UTAH, one of the Central Western states of the United States of America. It lies between latitudes 37° and 42° N. and between longitudes 32° and 37° W. from Washington (i.e. about 109° 1' 34" and 114° 1' 34" respectively W. of Greenwich). The state is bounded wholly by meridians and parallels, and is bordered on the N. by Idaho and Wyoming, on the E. by Wyoming and Colorado, on the S. by Arizona, and on the W. by Nevada. Utah has an area of 84,990 sq. m., of which 2806 sq. m. are water surface, including Great Salt, Utah and other lakes. The state has a maximum length of 345 m. N. and S., and a maximum width of about 280 m. E. and W.
Physical Features.—The eastern portion of Utah consists of high plateaus, and constitutes a part of the Colorado Plateau province. The remaining western portion of the state is lower, belongs in the Great Basin province, and is characterized by north-south mountain ranges separated by desert basins. The high plateaus consist of great blocks of the earth's crust which are separated from each other by fault-lines, and which have been uplifted to different heights. Erosion has developed deep and sometimes broad valleys along the fault-lines and elsewhere, so that many of the blocks and portions of blocks are isolated from their neighbours. As a rule the blocks have not been greatly tilted or deformed, but consist of nearly horizontal layers of sandstone, shales and limestone. In some cases these sedimentary rocks lie deeply buried under lavas poured out by volcanoes long extinct. The plateau summits rise to elevations of 9000, 10,000 and 11,000 ft., are generally forested, but are too difficult of access to be much inhabited. The people live along the streams in the valleys between the plateaus. In the southern part of the state the high plateaus are terminated by a series of giant terraces which descend to the general level of the Grand Canyon Platform in northern Arizona. The terraces represent the out-cropping edges of hard sandstone layers included in the series of plateau sediments, and are named according to the colour of the rock exposed in the south-facing escarpments, the Pink Cliffs (highest), White Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs. A still lower terrace, terminating in the Shinarump Cliffs, is less conspicuous; but the higher ones afford magnificent scenery. The northernmost member of the high plateaus is a broad east-west trending arch known as the Uinta Mountains. Local glaciation has carved the higher levels of this range into a maze of amphitheatres containing lakes, separated from each other by arêtes and alpine peaks. Among the peaks are King's Peaks (13,498 ft. and 13,496 ft.), the highest points in the state; Mt. Emmons (13,428 ft.); Gilbert Peak (13,422 ft.); Mt. Lovenia (13,250 ft.); and Tokewanna Peak (13,200 ft.). In the south-eastern part of the state are lower desert plateaus, and several mountain groups which do not properly belong to the plateau system. Most interesting among these are the Henry Mountains, formed by the intrusion of molten igneous rock between the layers of sediments, causing the overlying layers to arch up into dome mountains. Stream erosion has dissected these domes far enough to reveal the core of the igneous rock and to give a rugged topography. The highest peaks exceed 11,000 ft. By far the greater part of the high plateau district is drained by the Colorado river and its branches, the most important of which are the Green, Grand and San Juan, portions of whose courses lie in canyons of remarkable grandeur. The western members of the high plateaus drain into the Great Basin for the most part, and in this drainage system the Sevier river is perhaps most prominent. Inasmuch as the streams entering the basin have no outlet to the ocean, their waters disappear by evaporation, either directly from alluvial slopes over which they pass, or from saline lakes occupying depressions between the mountain ranges.
The lower basin portion of Utah is separated from the high plateaus by a series of great fault scarps, by which one descends abruptly to a level of but 5000 or 6000 ft. One of the fault scarps is known as the Hurricane Ledge, and continues as a prominent landmark from a point south of the Grand Canyon in Arizona to the central part of Utah, where it is replaced by other scarps farther east. The floor of the Basin Region is formed of alluvium washed from the high plateaus and mountain ranges, a part of which has accumulated in alluvial fans, and part in the greatly expanded lakes which existed here in the glacial period. This alluvium gives gently sloping or level desert plains, from which isolated mountain ranges rise like islands from the sea. The barren “mud flats,” frequently found on the desert floor, result from the drying up of temporary shallow lakes, or playas. Lake Bonneville is the name given to the most important of the much greater lakes of the glacial period, whose old shore-lines are plainly visible on many mountain slopes. Great Salt Lake (q.v.) is a shrunken remnant of Lake Bonneville. The mountain ranges of the Basin Region are most frequently formed by faulted and tilted blocks of the earth's crust, which have been carved by stream erosion into rugged shapes. Oquirrh, Tintic, Beaver, House and Mineral Mountains are typical examples of these north-south “basin ranges,” which rise abruptly from the desert plains and are themselves partial deserts. The Wasatch Mountain range constitutes the eastern margin of the Great Basin in central and northern Utah, and resembles the true basin ranges in that it is formed by a great block of the earth's crust uptilted along a north-south fault-line. Its steep fault scarp faces west, and rises from 4000 to 6000 ft. above the basin floor; the eastern slope is more gentle, but both slopes are much scored by deep canyons, some of which have been modified in form by ancient glaciers. Among the highest summits are Timpanogos Peak (11,957 ft.), Mt. Nebo (11,887 ft.), Twin Peak (11,563 ft.), and Lone Peak (11,295 ft.). At the western base of the Wasatch are Salt Lake City, Ogden, Provo and other smaller towns, situated where streams issue from the mountains, soon to disappear on the desert plains. In such places agriculture is made possible by irrigation, and the Mormon villages, both here and farther south along the base of the Hurricane Ledge, depend largely on this industry. Important mining operations are carried on in the Wasatch Mountains and in a number of the basin ranges. Mercur, Tintic, Bingham and Park City are well-known mining centres.
Fauna.—In the open country the mule deer, the pronghorn antelope and the coyote are found, and the bison formerly ranged over the north-eastern part of the state; the side-striped ground squirrel, Townsend's spermophile, the desert pack-rat and the desert pack-rabbit inhabit the flat country. In the mountainous districts and high plateaus are the grizzly, formerly more common, the black bear, the four-striped chipmunk and the yellow-haired
porcupine. Various species of small native mice and voles are abundant.
In the marshes of the Salt Lake breed grebes, gulls and terns, and formerly the white pelican. Many ducks breed here, and many others pass through in migration: of the former, the most numerous are mallard and teal; of the latter, pintail, shoveler, scaup, ring-neck ducks, and mergansers. Wood and glossy ibises are commonly seen, and the white ibis breeds in numbers; the sand-hill crane is less common than formerly. A few varieties of shore birds breed here, as the Western Willet, the Bartramian sandpiper, and the long billed curlew. Gambel's partridge is resident in the southern part of the state, and the sage-hen and sharp-tail grouse on the plains. The dusky grouse and grey ruffed grouse are confined to the mountains and plateaus. The California vulture is very rare; various species of hawks and golden and bald eagles are common. The burrowing owl is found on the plains, and various species of small birds are characteristic of the different physical divisions of the state. A few lizards are found in the arid districts. The trout of the Utah mountain streams is considered a distinct species.
Flora.—Western Utah and vast areas along the Colorado river in the east and south-east are practically treeless. The lower plateaus and many of the basin ranges, as well as the basins themselves, are deserts. The higher plateaus, the Uinta and Wasatch mountains, bear forests of fir, spruce and pine, and the lower slopes are dotted with pinon, juniper, and scrub cedar. On the slopes of mountain valleys grow cedars, dwarf maples and occasional oaks. Willows and cottonwoods grow along streams. The west slope of the Wasatch has been largely denuded of its forests to supply the demands of the towns at its base. Among other plants common to the state are the elder, wild hop, dwarf sunflower, and several species of grease wood and cacti. The sagebrush, artemisia, is characteristic of the desert areas. Bunch grass is abundant on the hillsides the year round, and affords valuable pasturage.
Climate.—On account of its great diversity in topography, the state of Utah is characterized by a wide range in climatic conditions. Extremely cold weather may occur on the lofty plateaus and mountain ranges, while the intervening valleys and basins have a milder climate. The mean temperature of the state ranges from 58° in the extreme south to 42° in the north. Winter temperatures as low as 36° below zero are known for the higher altitudes; in the south, summer temperatures of 110° and higher have been recorded. At Salt Lake City the mean winter temperature is 31°, the mean summer temperature 73°. Corresponding figures for St George, in the south-western part of the state, are 38° and 80°. In general Utah may be said to have a true continental climate, although the presence of Great Salt Lake has a modifying effect on the climate of that portion of the Basin Region in which it lies. Killing frosts occur early in September and as late as the last of May, and in the higher valleys they may occur at any time. The mean annual precipitation is only 11 in., the greater part of which occurs in the Form of snow in the winter months, summer being the dry season. At Salt Lake City the annual precipitation is 15.8 in., of which 2 in. fall in summer. For St George the figures are: annual precipitation, 6.6 in.; summer, 1.3 in. Both Salt Lake City and St George are near the boundary between the Basin Region and the high plateaus. Well out in the basin deserts the precipitation is still less; and the same holds true for the low desert plateaus in the south-eastern part of the state, where Hite has an annual precipitation of only 2.3 in., of which 0.4 in. falls in the summer. On the other hand, the precipitation on the high plateaus probably exceeds 30 in. in places. In the inhabited parts of the state, irrigation is generally necessary for agriculture.
Soil.—The alluvium of the desert basins furnishes much good soil, which produces abundant crops where irrigated. Alkali soils are also common in the basins, but when water is available they can often be washed out and made productive. Very rich floodplain soils occur along the larger streams. Vast areas of unreclaimable desert exist in the west and south-east. In the protected valleys between the high plateaus alluvial soils are cultivated; but the plateau summits are relatively inaccessible, and, being subject to summer frosts, are not cultivated. Comparatively poor, sandy soil is found on the lower desert plateaus in the south-east, where population is scanty.
Forests.—The forest resources of Utah are of little value: the total wooded area was about 10,000 sq. m. in 1900, or about 12½% of the land area of the state. The only timber of commercial importance is found in the Uinta Range in the north-eastern corner of the state, and is chiefly yellow pine. The timber of the Wasatch Range is small and scattering. In 1910 there were in the state fourteen national forests varying in size from 1,250,610 acres (the Uinta reserve), 947,490 acres (the Ashley reserve), and 786,080 acres (the Manti reserve), down to the smallest Pocatello (10,720) on the Idaho border. The total area of these reserves was 7,436,327 acres.
Irrigation.—Under the Federal Reclamation Fund, established in 1902, $830,000 was allotted to Utah in 1902-9, and $200,000 more in 1910, for the development of the Strawberry Valley project. This project, which was about one-third completed in the beginning of 1910, provides for the irrigation in Strawberry Valley (Utah and Wasatch counties, S. of Provo), of 60,000 acres, by a 6800-acre reservoir of 110,000 acre-feet capacity, on Strawberry river; by a tunnel, 19,000 ft. long, connecting the reservoir with Diamond Fork, a tributary of Spanish Fork river; by a storage dam, 50 ft. high, of 60,000 cub. yds. contents, diverting water from Spanish Fork river into two canals, one on each side of the river, for the irrigation of land in the valley of Utah lake; by a hydro-electric power plant about 3 m. below the diversion dam; and by the enlargement of existing canal systems. The diversion dam, the power canal, and the first unit of the power plant were completed in 1909. Irrigation of the arid western regions of the United States began in the Great Basin of Utah when the Mormon pioneers in 1847 diverted the waters of City Creek upon the parched soil of Salt Lake Valley. In 1900 nearly 90% of the land reclaimed by irrigation in the whole state lay within the Great Basin. Between 1889 and 1899 the number of irrigators in the state (exclusive of Indian reservations) increased from 9724 to 17,924, or 84.3%, and the number of acres irrigated from 263,473 to 629,293, or 138.8%. In 1900, of the total improved acreage (1,029,226 acres) 61.2% (629,293 acres) was irrigate; and in 1899, of the 686,374 acres in crops, 537,588 acres, or 78.3%.
Agriculture.—The number of farms in Utah (not including those of less than 3 acres and of small productivity) in 1880 was 9452; in 1890, 10,517; and in 1900, 19,007: their average size in 1880 was 69.4 acres; in 1890, 125.9 acres; and in 1900, 216.6 acres. The total number of all farms in the state in 1900 was 19,387; and the number of white farmers, 19,144. The greatest number of farms were between 100 acres and 500 acres—1916 in 1880, and 5565 in 1900. Other holdings were as follows: between 20 acres and 50 acres, 3688 in 1880, and 5261 in 1900; between 50 acres and 100 acres, 2056 in 1880 and 3741 in 1900; less than 10 acres, 434 in 1880 and 1622 in 1900; 1000 acres and more, 9 in 1880 and 248 in 1900. The proportion of farms operated by owners decreased from 95.4% (9019 farms) in 1880 to 91.2% (17,674 farms) in 1900; those operated by cash tenants increased from 0.6% (60 farms) in 1880 to 2.6% (506 farms) in 1900, and those operated by share tenants from 4% (373 farms) in 1880 to 6.2% (1207 farms) in 1900. The total area of farms increased from 655,524 acres in 1880 to 4,116,951 acres in 1900, but the proportion of improved land decreased from 63.5% (416,105 acres) in 1880 to 25.1% (1,032,117 acres) in 1900, indicating the great increase in land used for grazing.
The value of farm property, including land with improvements, implements and machinery, and live-stock was $19,333,569 in 1880 and $75,175,141 in 1900; the average value per farm was $2045 in 1880 and $3878 in 1900; and the average value per acre of farm land was $29.49 in 1880 and $18.26 in 1900. The value of all farm products was $3,337,410 in 1879 and $16,502,051 in 1899, and the amount expended for fertilizers increased only from $11,394 to $14,300.
In 1899 hay and grain furnished the principal income from 35.4% of all farms in the state, and live-stock from 28.1% of all farms. In 1899, 255,639 acres, or 37.3% of the acreage of all crops, was sown to cereals, which were valued at $2,386,789, or 29% of the value of all crops. The production of cereals (which grow chiefly in the northern counties of the state) was 130,842 bu. in 1849, 770,287 bu. in 1869, 2,395,744 bu. in 1889, and 5,381,125 bu. in 1899. The principal cereal was wheat, the value of which was $1,575,064 (3,413,470 bu.) in 1899, and $5,481,000 (6,090,000 bu.) in 1909. The value and product of oats in 1899 was $553,847 (1,436,225 bu.), and in 1909, $1,319,000 (2,536,000 bu.); of Indian corn, in 1899, $121,872 (250,020 bu.), and in 1909, $355,000 (408,000 bu.); of barley, in 1899, $121,826 (252,140 bu.), and in 1909, $343,000 (520,000 bu.); of rye in 1899, $13,761 (28,630 bu.), and in 1909, $46,000 (66,000 bu.). The value of the hay and forage crop in 1899 was $3,862,820, or 46.9% of the value of all crops, and its acreage was 388,043 acres, or 56.5% of the acreage of all crops; in 1909, the acreage in hay was 375,000 acres, and its value was $9,792,000. Alfalfa (or lucerne) formed the principal part of the hay crop in 1899, and was produced chiefly in the counties of Utah (95,316 tons), Salt Lake (91,266 tons), Cache (64,543 tons) and Boxelder (50,019 tons), all in the northern part of the state.
The vegetable crop in 1899 occupied 24,042 acres, or 3.5% of the acreage of all crops, and its value was $1,250,713, or 15.2% of the value of all crops. The product of potatoes increased very rapidly from 519,497 bu. in 1889 to 1,483,570 bu. valued at $487,816 in 1899, and to 2,700,000 bu. valued at $1,161,000 in 1909. The production of other vegetables in 1899 was as follows: water-melons, 620,440; musk-melons, 516,500; tomatoes, 254,052 bu.; cabbages, 997,690 heads, and sweet corn, 16,192 bu. For the important sugar-beet crop, see below under Manufactures. On Gunnison and Hat islands in Great Salt Lake are valuable guano deposits which are used as fertilizers for vegetable gardens.
The value of live-stock on farms and ranges in 1890 was $9,914,766; on farms in 1900, $21,474,241. The number of neat cattle in 1900 was 343,690, valued at $7,152,844; on January 1, 1910, 415,000,
valued at $8,976,000, of which 88,000 were milch cows valued at $2,992,000. The number and value of other live-stock were as follows: sheep, in 1900, 3,818,423 ($10,256,488), and on January 1, 1910, 3,177,000 ($13,026,000); horses, in 1900, 115,884 ($3,396,313), and in 1910, 130,000 ($11,050,000); mules, in 1900, 2116 ($58,850), and in 1910, 3000 ($240,000); swine, in 1900, 65,732 ($293,115), and in 1910, 61,000 ($549,000).
The total value of dairy products in 1899 was $1,522,932. The principal products were: milk, in 1890, 8,614,694 gals., and in 1899, 25,124,642 gals. (received from sales, $645,550); butter, in 1890, 1,759,354 ℔ and in 1899, 2,812,122 ℔ (received from sales. $214,910); cheese, in 1890, 163,539 ℔, and in 1899, 169,215 ℔ (received from sales, $122,933). The value of all poultry raised in 1899 was $262,503; the product of eggs was 3,387,340 doz., and their value, $424,628.
The product of wool in 1890 (exclusive of wool shorn after the 1st of June) was 9,685,513 ℔, in 1900, 17,050,977 ℔, and in 1910, 14,850,000 ℔. The value of the honey and wax produced in 1899 was $94,364. Honey was a large crop with the early settlers, who put a hive and honey-bees on the state-seal of Deseret and of Utah.
Mining.—The mineral resources of Utah are varied and valuable, but their development was retarded for many years by the policy of the Mormon Church, which practically forbade its members to do any mining; more recently the development has been slow because of inadequate transportation facilities, and the inaccessibility of some of the deposits. In 1902 the state ranked fourteenth among the states in the value of its mineral products, $12,378,350, and took thirteenth rank in 1907, with a product of $38,099,756, but dropped to the fifteenth rank in 1908, when the total value of its product was $26,422,121. The value of products manufactured from minerals in 1902 was $9,123,228, or 43.1% of all the manufactures in the state. The relative importance of mining and manufacturing may be shown thus: in 1902 the mines and quarries of the state employed 5712 wage-earners and paid to them $5,089,122, and in 1900 manufacturing industries employed 6615 wage-earners, who received $3,388,370 in wages.
Systematic prospecting for the precious metals did not begin in Utah until 1862, when Colonel Patrick E. Connor (1820-1891) of the Third California Infant established Camp Douglas near Salt Lake City. He permitted many members of his regiment who had been prospectors in California to prospect the territory, with the result that mines were located at Stockton, Bingham Canyon, Little Cottonwood and elsewhere; but attempts to smelt lead-silver ore near Stockton about 1866 were not successful, and the mining of precious metals did not become an established industry in the Territory until about 1870. Ores of good quality are now known to be quite generally distributed throughout the state. In 1902 the state ranked third in the value of its gold and silver production, $8,500,904; in 1908 it ranked sixth in gold, $3,946,700 (a decrease of $1,174,900 since 1907), and fourth in silver, $4,520,600 (a decrease of $3,007,900 since 1907). In 1908 the richest producers of gold were Salt Lake (60,872.63 oz.), Juab (58,679.17 oz.) and Tooele (41,969.96 oz.) counties, which produced about nine-tenths of the total for the state; in Salt Lake and Juab counties the principal source was copper ore, but in Tooele county almost all the gold was from siliceous ores. For the whole state, of a total of 179,054.60 oz. in 1908, 111,086.12 were from copper ore, 47,439.15 from siliceous ores, and 19,986.36 from lead ores. In the same year the largest producing gold mines were the Centennial Eureka in Juab county, the Mercur in Tooele county, and the Utah Consolidated and the Utah Copper in Salt Lake county. The principal silver regions in 1908 were the Tintic, in Juab and Utah counties, and the Park City, in Summit and Wasatch counties. Of the total production, 8,451,338 oz. (valued at $4,479,209) in 1908, 2,748,289 oz. (of which more than two-thirds was from copper ores) were from Juab county; 2,463,735 oz. (all but 9586 oz., which were from lead zinc ore, being from lead ores) were from Summit and Wasatch counties; 1,561,983 oz. (all from lead ore, except 1158 oz. from copper ore) were from Utah county; 1,125,209 oz. (704,358 from copper ore, 329,276 from lead ore, 47,130 from copper lead ore and 44,445 from siliceous ore) were from Salt Lake county; and 378,373 oz. (of which 341,375 oz. were from lead ore) were from Tooele county. The principal source of the silver was the lead ores mined, from which in 1908 about two-thirds of the total of the silver was secured.
Far larger in value than either gold or silver, and larger than both together, was the output of copper in Utah in 1907 ($12,851,377) and in 1908 ($11,463,383). Up to 1905 the output of silver in the state was greater than that of copper. In the production of copper in 1908 Utah ranked fourth among the states. Most of the metal was produced in the Bingham, or West Mountain district, Salt Lake county, where there were four mines in 1908 with an output of more than 1,000,000 ℔; the Tintic district in juab county; the Frisco district in Beaver county; and the Lucin district in Boxelder county. In 1908 more than two-thirds of the total output was from the low-grade porphyry ores mined at Newhouse, Beaver county, and at Bingham, Salt Lake county. There are copper smelters at Garfield, Copperton and Binghamton. An anti-smoke injunction in 1908 closed the furnaces in the immediate vicinity of Salt Lake City. The production of copper in 1883 was 341,885 ℔; in 1890, 1,006,636 ℔; in 1895, 2,184,708 ℔; in 1900, 18,354,726 ℔; in 1904, 46,417,234 ℔; in 1907, 64,256,884 ℔; and in 1908, 81,843,812 ℔.
Third in value (less than copper or silver) in 1908, but usually equalling silver in value, was the state's output of lead. The maximum production, 125,342,836 ℔, was in 1906; in 1908 the output was 88,777,498 ℔ (valued at $3,728,655). The decrease in output and value is largely due to the lower price of lead in the market and the higher smelting rate. In 1908 the following mines produced more than 5,000,000 ℔ each of lead: Silver King at Park City, the Colorado in the Tintic district, the Daly West and the Daly judge in the Park City district, and the Old Jordan and the Telegraph at Bingham, and there were fifteen other mines that produced between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 ℔ of lead.
Zinc has been produced in commercial quantities in Summit, Tooele and Beaver counties. In 1906 the output was 6,474,615 ℔, valued at $394,952; in 1908 it was 1,460,554 ℔, valued at $68,646, and almost the entire output was from Summit county.
The apparently inexhaustible supplies of iron ore in southern Utah, and especially in Iron county, had been little worked up to 1910 on account of their inaccessibility. The beds of magnetite and hematite, in the southern portion of the Wasatch Mountains, are the largest in the western United States; in 1902 the four productive mines in Milford, Juab and Utah counties produced 16,240 tons of ore, valued at $27,417. There are valuable manganese deposits in the sandstone of the eastern plateau.
Coal was first discovered in Utah in 1851 along Coal Creek near Cedar City (in what is now Iron county) in the south-western part of Utah, and there was some mining of coal at Wales, Sanpete county, as early as 1855, but there was no general mining until about twenty years later, and the industry was not well established until 1888. Thereafter its development was rapid, and the discovery of outcroppings throughout the central and southern parts of the state gave evidence of the existence of great bodies of the mineral. The only important region of coal mining in the state up to 1910 was in Carson county, where more than nine-tenths of the total output of the state was mined in 1907 and in 1908. The production in 1870 was 5800 tons; in 188O, 14,748 tons (probably an underestimate); in 1890, 318,159 tons; in 1900, 1,147,027 tons; in 1903, 1,681,409 tons; in 1907, 1,947,607 tons (the maximum); and in 1908, 1,846,792 tons. The total production from 1870 to 1908 was 20,683,974 tons, or allowing for coal lost, about 31,000,000 tons, which is estimated to represent 0.016% of the original supply. In 1909 the United States Geological Survey reported workable beds of coal aggregating 13,130 sq. m. in area, and 2000 sq. m. more in which it seemed probable that coal might be found. The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt—19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.
Salt is obtained by solar evaporation chiefly of the waters of Great Salt Lake and other brine found in that vicinity; at Nephi City, Juab county; near Gunnison, Sanpete county; in Sevier and Millard counties, and at Withee junction in Weber county. The value of this product in 1907 was $199,779 (345,557 bbls.), and in 1908, $169,833 (242,678 bbls.).
Of other non-metallic products, among the most important were limestone—valued in 1902 at $186,663, and in 1908 at $253,088—and sandstone—valued in 1902 at $105,011 and in 1908 at $25,097. Some marble is quarried at Beaver in Beaver county, and Utah onyx has been used for interior decoration, notably in the city and county building of Salt Lake City. The clay products of the state in the same year were valued at $658,517. There are considerable deposits of sulphur, of varying degrees of richness, near Black Rock in Beaver county. Many semi-precious and precious stones are found in Utah, including garnet (long sold to tourists by the Navaho Indians), amethyst, jasper, topaz, tourmaline, opal, variscite (or “Utahlite”), malachite, diopside and Smithsonite. In 1908 the reported value of precious stones from Utah was $20,350.
Manufactures.—The manufacturing industry was long comparatively unimportant, being largely for local markets. It is still largely dependent on local raw material. But, with the growth of the mineral industry and of the cultivation of sugar beets, there was a remarkable growth in manufacturing between 1900 and 1905: the amount of capital increased from $13,219,039 to $26,004,011, or 96.7%; the average number of wage-earners from 5413 to 8052, or 48.8; and the value of factory products from $17,981,648 to $38,926,464, or 116.5%. In the period under
discussion, urban establishments (i.e. those in the two municipalities—Salt Lake City and Ogden—having a population in 1900 of at least 8000), increased in number from 205 to 256 or 24.9%, and rural establishments decreased in number from 370 to 350 (5.4%); the capitalization of urban establishments increased from $4,212,972 to $7,700,750 (82.8%), and that of the rural from $9,006,067 to $18,303,361 (103.2%); the average number of wage earners in urban establishments increased from 2832 to 3859 (36.3%), and those in rural establishments from 2581 to 4193 (62.5%); the value of the products of urban establishments increased from $5,521,140 to $10,541,040 (90.9%) and that of rural establishments from $12,460,508 to $28,385,424 (127.8%). This unusual predominance of rural over urban manufacturing is further shown by the fact that in 1900, 64.3% of the establishments reporting, and 69.3% of the value of their products were from factories classified as rural, and in 1905 the proportion of rural factories was 58.8%, and the value of their products 72.9% of the total. This predominance was largely due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts.
The flour and grist mill industry was the most important in the state, with products valued at $1,659,223 in 1900, and $2,425,791 in 1905. The values of the products of other industries in 1900 and 1905, in the order of their importance, were as follows: Car and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, in 1900, $1,306,591, and in 1905, $1,886,651; printing and publishing, in 1900, $770,848, and in 1905, $1,466,549; confectionery, in 1900, $403,379, and in 1905, $1,004,601; canning and preserving fruit and vegetables in 1900, $300,349, and in 1905, $801,958. The value of the products of industries of lesser importance in 1905 were: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $653,314; malt liquors, $636,688; and foundry and machine shop products, $587,484.
The beet sugar industry is one of growing importance in Utah: there were in 1900 3 refineries, having a daily total capacity of 1100 tons of beets; in 1905, 4, with a daily total capacity of 2850 tons; and in 1909, 5, which treated 455,064 tons of beets and produced 48,884 tons of sugar. In 1853 a sugar factory bought in England was erected at Provo, but no sugar was manufactured there, and none was successfully refined until 1889. Sugar beets were first grown by irrigation in Utah; under that system it becomes possible to estimate closely the tonnage of the product. Slicing stations established at distances of from 12 to 25 m. from a factory receive the beets, extract the juice and force it through pipes to the factory.
Transportation.—The first trade route to be established by white men within the present boundaries of Utah was the old Spanish trail from Santa Fé to Los Angeles. The trail entered what is now Utah, just east of the Dolores river, crossed the Grand river near the Sierra La Salle and the Green river at the present crossing of the Denver & Rio Grande railway, proceeded thence to the Sevier river and southward along its valley to the headwaters of the Virgin river, which it followed southward, and then westward, so that its line left the present state near its south-west corner. The presence of this and other trails to California was of great importance during the gold excitement of 1849, when many miners outfitted at Salt Lake City and the Mormons grew rich in this business. The first considerable railway enterprise in the territory was the Union Pacific, which was completed to Ogden in 1869. This system (which includes the Oregon Short line) has since been supplemented by the Denver & Rio Grande, the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, and various connecting lines. The railway mileage in 1870 was 257 m.; in 1890, 1265 m.; and in 1909, 1962.87 m.
Population.—The population in 1850 was 11,380; in 1860, 40,273; in 1870, 86,786; in 1880, 143,963; in 1890, 207,905; in 1900, 276,749; and in 1910, 373,351. Of the population in 1900, 219,661 were native whites, 53,777, or 19.4%, were foreign-born, 2623 were Indians (of whom 1472 were not taxed), 672 were negroes, 572 were Chinese and 417 were Japanese. The reservation Indians in 1909 were chiefly members of the Uinta, Uncompahgre and White River Ute tribes on the Uinta Valley reservation (179,194 acres unallotted) in the north-eastern part of the state. Of the 1900 native-born population 3870 were born in Illinois, 3032 in New York, 2525 in Ohio and 2519 in Pennsylvania. Of the foreign-born by far the largest number, 18,879, were natives of England, 9132 were Danes, 7025 were Swedes; and natives of Scotland, Germany, Wales and Norway were next in numbers. The large English immigration is to be ascribed to the successful proselytizing efforts of the Mormons in England. The same influence may be traced in the other immigration figures. There was, however, a relative decrease in the number of foreign-born in the state from 1890 to 1900. Of the total 1900 population 169,473 were of foreign parentage (i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born), and 42,735 were of English, 18,963 of Danish and 12,047 of Swedish parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's side. The Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) are far more numerous than any other sect, this church having a membership in 1906 of 151,525 (of these 493 were of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) out of a total of 172,814 in all denominations; there were 479 members of this denomination to every 1000 of the population in the state, and the next largest sect, the Roman Catholics, had only 26 per 1000 of population and no Protestant body more than 6 per 1000. In the same year there were 8356 Roman Catholics, 1902 members of the Northern Presbyterian Church, 1537 members of the Northern Methodist Episcopal Church, 1174 Congregationalists, and 987 Baptists (of the Northern Conference). The state in 1900 had 3.4 inhabitants to the sq. m. While this approached the average—3.5 for all the states west of the Rocky Mountains taken together, with the exception of Colorado, which had 5.2—it was noticeably higher than that of its immediate neighbours, Idaho (1.9), Arizona (1.1) and Nevada (0.4). At the census of 1880 the density of the population was 1.8 and in 1890 it was 2.6. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population (i.e. the population of places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 69,456 to 81,480, or 17.3%, the urban population in 1900 being 29.4% of the total; the semi-urban population (i.e. population of incorporated places, or the approximate equivalent, having less than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 36,867 to 83,740, 71.1% of the total increase in population; while the rural population (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) increased from 104,456 to 111,529, 10.7% of the total increase. The principal cities of the state are: the capital, Salt Lake City, pop. (1910) 92,777; Ogden, 25,580; Provo, 8925; and Logan, 7522.
Administration.—The state is governed under the first constitution adopted on the 5th of November 1895, and amended in November 1900, November 1906, and November 1908. An amendment may be submitted to the people at the next general election by a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house of the legislature, and only a majority of the electors voting thereon is required for approval. By a two-thirds majority the legislature may recommend that a constitutional convention be called; and if a majority of the electors at the next general election approve, the legislature shall provide for the convention, but the approval of a majority of the electors voting is necessary for ratification of the work of the convention. Article III., which guarantees religious freedom, forbids sectarian control of public schools, prohibits polygamy and defines the relation of the state to the public lands of the United States, is irrevocable except by consent of the United States. Every citizen of the United States, male or female, twenty-one years old or over, who has lived one year within the state, four months within the county and sixty days within the precinct has the right of suffrage, except that idiots, insane, and those convicted of treason or crime against the elective franchise are disfranchised; but in elections levying a special tax, creating indebtedness or increasing the rate of state taxation, only those who have paid a property tax during the preceding year may vote. A form of the Australian ballot with party columns is provided at public expense. As in so many of the newer Western states, the constitution specifies minutely many details which in the older instruments are left to be fixed by statute. For example, the employment of women or of children under fourteen in mines and the leasing of convict labour by contract are forbidden, and eight hours must constitute a day's work in state, county or municipal undertakings.
Executive.—The executive department consists of the governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, attorney general and superintendent of public instruction, all elected by the people at the time of the presidential election, and holding office for four years from the first day of January following. All these officers must be qualified electors and must have resided within the state for five years preceding their election. The auditor and treasurer may not succeed themselves, and governor and secretary of state must be at least thirty years old. The governor may call the legislature in extraordinary session or may summon the Senate alone. With the consent of the Senate he appoints all officers whose election or appointment is not otherwise provided for, including the bank examiner, state chemist, dairy and food commissioners, the boards of labour and health, the directors of the state institutions, &c., and fills all vacancies in elective offices until new officers are chosen and qualified. The governor, justices of the supreme court and the attorney-general constitute a board of pardons. The governor and other state officers form other boards, but the legislature is given power to establish special boards of directors. The veto of the governor, which extends to separate items in appropriation bills, can be overcome only by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature; but if the bill is not returned to the legislature, within five days it becomes a law without the governor's approval. The governor may not be elected to the United States Senate during his gubernatorial term.
Legislative.—The legislative power is vested in (1) the legislature, consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives, and (2) in the people of Utah. The legislature meets biennially on the second Monday in January of the odd-numbered years. No person is eligible to either house who is not a citizen of the United States, twenty-five years of age, a resident of the state for three years and of the district from which he is chosen for one year. Senators are elected for four years, but one-half the membership of the Senate retires every two years. The representatives are elected for two years. No person who holds any office of profit or trust under the state or the United States is eligible to the legislature, and no member, during the term for which he was chosen, shall be appointed or elected to any office created, or the emoluments of which have been increased during his term. Each house is the judge of the election and qualification of its own members. The membership of each house is fixed by law every five years, but the number of senators must never exceed thirty, and the number of representatives must never be less than twice nor more than three times the number of senators. In 1909 the Senate had eighteen and the House forty-five members. The legislature is forbidden to pass any special act where a general law can be made applicable, and is specifically forbidden to pass special acts on a number of subjects, including divorce, the rate of interest, and the incorporation of cities, towns or villages, or the amendment of their charters, &c. Neither the state nor any political subdivision may lend its credit or subscribe to the stock of any private corporation. The powers of the houses are the same, except that the Senate confirms or rejects the governor's nominations and sits as an impeachment court, while the Representatives initiate impeachments. By an amendment of 1900, the legislature was instructed to provide that a fixed fraction of the voters might cause any law to be submitted to the people, or that they might require any legislative act (except one passed by a two-thirds vote of each house) to be so submitted before going into effect, but up to 1910 no law had been passed putting the amendment into force.
Judiciary.—The judicial power is vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in the Supreme Court, the district courts, in justices of the peace, and in “such inferior courts as may be established by law.” The Supreme Court is composed of three justices (but the number may be increased to five whenever the legislature shall deem it expedient) each of whom must be thirty years old, learned in the law, and a resident of the state for five years preceding his election. They are elected by the people for a term of six years, but the term of one expires every two years, and that justice who shall have the shortest time to serve acts as chief justice. The court has original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, certiorari, prohibition, quo warranto and habeas corpus. Otherwise its jurisdiction is exclusively appellate, and every final decision of a district court is subject to review. The court holds three terms yearly in the capital. The state is divided into seven districts, in which from one to four judges are elected for terms of four years. They must be twenty-five years old, residents of the state for three years, and of the district in which they are chosen. They have original jurisdiction of civil, criminal and probate matters, not specifically assigned to other tribunals, and appellate jurisdiction from the inferior courts. At least three terms yearly must be held in each county. In cities of the second class (5000-30,000 inhabitants) municipal courts may be established. In cities of the first class (30,000 or more) a city court was established in 1901. Special juvenile courts may be established in cities of the first and second class. Each precinct elects a justice of the peace, who has civil jurisdiction when the debt or damage claimed does not exceed three hundred dollars, and has primary criminal jurisdiction.
Local Government.—The county is the unit of local government. The chief, fiscal and police authority is the Board of County Commissioners of three members, two elected every two years, one for two years and one for four. They create and alter subdivisions, levy taxes, care for the poor, construct, maintain and make regulations for roads and bridges, erect and care for public buildings, grant franchises, issue licences, supervise county officers, make and enforce proper police regulations (but the authority does not extend to incorporated towns or cities), and perform such other duties as may be authorized by law. Other county officers are the clerk (who is ex officio clerk of the district court and of the commissioners), sheriff, treasurer, auditor, recorder, surveyor, assessor, attorney and superintendent of district schools, but where the assessed valuation of any county is less than $20,000,000 the clerk is ex officio auditor, and the commissioners may consolidate offices. The precincts are laid off by the commissioners and each elects a justice of the peace and a constable. Cities are divided into classes (see above) according to population, and are governed by a mayor and a council. In cities of the first class fifteen, and of the second ten, councilmen are elected by wards, while in cities of the third class (all having less than 5000 inhabitants) five councilmen are elected on a general ticket.
Miscellaneous Laws.—Men and women may hold and dispose of property on the same terms, except that a husband cannot devise more than two-thirds of real estate away from his wife without her consent, and that a woman attains her majority at eighteen or when she marries. The property of an intestate leaving a widow or widower, but no issue, goes to the survivor if not over $5000 in value; if over that amount, one-half the excess goes to the survivor and one-half to the father and mother of the deceased or to either of them. If neither father nor mother survives, their share goes to the brothers and sisters of the deceased or to their descendants. If there are no descendants, the whole goes to the surviving husband or wife. If a husband or wife and one child survive, they share the estate equally; if more than one child, the surviving husband or wife takes one-third and the children divide the remainder. If the intestate leaves issue but no husband or wife, the issue takes the whole. Failing all these, the estate goes to the next of kin. An illegitimate child is an heir of its mother and of the person who acknowledges himself to be its father. Estates exceeding $10,000 pay an inheritance tax of 5% on the excess. A homestead not exceeding $1500 for the head of the family and $500 additional for the husband or wife and $250 additional for each other member of the family is not subject to execution except for the purchase price, or mechanic's and labourer's liens, lawful mortgage or taxes. The district courts have exclusive jurisdiction in divorce, which may be granted because of impotency at time of marriage, adultery, wilful desertion for more than one year, wilful neglect to provide the necessities of life, habitual drunkenness, conviction for felony, intolerable cruelty, and permanent insanity which has existed for at least five years. An interlocutory decree is entered which becomes absolute at the end of six months, unless appeal is entered. The guilty party forfeits all rights acquired through marriage. Children over ten years of age may select the parent to whom they will attach themselves. A marriage may be annulled on ground of idiocy, insanity, bigamy, loathsome disease at time of marriage, epilepsy, miscegenation (white and negro or white and Mongolian), or when a male is less than sixteen or a female less than fourteen years of age. A marriage licence is required. No female and no male under fourteen may work in a mine. Eight hours is the limit of a day's work in mines and smelters. A person sentenced to death may choose one of two methods of execution—hanging or shooting.
Education.—Before 1890 some districts in the state under a local option law had established free schools, but the general free school system was founded in 1890 by a law which consolidated all the districts in each city into one large school district and classified Salt Lake City as a city of the first class, and Ogden, Logan and
Provo as cities of the second class for school purposes; in 1908-9 six county school districts of the first class were formed. In 1892-1893 text-books and supplies were first furnished free to pupils in the grades; and in the same year supervisory work was introduced. At the head of the public school system is a state superintendent of public instruction, elected for four years, and a board of education, composed of the state superintendent, the president of the state university, the president of the Agricultural College, and two appointees of the governor serving for four years. There is a county superintendent whose term is two years. And in each district there is a board of three trustees, one retiring each year. Two or more contiguous districts may unite to form a high school district. School attendance is compulsory for twenty weeks each year in rural districts and for thirty weeks each year in cities of the first and second class for all children between eight and sixteen years. In 1900 the percentage of illiterates at least ten years old was 3.1. In 1909 there were 685 public schools in the state; the total number of pupils of school age (six to eighteen years) was 102,050, the number enrolled in the public schools was 84,804, and the average daily attendance was 66,774; the total number of teachers was 2255 (1645 women), and the average monthly salary of men teachers was $88.13 and of women $57.44; and the total expenditure for public education was $2,762,581 for the year, being more than twice as much as was expended by the state ten years before. The laws of the state provide for a commission, in cities and counties, for the retirement of public school teachers on a pension. The university of Utah at Salt Lake City was opened in 1850 as the state university of the “state of Deseret.” The State Agricultural College and Experiment Station (1888) is at Logan. At Cedar City, in Iron county, is a branch normal school, connected with the state university. There is a state school for the deaf and the blind (1884) at Ogden. The Art Institute at Salt Lake City has an annual art exhibit, a state art collection, and a course of public lectures on art. There is a state commission which promotes the establishment of free libraries and gymnasiums. The Mormons control Brigham Young University (1876) at Provo, Brigham Young College (1878) at Logan, the Latter-day Saints University (1887) at Salt Lake City, and academies at Ogden, Ephraim, Castle Dale, Beaver and Vernal. Other denominational schools are: St Mary's Academy (1875; Roman Catholic) in Salt Lake City; All Hallows College (1886; Roman Catholic) in Salt Lake City; Westminster College (1897; Presbyterian) in Salt Lake City, and Presbyterian academies at Logan, Springville and Mt. Pleasant; Rowland Hall Academy (1880; Protestant Episcopal) for girls at Salt Lake City; and Gordon Academy (1870; Congregational) at Salt Lake City.
Charitable and Penal Institutions.—The state supports a Mental Hospital (1884, with provision for feeble-minded and non-insane epileptics since 1907) at Provo, a state Industrial School (1889) at Ogden and a state prison (1850) at Salt Lake City. Under a law of 1905, amended in 1907 and 1909, provision is made for separate juvenile courts in all districts in which there are cities of the first (Salt Lake City) or the second class (Ogden, Logan and Provo) with jurisdiction over children under eighteen years of age; and similar jurisdiction is given to district courts elsewhere. In connexion with the juvenile court detention homes have been established, and in certain conditions justices of the peace are empowered to act as judges of the juvenile court in their respective precincts. There are many denominational charities, especially Mormon, the entire state being divided into ecclesiastical units or “stakes” for charity organization.
Finance.—The principal source of public revenue is the property tax. An amendment of 1908 provides for the taxation of mines and mining property. The state assumed the Territorial debt of $700,000, and has added to it a bonded indebtedness of $200,000; the bonds, formerly 5%, have been refunded at 3½ and 3%. There were only private banks until 1872, when Brigham Young organized a national bank. The first savings bank was organized in 1873, and state banks now outnumber national banks. The banking business for many years was largely in the hands of high Mormon officials, and the loyalty of church members built up a remarkable financial confidence, so that no Utah banks failed even in the panic of 1893.
History.—Existing documents seem to indicate that Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the Spanish explorer, sent out an expedition of twelve men under Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenas in 1540, which succeeded in reaching the Colorado river at a point now within the state of Utah. But more extended exploration was conducted by two Franciscan friars, Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante, who, on the 29th of July 1776, left Santa Fé with seven others to discover a direct route to Monterey on the coast of Alta California. This party came in sight of Utah lake on the 23rd of August. Almost half a century later, in the winter of 1824-25, James Bridger, a trapper, discovered the Great Salt Lake while seeking the source of the Bear river. Many trappers in their skin boats followed his lead, notably William H. Ashley, of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, who, in 1825, at the head of about 120 men and a train of horses, left St Louis and established the fort named for him at Lake Utah. In 1843 General John C. Frémont with Kit Carson and three others explored the Great Salt Lake in a rubber boat. With Brigham Young and his little band of Mormon followers (between 140 and 150 members), who entered the Great Salt Lake Valley in July 1847, begins the story of settlement and civilization (see Mormons). Before the end of 1848 about 5000 Mormons had settled in the Salt Lake Valley. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb. 2, 1848) ceded to the United States the vast western territory which included Utah. Early in 1849 the Mormon community was organized as the state of Deseret with Brigham Young as governor. Deseret then comprised not only the present state of Utah, but all Arizona and Nevada, together with parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and California. Application was made to Congress to admit it as a state or Territory, and on the 9th of September 1850 the Territory of Utah, then comprising the present state and portions of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, was established under an Act, which provided that it should be admitted as a state, with or without slavery, as the constitution adopted at the time of admission prescribed. (See Compromise of 1850.) The Republican party and (less violently) the Democratic in their national platforms and in Congress attacked and opposed the Mormon institution of polygamy. Statehood, therefore, was not granted until the 4th of January 1896, owing to the apparent hostility of the Mormon authorities to non-Mormon settlers and to repeated clashes between the Mormon Church and the United States government regarding extent of control, polygamous practices, &c. And even after the admission of the state these questions arose in the matter of seating prominent Mormons who were elected to Congress. For a detailed account of these difficulties and of the growth of the “Gentile” or non-Mormon element see the article Mormons.
Through irrigation experiments agriculture became the industrial foundation of the desert community. The waters of City Creek were at first diverted and a canal was built; and the results were encouraging, though in the summer of 1848 crops were destroyed by a swarm of black crickets; but in turn this pest was devoured by sea-gulls, and the phrase “gulls and crickets” has become one of peculiar historic significance in Utah. After 1849 the gold-fever horde bound for California furnished a source of revenue to the Mormons, as their settlement afforded an admirable post for supplies.
The division of land among the Mormons was singularly equitable. Each city block consisted of 10 acres divided into eight 1¼-acre lots, which were assigned to professional and business men. Then a tier of 5-acre lots was apportioned to mechanics, and 10- and 20-acre parcels of land were given to farmers, according to the size of their families. As Great Salt Lake City grew all landholders benefited, either by the location of their property or because of its size, the smaller lots being closer to the business centre and the larger tracts being in the outlying districts.
In 1847 Brigham Young had succeeded Joseph Smith as president of the Mormons, and he held that position of veritable dictator until his death (1877); John Taylor succeeded him, and Wilford Woodruff in 1890 was chosen head of the organization; then Lorenzo Snow was president in 1898-1901, and Joseph Fielding Smith was elected in 1901.
From time to time the Indians have risen against the Mormons. Between 1857 and 1862 outbreaks were frequent, and on the 29th of January 1863 occurred the battle of Bear river, where some 300 Shoshones and Bannocks and about 200 of Colonel P. E. Connor's command participated in a bloody engagement. In April 1865 an Indian war broke out under the leadership of Blackhawk, which lasted intermittently until the end of 1867. But in June 1865 treaties were concluded with the majority of Utah tribes, whereby they agreed to remove to Uinta Valley, where a reservation had been made for them. One other important reservation, the Uncompahgre, has also been opened for the Indians of the state.
The state has chosen Republican governors and, except in 1896, when it gave its electoral vote to W. J. Bryan, the Democratic candidate for the presidency, has voted for the Republican nominees in presidential elections.
|State of Deseret|
|John W. Dawson||1861|
|Frank Fuller (Acting Governor)||1861-1862|
|James Duane Doty||1863-1865|
|Edwin Higgins (Acting Governor)||1869-1870|
|S. A. Mann (Acting Governor)||1870|
|J. Wilson Schaffer||1870|
|Vernon H. Vaughan (Acting Governor)||1870-1871|
|George L. Woods||1871-1874|
|S. B. Axtell||1874-1875|
|George B. Emery||1875-1880|
|Eli H. Murray||1880-1886|
|Caleb W. West||1886-1889|
|Arthur L. Thomas||1889-1893|
|Caleb W. West||1893-1896|
|Heber M. Wells (Republican)||1896-1905|
|John C. Cutler (Republican)||1905-1909|
|William Spry (Republican)||1909-|
Bibliography.—On the physiography of Utah see Henry Gannett, Gazetteer of Utah (Washington, 1900), being Bulletin 166 of the U.S. Geological Survey; J. W. Powell, Geology of the Uinta Mountains (ibid., 1876), Exploration of the Colorado River of the West (ibid., 1875), and The Lands of Utah (ibid., 1879); W. M. Davis, “An Excursion to the Plateau Province of Utah and Arizona” and “The Mountain Ranges of the Great Basin,” in vol. 42 (1903) of Bulletin of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology; S. F. Emmons, “Uinta Mountains,” in vol. 18 (1907) of the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America; C. E. Dutton, The High Plateaus of Utah (Washington, 1880); and G. K. Gilbert, Lake Bonneville (ibid., 1890), Monograph I. of the U.S. Geological Survey. On mineral wealth see Nichols, Mineral Resources of Utah (Pittsburg, 1873). For administration see James T. Hammond and Grant H. Smith (edd.), Compiled Laws of the State (Salt Lake City, 1908). The important titles for the history of the state are those given in the article Mormons, especially H. H. Bancroft, History of Utah (San Francisco, 1889), and O. F. Whitney, History of Utah (4 vols., Salt Lake City, 1892-98).
- The name is that of a Shoshonean Indian tribe, more commonly called Ute.
- 1909 statistics are from the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
- These 1910 figures for live-stock are taken from the Year Book (1909) of the United States Department of Agriculture.
- The 1907 and 1908 statistics are from the Mineral Resources of the United States, published by the United States Geological Survey.
- These statistics for 1904, 1907 and 1908 are from Mineral Resources of the United States for 1908.
- Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture.
- The Report of the commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1909 gives the following figures for the Indian population: under the Panguitch School, Kanab Kaibab, 81, Shivwitz Paiute, 118; under the Uinta and Puray Agency, Uinta Ute, 443, Uncompahgre Ute, 469, White River Ute, 296; not under agency, Paiute 370.
- According to the Book of Mormon, “Deseret” means “land of the working bee.”