+00F9 &ugrave ;
ú 250 250 0xFA U+00FA &uacute ;
û 251 251 0xFB U+00FB &ucirc ;
ü 252 252 0xFC U+00FC &uuml ;
ý 253 253 0xFD U+00FD &yacute ;
þ 254 254 0xFE U+00FE &thorn ;
ÿ 255 255 0xFF U+00FF &yuml ;

General templatesEdit

  • Attempt was made to use Templates almost exclusively. HTML tags are limited to the minimum, where a template wasn't available or possible.

Changes in WikisourceEdit

  • Recent changes implemented in the Wikisource Proofreading extension, (between the fall of 2014 and spring of 2015), relating to font style and size, as well as the line height), had some minor effect on the templates referred to above.

  1. The {{fsx}} template doesn't apply the line height proportionately.