1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Utah

UTAH (see 27.813).—The pop. of Utah in 1920 was 449,396, an increase over 1910 of 76,045 or 20.4%, a rate of increase 5.5% greater than that of the United States as a whole. The density of pop. increased from 4.5 persons per sq. m. in 1910 to 5.5 in 1920. The urban pop. increased from 46.3% in 1910 to 48% in 1920.

Before 1891 the two political organizations in the state were known as People's party and Liberal party, closely corresponding to Mormon and anti-Mormon. These old names ceased to be used in the decade 1910–20; there was an evident desire to forget the old feuds between Mormons and non-Mormons who alike composed the Republican and Democratic parties, and political divisions were no longer on religious lines. Utah has been Republican since its admission as a state in 1896, excepting in 1896, when the electoral vote was cast for Bryan, and in 1916, when the presidential vote was for Wilson and a Democratic governor and other state officers were elected.

Recent governors have been William Spry (Republican), 1909–17; Simon Bamberger (Democrat), 1917–21; Charles R. Mabey (Republican), 1921–. Bamberger, the only governor of Utah not connected with the Mormon Church, was born in Germany of Jewish parents. Joseph Fielding Smith, president of the Church of Latter Day Saints from 1901, died in Nov. 1918. He was a nephew of Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon Church. His successor was Heber J. Grant.

The state's most important irrigation enterprise, the Strawberry Project, begun in 1906, was practically completed in 1918. By means of a tunnel 4 m. long through the Wasatch Mts., water is brought from a drainage basin on the E. side of the mountains into the Utah valley, 45 m. away. The reservoir in Strawberry valley, covering 8,100 ac., 7,600 ft. above sea-level, has a capacity of 280,000 ac. ft., of which only 75,000 are to be used annually until the project is enlarged. Use was begun Sept. 1913, and in 1920 70,000 ac. were irrigated from it. The state's irrigated acreage in 1909 was 458,273; in 1919 722,772; and works existed capable of irrigating 944,727 acres. Two canyons, Brice's and Little Zion, are reserved as national parks.

In Aug. 1909 Earl Douglass, a geologist, while conducting an expedition sent out by the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh, discovered in Uinta county the first complete skeleton of a dinosaur. Excavations for its removal revealed a deposit, the most extensive yet found, of fossil remains of extinct animals. The spot, embracing 80 ac., was set aside in 1915 by the U.S. Government and named Dinosaur National Monument.

Amendments to Constitution.—Section 3 of Article 10 was amended Nov. 8 1910 to provide that funds from the state tax for high schools be apportioned among cities and school districts according to attendance at high schools, so long as the schools are maintained at a standard fixed by the state Board of Education. Section 4 of Article 13 was amended to provide that after Jan. 1 1919 metalliferous mines and mining claims be assessed at $5 per ac. and in addition thereto at a value based on some multiple or submultiple of net annual proceeds. All other mines or mining claims and other valuable mineral deposits, including coal or hydrocarbons, are assessed at full value, as are also machinery and surface improvements. Article 22, Miscellaneous, was amended by adding Section 3 prohibiting after Jan. 1 1919 the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor containing in excess of one-half of 1% of alcohol. Amendment to Section 7, Article 13, approved by referendum Nov. 1920, provided for a minimum appropriation for school purposes from state funds, of $25 for each child of school age. Amendment to Section 5, Article 16, gave the Legislature power to make recovery in fatal cases definite, thereby eliminating long suits, enabling dependents to obtain definite amounts without expense, and protecting them against settlements at less than the law provides.

Government.—By an Act of the Legislature, passed in 1911 to take effect in 1912, government by a board of five commissioners was made mandatory in all cities of the 1st class; and in cities of the 2nd class by a board of three commissioners; cities of the 3rd class remained under mayor and councilmen. An Act of 1919 authorized levying of taxes for libraries and gymnasiums in cities of the 3rd class and in unincorporated towns.

Education.—In 1919 Utah enacted much legislation extending the educational work of the state. Among things provided for were the establishment of standard high schools in voting precincts having 1,200 or more school population; vocational education; part-time schools for those excused for necessary employment; health education supervisors and school nurses; care for physical welfare of children of pre-school age; free dispensaries and clinics; Americanization by requiring persons not speaking English to attend evening schools; county public libraries; libraries and gymnasiums in cities of the 3rd class and unincorporated towns. By 1920 legal provisions had been made for public schooling, including kindergartens, for all children from 4 to 18 years old, and for supervision of the activities of all children of school age for 12 months in the year. Class-room instruction was not extended over the usual vacation periods, but each student was to enroll for “out-of-school” activities in which he and his parents might be directly interested. Credit for such work systematically done was to be given on the school records. Improvement of equipment and teaching staff resulted from consolidation of many rural schools. While in 1909 685 public schools were reported

and in 1920 only 683, increase of enrolled pupils from 84,804 to 117,406 reflected the increased provision for public education. The average attendance in 1920 was 97,008. The total expenditures of 1919–20 were $8,353,133. The total number of teachers in 1909 was 2,255 (1,645 women) and in 1920 3,739 (2,824 women). The average salary of high-school principals in Salt Lake City in 1920 was $3,750; the lowest salary paid any teachers in the rural schools was $502. The Branch Normal School at Cedar City, formerly connected with the university of Utah, was transferred to the supervision of the Agricultural College. There were in 1920 46 tax-supported libraries, 22 of the buildings being Carnegie gifts.

Agriculture.—The number of farms in Utah in 11920 was 25,662, an increase of 18.4% over 1909. The farm acreage was 5,050,410, of which 1,715,380 ac. or 34% were improved. The value of lands and buildings in 1920 was $243,751,758; of implements and machinery $13,514,787; of live stock $54,008,183: showing respectively an increase over 1910 of 107.4%; 202.5% and 87.6%. The average value of land and buildings per farm was in 1920 9,499 as compared with $5,423 in 1910. Of all farms operated by owners in 1920, 47.6% were mortgaged as compared with 28.9% in 1910. Of the 25,248 white farmers, 21,276 were native and 3,972 foreign-born. Of native white farmers 18,683 were owners, 268 managers, and 2,320 tenants. Of foreign-born white farmers, 3,652 were owners, 25 managers, and 295 tenants. The 414 coloured farmers comprised 239 owners, 3 managers, and 172 tenants. There were 627 women farmers, including 609 owners, 1 manager and 17 tenants.

Crops.—The total value of crops in 1919 was $58,067,067, an increase of 219% over 1910. In order of value the chief crops were hay and forage; cereals; sugar beets; potatoes and other vegetables; fruits and nuts; clover and alfalfa seed. As compared with that of 1909 the acreage of oats, 61,825, showed 23.5% decrease; wheat 268,457, increase of 50.5%; barley, 15,938, decrease of 40.4%. The average yield of oats per ac. in 1919 was 27.9 bus.; of wheat 15.3 bus.; barley 22.9 bus. The total acreage of hay and forage in 1919 was 549,967 with a total production of 1,031,609 tons. There were 12,047 ac. in potatoes, a decrease of 15.2% as compared with 1909; the average yield per ac. was 136.8 bus. as against 169.5 in 1909. The production of strawberries in 1919 was 484,792 qt.; raspberries 363,801 qt.; apples 759,696 bus.; peaches 883,950 bus.; cherries 123,477 bus. The acreage of sugar beets in 1919 was 93,359 as compared with 27,442 in 1909, an increase of 240 per cent. In beet production (1,338,000 tons) Utah ranked next to Colorado in 1920. In that year there were sugar factories in 18 towns, and their product totalled 153,200 tons. The value of the sugar production in 1920 was approximately $30,000,000.

Live Stock.—On Jan. 1 1920 the number of beef cattle was 397,563; dairy cattle 108,015; value of beef cattle $16,806,429; dairy cattle $5,821,441. The number of horses was 125,471 valued at $9,642,418; of sheep 1,691,795 valued at $18,881,529; of goats 29,512 valued at $253,100; of swine 99,361 valued at $1,551,880.

Industries.—Important industries in 1920 were meat-packing; creameries and condenseries; canneries; flour and cereals; candy; salt; metal and sheet iron; cement and lime. The following table, from the U.S. census of 1920, gives a comparative summary of manufactures for 1919 and 1909:—

1919 1909

 Number of establishments  1,160  749 
 Wage-earners 18,868  11,785 
 Capital  $140,785,034   $52,626,640 
 Cost of materials $110,154,349  $41,265,661 
 Value of products $156,933,071  $61,989,277 

Mining.—The production of gold in Utah has been decreasing steadily since 1908. In 1920 the value was $1,949,000. More than half the gold of 1920 was from the Bingham district, about 30% from the Tintic district, and the rest from Park City and other camps. Most of the gold was produced from silicious, copper, and lead ores treated at smelting plants. The largest producers of gold were the Utah Copper Co., U.S. Mining Co., Deer Trail, Chief Consolidated, Utah Consolidated, and Grand Central mines. The value of silver output in 1908 was $4,479,209 and in 1920 $12,664,000, the latter a slight decrease from 1919. The Chief Cpnsolidated Mine at Eureka continued to be the largest producer of silver in the state, and the Tintic Standard followed closely. Although production of copper in 1920 was somewhat less than in 1919, it was considerably greater than a decade before. In 1908 the copper output was valued at $12,851,377 and in 1920 $19,991,000. The Utah Copper Co. at Bingham produced nearly 9,000,000 lb. a month throughout the year. In 1908 lead mined in Utah was valued at $3,728,655; in 1919 $6,562.940; in 1920 $10,939,000. The largest producers of lead were the Utah Apex, U.S. Mining Co., Tintic Standard, Chief Consolidated, Utah Consolidated, Silver King Coalition, Daily Judge, Ophir Hill, and Eagle and Blue mines. The largest increases were those of Chief Consolidated and Tintic Standard in the Tintic district. The zinc product increased from $68,646 in 1908 to $323,465 in 1919 and $487,000 in 1920. In 1908 the production of coal was 1,846,792 tons; in 1918 the output of Carbon county alone was 4,607,192 tons; and in 1920 the total state production was 6,125,000 tons.

 (G. E. F.)