REHOBOAM (Heb. rehab'ām, probably “the clan is enarged,” see Ecclus. xlvii. 23, although on the analogy of Rehabiah and Bab. ra'bi-ilu, 'Am may represent some god; Septuagint reads ροβοαμ), son of Solomon and first king of Judah. On the events which led to his accession and the partition of the Hebrew monarchy, see Jeroboam, Solomon. Although his age is given as forty-one (1 Kings xiv. 21), the account of his treatment of the Israelite deputation (1 Kings xii.), as also 2 Chron. xiii. 7, give an impression of youth. He was partly of Ammonite origin (1 Kings xiv. 21), and, like his father, continued the foreign worship which his connexions involved. The chief event of his reign was the incursion of Egypt under Sheshonk (Shishak) I., who came up against Judah and despoiled the temple about 930 B.C. (see Egypt, History, § “Deltaic Dynasties”). That this invasion is to be connected with the friendly relations which are said to have subsisted between the first of the Libyan dynasty and Rehoboam's rival is unlikely. Sheshonk has figured his campaign outside the great temple of Karnak with a list of some 150 places which he claims to have conquered, but it is possible that these were only tributary, and the names may be largely based upon older lists. Towns of both Judah and Israel are incorporated, and it is possible that Jerusalem once stood where now the stone is mutilated. The book of Chronicles enumerates several Judaean cities fortified by Rehoboam (not necessarily connected with Sheshonk's campaign), and characteristically regards the invasion as a punishment (2 Chron. xi. 5 sqq., xii. 1–15; for the prophet Shemaiah see 1 Kings xii. 21–24). Of Rehoboam's successor Abijah (or Abijam) little is known except a victory over jeroboam recorded in 2 Chron. xiii. See further Asa, Omri, and Jews (History), §§ 7,9.
- The once popular view that “king of Judah” stands in no. 29 is untenable. See Petrie, Hist. of Egypt, ii. p. 235; L. B. Paton, Syria and Pal. p. 193 sq.; W. M. Müller, Mitteil. Vorderasiat. Gesell., 1900, p. 19 sq., and Ency. Bib. col. 4486. Breasted (Amer. Journ. of Sem. Lang., 1904, p. 36) has made the interesting observation that the list mentions “the field of Abram” (nos. 71 and 72): see further. id., Egypt Hist. Records, iv. pp. 348–357.