1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/List of contributors

28227151922 Encyclopædia Britannica — List of contributors







For Contributors who wrote only for the 28 earlier volumes see list beginning on page 949 of Volume XXIX.

Further acknowledgment of the collaboration of some of the Contributors named below and of others, who, while not contributing articles, have by their aid and counsel enriched these new volumes will be found on pages vii–xiv. of the Preface in Vol. XXX.

ABBOTT, GRACE, M.A. (G.Ab.) Chief of the Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. Formerly Director, Child Labor Division, U.S. Children's Bureau; and Executive Secretary, Illinois Immigrants Commission, Chicago.
Children, Laws Relating to (United States); Child Welfare (United States); Juvenile Employment (United States).
ACLAND, SIR REGINALD BRODIE DUKE, M.A., K.C. (R.B.D.A.) Judge Advocate of the Fleet. Member of the British Government Committee on the Treatment by the Enemy of Prisoners of War, and of the Committee on the Breaches of the Laws of War.
Prisoners of War.
Submarine Mines (in part).
ADAM, GEORGE JEFFREYS. (G.A.) Formerly Correspondent of The Times in Paris.
Briand, A.; Deschanel, P.; France (in part); French Equatorial Africa.
ADAMS, THOMAS SEWALL, Ph.D. (T.S.A.) Professor of Political Economy in Yale University. Advisor on Taxation, U.S. Treasury Department.
Excess Profits Duty (United States); Income Tax (United States); United States (Finance), (Taxation).
ADAMS, WILLIAM GEORGE STEWART, M.A. (W.G.S.A.) Gladstone Professor of Political Theory and Institutions in the University of Oxford.
Education (United Kingdom).
AINSLIE, DOUGLAS, B.A.(Oxon.). (D.A.) Translator of Benedetto Croce's works. Author of John of Damascus; The Song of the Stewarts, and other poems.
Croce, Benedetto (in part).
ALCOCK, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ALFRED WILLIAM, C.I.E., M.B., LL.D., F.R.S. (A.A.) Indian Medical Service (retired). Professor of Medical Zoology in the University of London, at the London School of Tropical Medicine. Author of A Naturalist in Indian. Seas; Entomology for Medical Officers; etc.
Medical Entomology.
ALCOCK, W. BROUGHTON. (W.B.A.) Director Central Laboratory, Ministry of Pensions.
ANDRADE, EDWARD NEVILLE DA COSTA, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.Inst.P. (E.N.da C.A.) Fellow of University College, London. Professor of Physics in the Artillery College, Woolwich.
Range-Finders and Position-Finders (in part).
ANDREWS, IRENE OSGOOD, A.B. (I.O.A.) Assistant Secretary, American Association for Labor Legislation. Author of Working Women in Tanneries; Irregular Employment and the Living Wage for Women; Economic Effects of the War upon Women and Children in Great Britain; etc.
Women (United States); Women's Employment (United States); Women Police (United States).
ARMSTRONG, HENRY EDWARD, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. (H.E.A.) Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the City and Guilds College, South Kensington. Davy Medallist of the Royal Society, 1911.
ASHMORE, MAJOR-GENERAL EDWARD BAILEY, C.B., C.M.G., M.V.O. (E.B.A.) Commander of the Legion of Honour. General in Command of the London Air Defences.
Air Raids.
ASPINALL, ALGERNON EDWARD, C.M.G., B.A. (A.E.A.) Secretary to the West India Committee. Author of The British West Indies; The Pocket Guide to the West Indies; etc.
West Indies, British.
ATKINSON, ARTHUR RICHMOND, B.A.(Oxon.). (A.R.A.) Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn; Barrister and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of New Zealand; Member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, 1899–1902.
Massey, W. F.; New Zealand.
ATKINSON, MAJOR CHARLES FRANCIS. (C.F.A.) T.D. Late East Surrey Regiment. Distinguished Service Medal (U.S.A.), Order of Saint Anne (Russia). Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Staff Officer for Trench Warfare Research, 1915–7. British Instructor in Intelligence, American Expeditionary Force, 1918. Editorial Staff of the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Author of Grant's Campaigns; The Wilderness and Cold Harbor; etc.
Air Bombs (in part); Ammunition (in part); Army (Russian, in part, German); Artillery (in part); Balkan Wars (in part); Bombthrowers; Cordonnier, General; Eastern European Front Campaigns (in part); Flamethrowers; Flying Corps (in part); Foch, Marshal; Grenades (in part); Intelligence, Military (in part); Liege; Masuria, Battles in; Maubeuge, Siege of; Namur; Narew, Battles of the (7975); Naroch Lake; Rifles and Light Machine-Guns (in part); Serbian Campaigns; Siegecraft and Siege Warfare; Signal Service (in part); Trench Ordnance (in part); Western European Front Campaigns (in part); Woevre, Battles in (in part).
ATKINSON, CAPTAIN C. T. (C.T.A.) Historical Section, Committee of Imperial Defence.
Artois, Battles in (in part); Somme, Battles of the (in part); Ypres-Yser, Battles of (in part).
AXON, ERNEST. (E.A.*) Deputy Chief Librarian, Manchester Public Libraries. Formerly President, Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. Editor, of Bygone Lancashire.

Boy Scouts (United Kingdom).

BAGNALL-WILD, BRIGADIER-GENERAL RALPH KIRBY, C.M.G., C.B.E., R.A.F., M.I.Mech.E. (R.K.B.-W.) Director of Aircraft Inspection. Fellow and Past Chairman of the Royal Aeronautical Society. Commission, Royal Engineers, 1893. Inspector of Aircraft, 1913.
Aeronautics (Materials and Methods of Manufacture).

BAILEY, MAJOR FREDERICK MARSHMAN, C.I.E. (F.M.B.) Indian Political Department. Gold Medallist of the Royal Geographical Society, 1916.
Turkestan, West.

BAIRSTOW, LEONARD, C.B.E., F.R.S., F.R.Ae.S., F.Inst.P. (L.Bw.) Professor of Aerodynamics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington. Author of Applied Aerodynamics.
Aeronautics (Aerodynamics).

BAKER, HENRY FREDERICK, Sc.D., F.R.S. (H.F.Ba.) Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry, Cambridge. Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Mathematics (Geometry). BAKER, S. JOSEPHINE, M.D., D.P.H. (S.J.B.*) Director Bureau of Child Hygiene, Department of Health, New York City. Consultant in Child Hygiene, U.S. Public Health Service. Former President American Child Hygiene Association. Infantile Mortality (United States).

BALFOUR, SIR ISAAC BAYLEY, K.B.E., M.D., LL.D., M.A., F.R.S. (I.B.B.) Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Botany (Horticultural Exploration).

BALLANCE, SIR CHARLES, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.V.O., M.S. (C.A.B.) Consulting Surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital and to the British Army in the World War. Vice-President of the Royal College of Science. Heart and Lung Surgery.

BARCLAY, SIR THOMAS. (T.BA.) Barrister-at-Law. Vice-Presi- dent and Acting President of the Institute of International Law. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; New Methods of Adjusting International Disputes; Collapse and Reconstruction; etc. International Law.

BARKER, ALDRED FARRER, M.Sc. (A.F.B.) Professor of Textile Industries in the University of Leeds. Author or Joint-author of Wool Carding and Combing; Textile Design; Cloth Analysis; etc. Wool.

BARKER, EUGENE CAMPBELL, Ph.D. (E.C.BA.) Professor of American History, and Chairman of the Department of History, University of. Texas. Joint-author of A School History of Texas. Managing Editor, Southwestern Historical Quarterly. Texas.

BARNES, FRANK GEORGE. (F.G.B.) Superintendent, Homerton Residential School for the Deaf. Formerly Editor of The Teacher of the Deaf. Officer of the French Academy. Deaf and Dumb.

BARNES, JAMES STRACHEY, F.R.G.S. (J.S.Ba.) Author of “The Future of the Aldanian State” (R.G.S. Journal, July 1918). Albania.

BARROWS, DAVID PRESCOTT, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. (D.P.B.) President of the University of California. Professor of Education, University of California, 1910. President, Board of Trustees, Mills College, California, 1910–7. Author of the Ethno-Botany of the Coahuilla Indians; A History of the Philippines; etc. California, University of.

BARTLETT, EDWIN JULIUS, A.M., M.D., D.Sc. (Hon., Dart- mouth). (E.J.B.) Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Dart- mouth College, Hanover, N.H. New Hampshire.

BATESON, WILLIAM, M.A., F.R.S. (W.B N .) Author of Materials for the Study of Variation; Mendel's Principles of Heredity; Problems of Genetics; etc. See the biographical article: Bateson, William.
Genetics; Mendelism; Sex.

BAYLISS, WILLIAM MADDOCK, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. (W.M.B.) Professor of General Physiology in University College, London. Author of Principles of General Physiology- Nature of Enzyme Action; etc. Physiology; Shock.

BEDDOES, MAJOR CLAUDE EAGLES WILLOUGHBY, O.B.E. (C.E.W.B.) Gloucestershire Regiment. Inspector of Grenade Training, G.H.Q., Great Britain, 1915–8. Experimental Officer for Grenades and Trench Stores, Ministry of Munitions, 1915–9. Control Officer, Inter-Allied Commission of Control, 1919. Dogs, War (in part); Grenades (in part).

BEILBY, SIR GEORGE THOMAS, F.R.S., LL.D., D.Sc. (G.T.B.) Director of Fuel Research, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. See the biographical article: Beilby, Sir George Thomas. Fuel.

BELL, AUBREY FITZGERALD. (A.F.G.B.) Author of Portugal of the Portuguese; Studies in Portuguese Literature; etc. Portugal.

BENTON, ELBERT JAY, Ph.D. (E.J.B.*) Professor of History in Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Author of The Wabash Trade Route; International Law and Diplomacy of the Spanish-American War. Joint-author of Introductory American History; History of the United States. Ohio.

BERTHAUT, GENERAL HENRI. (H.Be.) Sub-Chief of the General Staff of the French Army, 1903–12. Author of La Carte de France; Topologie; De la Marne a la Mer du Nord; L' Erreur de 1914; etc. Western European Front Campaigns (in part). BEST, OTMAR (O.B.) Member of the Staff of the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Germany (Political History, in part).

BETHELL, BRIGADIER-GENERAL HENRY ARTHUR, C.M.G. (H.A.B.) Late Royal Field Artillery. Author of Modern Guns and Gunnery; Modern Artillery in the Field. Artillery (in part).

BETTELHEIM, ANTON, Dr. Juris. (A.B.) Austrian Empire (Literature and Drama).

BEVERIDGE, SIR WILLIAM HENRY, K.C.B., M.A., B.C.L. (W.H.B.) Director of London School of Economics and Political Science. Formerly Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Food. Author of Unemployment: A Problem of Industry; etc. Food Supply (in part); Rationing (in part).

BEZA, MARCU, L.ÈSL. (M.B.*) Lecturer at King's College, London. Author of O Viata; Din Anglia; Papers on the Rumanian People and Literature; etc. Rumania (Literature).

BISHOP, JOSEPH BUCKLIN. (J.B.Bi.) Secretary to the Panama Canal Commission, 1905–14. Author of The Panama Gateway. Panama Canal.

BLACKMAN, VERNON HERBERT, Sc.D., F.R.S. (V.H.B.) Professor of Plant Physiology and Pathology in the Imperial College of Science and Technology. Botany (General Physiology).

BLAGDEN, CHARLES OTTO, M.A. (C.O.B.) Reader in Malay in the University of London and in the School of Oriental Studies, London Institution. Austric Family of Languages.

BLANCHARD, RALPH HARRUB. (R.H.B.) Assistant Professor of Insurance at Columbia University. Author of Liability and Compensation Insurance. Insurance (United States).

BLAND, JOHN OTWAY PERCY. (J.O.P.B.) Author of China; Japan and Korea; Houseboat Days in China. Joint-author of China under the Empress Dowager. Served in Chinese Maritime Customs, 1883–96. Shanghai Correspondent for The Times, 1897–1910. China; Hankow; Hart, Sir Robert; Manchuria; Mongolia; Shanghai; Tibet; Tientsin.

BLENNERHASSETT, CAPTAIN WILLIAM LEWIS, D.S.O., O.B.E. (W.L.B.) French Croix de Guerre. Acting British Vice-Consul at Kovno, Lithuania. Finland; Isvolsky, A . P.; Lithuania.

BLUME, WILHELM VON, Drjuris. (W.v.B.) Professor of Law in the University of Tubingen. Author of Familienrecht des Biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs; Erbrecht des Burgerlichen Ge- setzbuchs. Cooperated in the drafting of the Constitution of Wiirttemberg, 1919. Baden; Bavaria (in part); Thuringia; Württemberg.

BOEHM, FRITZ. (F.B.*) On the staff of the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Germany (Reform of the School System). BOURNE, HENRY ELDRIDGE, L.H.D. (H.E.B.) Professor of History in Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Author of The Revolutionary Period in Europe; The Teaching of History and Civics; etc. Cleveland.

BOURSON, PAUL. (P.B.) Member of the Commissariat General of the French Republic at Strasbourg. Alsace-Lorraine; France (in part).

BOWLEY, ARTHUR LYON, Sc.D. (A.L.Bo.) Professor of Sta- tistics in the University of London. Author of Elements of Statistics; Wages in the United Kingdom; etc. Cost of Living; Prices (in part); Wages (in part). BOYD, WILLIAM KENNETH, A.M., Ph.D. (W.K.B.) Professor of History, Trinity College, Durham, N.C. Joint-editor of The South Atlantic Quarterly. Author of A History of North Carolina, 1783-1860; etc. Virginia.

BRANDE, HERBERT. (H.B.*) Formerly Editorial Writer on The Chicago Tribune.
Newspapers (United States); Railway Stations.

BRANDT, LILIAN, M.A. (L.BR.) Author of Social Aspects of Tuberculosis; Causes of Poverty; Deserted Families; etc. United States (Social and Welfare Work, in part).

BRIDGES, CAPTAIN HENRY DALRYMPLE, D.S.O., R.N. (H.D.B.). Submarine Mines (in part). BRIGHT, SIR CHARLES, F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E., F.S.S., F.Hist.S. (C.BR.*) Author of Submarine Telegraphs; Imperial Telegraphic Communication; Telegraphy, Aeronau- tics and War; etc. Submarine Cable Telegraphy. BROCKHAUSEN, CARL, Dr. Juris. (C.BR.) Professor of the Science of Administration in the University of Vienna. Austrian Empire (in part) ; Badeni, K.; Lammasch, H.; Lueger, Karl. BROOKS, ALFRED H., B.Sc., D.Sc. (A.H.BR.) Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. In charge of geologic and topographic surveys and investigations of mineral resources of Alaska. Vice-chairman of the first Alaska Railroad Commission. Alaska. BROOKS, ROBERT PRESTON, Ph.D. (R.P.B.) Dean of the School of Commerce, University of Georgia; formerly Pro- fessor of History. Author of A History of Georgia; The Agrarian Revolution in Georgia; etc. Georgia (U.S.A.). BROWN, FRANK HERBERT, C.I.E. (F.H.BR.) On the Staff of The Times for Indian Affairs. London Correspondent of The Times of India. Formerly Assistant Editor of the Bombay Gazette and Editor of the Indian Daily Telegraph, Lucknow. Aga Khan; Bikaner, Maharaja of; Gokhale, G. K.; Hydera- bad, Nizam of; Mehta, Sir P. M.; Tilak, B. G. BROWN, ROBERT N. RUDMOSE, D.Sc. (R.N.R.B.) Member of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4, and of the Scottish Arctic Expeditions, 1909, 1912 and 1914. Lecturer in Geography, University of Sheffield. Author of Spitsbergen, etc. Joint-author of The Voyage of the Scotia. Aland Islands; Arctic Regions; Siberia; Spitsbergen. BROWN, WALTER LANGDON, M.A., M.D. (Cantab.), F.R.C.P. (W.L.B.*) Physician, with cjiarge of Out-Patients, to St. Bartholomew's Hospital (London). Physician to the Metropolitan Hospital, etc. Author of Physiological Prin- ciples in Treatment; The Sympathetic Nervous System in Disease; etc. Sympathetic Nervous System. BROWNLEE, JOHN, M.A., M.D., D.Sc. Q.BRO.) Director of Statistics, Medical Research Council. Epidemiology (in part). BRUCCOLERI, GIUSEPPE. (G.B.*) Barrister-at-Law. Author of La Sicilia di oggi; Dal conflitto europeo alia guerra nostra; etc. Italian Literature. BUCK, SOLON JUSTUS, Ph.D. (S.J.B.) Superintendent of the Minnesota Historical Society. Associate Professor of History in the University of Minnesota. Author of The Granger Movement; Illinois in 1818; The Agrarian Crusade; etc. Minnesota. BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE, M.A., Hon.LL.D. (G.E.B.) Formerly Scholar of New College and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Editor of The Times, 1884-1912. Author of Life of Disraeli (vols. 3, 4, 5, and 6). See the biographical article: BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE. Asquith, H. H.; Balfour, A. J.; Carson, Sir Edward; Cecil, Lord Hugh; Cecil, Lord Robert; Churchill, Winston; Cramer, Lord; English History (1(113-21); Grey, 4th Earl; Grey, Vis- count; Haldane, Lord; Henderson, Arthur; Lansdowne, $th Marquess; Law, A. Bonar; Lloyd George, D.; Long, Lord; Lyttelton, Alfred; McKenna, Reginald; Milner, Viscount; Morley of Blackburn, Viscount; Rhondda, Viscount. BULKELEY- JOHNSON, CAPTAIN VIVIAN. (V.B.-J.) Entered Rifle Brigade, 1913. Served in France, 1914-5. G.H.Q., 1916. Aide-de-Camp to Governor-General of Canada, 1916-8. Officer of the War Cabinet, 1918-9. Air Ministry, 1919-21. Aeronautics (Control of Air Traffic). BURLS, GEORGE ARTHUR, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.Auto.Eng. (G.A.Bu.) Author, and Joint-author with Sir Dugald Clerk, of works on internal combustion engines. Internal Combustion Engines. BURNETT, SIR EDWARD NAPIER, K.B.E., M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.C.P.(Edin.). (N.B.) Director of Hospital Services, Joint Council of the British Red Cross and the Order of St. John. Formerly Chairman, Hospitals Economy Com- mittee, War Office. Hospitals (United Kingdom); Medicine, International. BURNETT-HITCHCOCK, MAJOR-GENERAL BASH, FERGU- SON, C.B., D.S.p. (B.B.-H.) Director-General of Mobil- ization and Recruiting, War Office. Army (British); United Kingdom (Post War Army). BURPEE, LAWRENCE JOHNSTON. (L.J.B.) Secretary, Cana- dian Section, International Joint Commission. Formerly Librarian of the Ottawa Public Library. Author of Bibliogra- phy of Canadian Fiction; A Little Book of Canadian Essays; Century of Canadian Sonnets; etc. Canada (English Canadian Literature). BUTLER, HAROLD BERESFORD, C.B., M.A. (H.B.B.) Deputy- Director, International Labour Office, League of Nations. Formerly Principal Assistant Secretary, Ministry of Labour. Member of the British Delegation at the Peace Conference. International Labour Organization. BUTLER, NICHOLAS MURRAY, Ph.D., LL.D. (Cantab.), Jur.D., Hon.D.Litt.(Oxon.). (N.M.B.) See the biographical article: BUTLER, N. M. Columbia University; Education (United States, in part). CALLAHAN, JAMES MORTON, A.M., Ph.D. (J.M.C.*) Professor of History and Political Science and Dean of West Virginia University. Author of Neutrality of the American Lakes; Cuba and International Relations; History of West Virginia. West Virginia. CALLENDAR, HUGH LONGBOURNE, M.A., LL.D., C.B.E., F.R.S. (H.L.C.) Professor of Physics in the Imperial Col- lege of Science, South Kensington. Author of Properties of Steam; Thermodynamic Theory of Turbines. Heat. CALLWELL, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR CHARLES EDWARD, K.C.B. (C.E.C.) Director of Military Operations, War Office, 1914-6. Author of Small Wars; Military Operations and Maritime Preponderance; The Dardanelles; etc. Dardanelles Campaign; Kitchener, Lord; Staff, Military; Turkish Campaigns (Mesopotamia); Ypres-Yser, Battles of (Part III.). CANA, FRANK RICHARDSON, F.R.G.S. (F.R.C.) Editorial Staff, nth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Editorial Staff of The Times. Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union; Problems of Exploration; Africa; The Sahara in ipjj; The Great War in Europe; etc. Abyssinia; Africa; Angola; Belgian Congo; Cairo; Cameroon; Cape Province; Dahomey; Delagoa Bay; East African Mili- tary Operations; Egypt (in part); Eritrea; Gambia; German East Africa; German South-West Africa; Kenya Colony; Liberia; Mauritius; Merriman, J. X.; Natal; Nyasaland; Orange Free Stale; Portuguese East Africa; Rhodesia; Senussi; Sierra Leone; Somaliland; South Africa (in part); Sudan (in part); Suez Canal; Tanganyika Territory; Togoland; Trans- vaal; Tripoli; Uganda; Zanzibar. CANNY, GERALD BAIN, B.A. (G.B.C.) Assistant Secretary, Inland Revenue Department, Somerset House. Excess Profits Duty (United Kingdom). CARTER, A. CECIL (d. 1921). (A.C.CA.) Formerly Superin- tendent of Siamese Government Students at the Siamese Legation, London. Sometime Principal of King's College, Bangkok. Siam.

CARTER, REV. HENRY. (H.CA.) Member of British Central Licensing Control Board (Liquor Traffic), 1916-21. Author of The Control of the Drink Trade; The Church and the New Age; etc. Liquor Laws and Liquor Control (United Kingdom). CARVER, THOMAS NIXON, Ph.D., LL.D. (T.N.C.) Professor of Political Economy in Harvard University. Author of The Distribution of Wealth; Principles of Rural Economics; Principles of Political Economy; etc. Federal Farm Loan System.

CASTELLANI, ALDO, C.M.G., M.D., M.R.C.P. (A.Ci.) Lecturer, London School of Tropical Medicine. Formerly Professor of Tropical Medicine, Ceylon Medical School. Author (with Dr. A. J. Chalmers) of Manual of Tropical Medicine; etc. Typhus Fever.

CASTELLANO, G. (G.C.) Author of Introduzione olio studio delle opere di B. Croce (1920). Croce, Benedetto (in part). CATON, E. S. (E.S.C.) Editor of Tobacco. Tobacco. CAVE-BROWNE-CAVE, WING COMMANDER T. R., C.B.E., R.A.F., F.R-Ae.S., A.M.I.Mech.E., A.M.I.N.A. (C.B.C.) In charge of Airship Experiments and Research at the Admiralty and the Air Ministry. Lecturer in Airship Engineering, Imperial College of Science. Airship Member of the Aero- nautical Research Committee. Formerly Engineer Officer, R.N. Airship Pilot, 1913. In charge of Non-rigid Airship Design and Construction at Kingsnorth, 1914-8. Aeronautics (Airships). CECIL, RT.-HON. LORD ROBERT, M.P. (R.C.) Representative of Great Britain on the League of Nations Commission at the Peace Conference, 1919. Representative of South Africa at the Assembly of the League of Nations at Geneva, 1920. Chairman of the League of Nations Union. See the biographical article: CECIL, LORD ROBERT. League of Nations. CHAMBERLAIN, COLONEL WESTON P. (W.P.C.) Army Medi- cal Corps, U.S. Army. Army Medical Service (United Stales). CHAMBERS, SIR THEODORE GERVASE, K.B.E., Assoc.R.S. M., F.S.I., F.G.S. (T.G.Cn.) Vice-chairman and late Con- troller of the National (War) Savings Committee, Great Britain. Savings Movement. CHANDLER, CHARLES LYON, A.B. (C.L.C.) Curator of South American History and Literature in the Harvard College Library. Manager of the Foreign Commercial Department of the Corn Exchange National Bank of Philadelphia. Author of Inter- American Acquaintances. Argentina; Buenos Aires; Paraguay; Uruguay. CHATAIGNEAU, YVES. (Y.C.) American Distinguished Service Cross. Knight of the Legion of Honour. Lecturer in the University of Belgrade. Author of " L' Emigration Ven- deenne"; Annales de Geographic, 1917; "La Youngo-Slavie," Annales de Geographic, 1921. Balkan Peninsula (in part). CHILCOTT, ELLERY CHANNING, M.S. (E.C.C.) Chief of Dry Lands Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. United States (Agriculture). CHILDS, W. J. (W.J.C.*) Late of the Intelligence Department of the Admiralty (Geographical Section). Armenia; Azerbaijan; Cilicia; Georgia; Ottoman Empire; Straits (Dardanelles and Bosporus); Turkey (Nationalist). CHISHOLM, HUGH, M.A. (H.Cn.) Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the loth, nth and 1 2th editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Fi- nancial Editor of The Times, 1913-20. See the biographical article: CHISHOLM, HUGH. English History (1910-2); English Literature (in part); Finance; George V.; Holden, Sir E. H.; Montessori System; World War (Introductory). CHREE, CHARLES, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (C.CH.) Assistant Director, Meteorological Office, Kew. Past President, Physi- cal Society of London. Hughes Medallist, Royal Society. Magnetism, Terrestrial. CHRISTIE, A. H. (A.H.C.*) Late Director, Westminster Technical Institute. Arts and Crafts (in part). CHRISTOPHELSMEIER, CARL, B.A..M.A., Ph.D. (C.C.*) Head of the Department of History and Political Science in the University of South Dakota. Author of The First Revolu- tionary Step (June 17, 1789); The Fourth of August, 1789; etc. South Dakota. CHURCH, ARTHUR HARRY, M.A., D.Sc. (A.H.CH.) University Lecturer in Botany, Oxford. Botany (General Morphology). CLAY, MAJOR WALLACE L. (W.L.C.*) Ordnance Department of the U.S. Army. Ammunition (in part). CLEVELAND, FREDERICK ALBERT, Ph.B., Ph.D., LL.D. (F.A.CL.) Professor of United States Citizenship, Maxwell Foundation, Boston University. Author of Organized Democ- racy; First Lessons in Finance; etc. Boston; Massachusetts. CLIFFORD, SIR HUGH, G.C.M.G. (H.CL.) Governor of Nigeria. In the Federated Malay States Civil Service, 1883-1903; in the West Indies, 1903-7; in Ceylon, as Colonial Secretary, 1907-12. Governor of the Gold Coast, 1912-9. Administered the British Sphere of Occupation in Togoland throughout the World War. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; The German Colonies; etc. Ashanti; Gold Coast; Nigeria. CLOSE, COLONEL SIR CHARLES FREDERICK, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G., F.R.S. (C.F.CL.) Director-General of the Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom. Author of Text Book of Topographical Surveying. Map; Surveying (in part). COLE, GEORGE DOUGLAS HOWARD, M.A. (G.D.H.C.) Formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Hon. Secre- tary, Labour Research Department. Author of The World of Labour; Self -Government in Industry; Guild Socialism Re- stated; Social Theory; etc. Guild Socialism; Socialism; Wage System in Industry. COLE, GRENVILLE ARTHUR JAMES, F.R.S., F.G.S. (G.A.J.C.) Professor of Geology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland. Author of Aids in Practical Geology; Open-Air Studies in Geology; etc. Geology (Structural and Stratigraphical). COLE, MARGARET ISABEL (Mrs. G. D. H. Cole). (M.I.C.) Correspondence Secretary of the Labour Research Depart- ment, London, 1917-20. Profit-Sharing and Co- Partnership (in part); Trade Unions (in part). COLLIER, THEODORE, Ph.D. (T.C.) Professor of European History in Brown University, U.S.A. Rhode Island. COLLINGWOOD, R. G., M.A., F.S.A. (R.G.C.) Fellow and Tutor of Pembroke College, Oxford. Luxemburg. COLLINS, VARNUM LANSING, A.M. (V.L.C.) Secretary of Princeton University and Clerk of the University Faculty. Author of The Continental Congress at Princeton; Guide to Princeton; etc. Princeton University. COLLIS, EDGAR LEIGH, M.A., M.D.(Oxon.), M.R.C.P. (Lend.). (E.L.C.) Mansel Talbot Professor of Preventive Medicine, Welsh' National School of Medicine. Late Director (Welfare and Health), Ministry of Munitions. H.M. Medical Inspector of Factories. Industrial Medicine; Welfare Work in Industry. COLLYER, BRIGADIER-GENERAL JOHN JOHNSTON, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. (J.J.C.) Late Chief of the General Staff, Union of South Africa. German South- West Africa; South Africa (Defence). COMMONS, JOHN ROGERS, A.B., A.M., LL.D. (J.R.Co.) Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin. Author of Documentary History of American Industrial Society; History of Labor in the United States; Principles of Labor Legislation; etc. Arbitration and Conciliation (United States); Hours of Labour (United States); Labour Legislation (United States); Labour Supply and Regulation (United Slates); Profit-Sharing and Co- Partnership (United States); Strikes and Lockouts (United Slates); Trade Unions (United States); Unemployment (United States); United States (Labour Movement); Wages (United States). CONGER, COLONEL ARTHUR LATHAM, U.S. Army. (A.L.C.) Distinguished Service Medal (U.S.A.), C.M.G. Legion of Honour. Formerly Co-editor of The Military Historian and Economist. Army (United States); Champagne, Battles in (in part); Meuse-Argonne, Battle of; Western European Front Campaigns (in part); Woevre, Battles in (Part II.).

CONSTABLE, WILLIAM GEORGE, M.A. (W.G.C.*) Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-law. Lecturer at the Wallace Collection. Beerbohm, Max; Besnard, P. A.; Painting (in part). CONWAY, AGNES ETHEL, M.B.E..B.A. (Dublin). (A.E.C.) Hon. Curator, Women's Work Section, Imperial War Museum. Author of Child's Book of Art; A Ride Through the Balkans. Women's War-Work.

COOLIDGE, REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BKEVOORT, M.A. (Oxon.), Hon.Ph.D. (Bern). (W.A.B.C.) Fellow of Mag- dalen College, Oxford. Author of Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-books; Josias Simler et les Origines de I' Alpinisnte jusqu'en 1600; The Alps in Nature and History; Alpine Studies; etc. Editor of the Climbers' Guide. Switzerland.

CORDONNIER, GENERAL VICTOR LOUIS EMILIEN. (V.L.E.C.) See the biographical article: CORDONNIER, VICTOR Louis EMILIEN. Argonne, Battles of the; Army (French); Frontiers, Battles of the (Part III.); Woevre, Battles in (in part). COTTON, HENRY EVAN AUGUSTE, C.I.E., L.C.C. (H.E.A.C.) Formerly Scholar of Jesus College, Oxford, and Advocate of the High Court at Calcutta. Author of Calcutta Old and New. Late Editor of India. Banerjea, Sir S.; Gandhi, M. K.; Tagore, R. COURTNEY, JANET ELIZABETH, O.B.E., J,P. (Mrs. W. L. COURTNEY). (J.E.C.) Author of Free Thinkers of the Nine- teenth Century. Joint-author of Pillars of Empire. Joint- editor of Index to the nth edition of the Encyclopcedia Britannica. Women (United Kingdom); Women Police (United Kingdom). CRAM, RALPH ADAMS, Litt.D. (Princeton), LL.D. (Yale), F.R.G.S. (R.A.C.) Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and of the North British Academy of Arts. Hon. Corresponding Member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Associate of the National Academy. Member of the American Institute of Arts and Letters. Supervising Architect, Princeton University. Member of the 'firm of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. Author of Church Building; The. Ruined Abbeys of Great Britain; etc. See the biographi- cal article: CRAM, RALPH ADAMS. Architecture (United States). CREAGH-OSBORNE, CAPTAIN FRANK, R.N., C.B. (F.C.-O.) Director, Admiralty Compass Department. Compass. CROSS, CHARLES FREDERICK, B.Sc., F.R.S. (C.F.C.) Analyt- ical and Consulting Chemist. Member of the firm of Cross & Bevan. Joint-author (with E. J. Bevan) of Researches on Cellulose; Text- Book of Papermaking. Cellulose; Fibres. CROY, HOMER. (H.CR.) Author of How Motion Pictures are Made. Cinematograph. CROZIER, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL C. D., R.G.A. (C.D.C.) Late Director of Inspection of High Explosives, Ministry of Munitions. Explosives (in part). CUMMINS, STEVENSON LYLE, M.D., LL.D., C.B., C.M.G. (S.L.C.) Colonel, .Army Medical Service (retired). David Davies Professor of Tuberculosis, University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire. Principal Medical Officer, King Edward VII. Welsh National Association. Influenza. CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM JAMES, A.M. (WJ.C.) Connected with several American railroads in operating and executive capacities, 1900-16. Professor of Transportation at Harvard. Assistant Director of Operation, U.S. Railroad Administra- tion, 1918-9. Railways (United States). CVIJIC, JOVAN. (J.C.) Patron's Medallist of the R.G.S. Of- ficer of the Legion of Honour. Professor of Geography in the University of Belgrade. Author of Das Karstphaenomen; Grundlinien der Geographic und Geologic von Mazedonien und Allserbien; La Peninsule Balkanique. Balkan Peninsula (in part). D'ALBE, EDMUND EDWARD FOURNTER, D.Sc. (London and Birmingham), A.R.C.Sc., M.R.I.A. (E.E.F.D'A.) Inventor of the Optophone. Formerly Special Lecturer in Physics in the Punjab University. Author of The Electron Theory; Two New Worlds; Contemporary Chemistry; etc. Optophone. DALE, HARRISON CLIFFORD, A.M. (H.C.D.) Fellow of the American Geographical Society. Professor of Economics and Political Science, University of Idaho. Author of The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of b Central Route to the Pacific: 1822-1829; etc. Idaho. DANILOV, GENERAL YOURI. (Y.D.) Army (Russian, in part); Kornilov (in part). DARLING, CHARLES ROBERT, F.Inst.P., F.I.C. (C.R.D.) Lecturer in Applied Physics, City and Guilds Technical College, Finsbury. Author of Heat for Engineers; Pyrometry; etc. Pyrometry. DAVIDSON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR JOHN HUMPHREY, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., M.P. (J.H.D.) Late 6oth Rifles. Member for Fareham Division of Hampshire. Served throughout South African War. Instructor in Staff Duties at the Staff College. On the General Staff in France, 1914-8. Artois, Battles in (Part III.). DAVIES, ALBERT EMIL, L.C.C. (A.E.D.) Hon. Lecturer in Business Finance, Leeds University. Fellow of the Royal Economic Society. Author of The State in Business; The Nationalization of Railways; The Case for Nationalization; Land Nationalization; etc. Nationalization. DAVIS, HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS, M.A., C.B.E. (H.W.C.D.) Professor of History at Manchester University. Fellow and formerly Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Sometime Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Member of Advisory Staff of British delegation to the Peace Conference. Peace Conference. DAWNAY, MAJOR-GENERAL GUY PAYAN, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., M.V.O. (G.P.D.) Formerly Brigadier-General, Gen- eral Staff, Egyptian Expeditionary Force, and Director of Staff Duties, G.H.Q., France. Turkish Campaigns (Sinai). DEVINE, EDWARD THOMAS, Ph.D., LL.D. (E.T.D.) Associate Editor of The Survey, New York. Author of Misery and its Causes; The Normal Life; Disabled Soldiers and Sailors; etc. United States (Social and Welfare Work, in part). DEWAR, CAPTAIN ALFRED C., R.N. (Ret.), B.Litt. (Oxon.). (A.C.D.) Gold Medallist, Royal United Service Institution. Late of the Historical Section, Naval Staff, Admiralty. Admiralty Administration (British); Blockade; Convoy; Coro- net; Dogger Bank; Falkland Islands Battle; " Goeben and Breslau"; Heligoland Bight; Jutland, Battle of; Minesweep- ing and Minelaying; Naval History of the War; Submarine Campaigns; Zeebrugge. DEWEY, DAVIS RICH, Ph.D., LL.D. (D.R.D.) Professor of Economics and Statistics, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology. Formerly Secretary of the American Statistical Asso- ciation. Managing Editor of the American Economic Review. Author of Financial History of the United States. Editor of Francis Walker's Discussions in Economics and Statistics. United States (Statistics). D'EYNCOURT, SLR EUSTACE HENRY WILLIAM TENNYSON, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc. (E.T.o'E.) Commanderof the Legion of Honour. Distinguished Service Medal (U.S.A.). Director of Naval Construction and Chief Technical Adviser to the British Admiralty. Chief Adviser on Tanks to the Ministry of Munitions during the World War. Vice-president of the Institution of Naval Architects. Ship and Shipbuilding. DIGBY, LETTICE, F.M.S. (L.D.) Author of cytological papers in the Annals of Botany, Archiv fur Zellforschung, etc.. Botany (Cytology). DINES, WILLIAM HENRY, B.A. (Cantab.), F.R.Met.S., F.R.Ae.S., F.Inst.P., F.R.S. (W.H.Di.) See the biographical article: DINES, WILLIAM HENRY. Meteorology. DOBELL, CLIFFORD, M.A., F.R.S. (C.Do.) Protistolpgist to the Medical Research Council. Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly Assistant Professor of Protistology and Cytology, Imperial College of Science, London. Protozoology. DOUGLAS, CAPTAIN HENRY PERCY, C.M.G., R.N., F.R.A.S., A.M.I.C.E. (H.P.D.) -Assistant Hydrographer of the British Navy, 1919-21. Surveying (Nautical).

DOUMENC, COMMANDANT A. (A.D.*) French Army Staff. Officer of the Legion of Honour. D.S.O. Director of the 'French Army Mechanical Transport Service during the war. Author of Les Transports Automobiles sur le Front fran$ais. Motor Transport, Military.

DOW, JOHN STEWART, B.Sc., A.C.G.L (J.S.D.) Assistant Editor of the Illuminating Engineer. Joint-author of Modern Illuminants and Illuminating Engineering; etc. Illuminating Engineering; Lighting, Electric. DOWNING, AUGUSTUS SEISS, A.B., M.A., L.H.D., LL.D. (A.S.D.) Assistant Commissioner for Higher Education and Director of Professional Education, University of the State of New York. Education (United States, in part).

DOWNS, BRIAN WESTERDALE, M.A. (B.W.D.) Fellow and Lecturer in Mediaeval and Modern Languages and English, Christ's College, Cambridge. Cambridge.

DRAGE, GEOFFREY, M.A. (G.DR.) President of the Central Poor Law Conference, 1906. Vice-president, Royal Statistical Society, 1916-8. Attached to the War Office, Military Intelligence Section, 1916. Author of The State and the Poor; Reorganization of Official Statistics and a Central Statistical Office; Pre-war Statistics of Poland and Lithuania; etc. Poland; Public Assistance (in part). DRAKE, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL REGINALD JOHN, D.S.O. (R.J.D.) Late North Stafford Regiment and General Staff. Intelligence, Military (Secret Service). DUFFIELD, W. G. (W.G.D.) Professor of Physics, University College, Reading. Moseley, H. G. J. DUNIWAY, CLYDE AUGUSTUS, Ph.D., LL.D. (C.A.D.) Presi- dent of Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo. Colorado. DUTT, R. PALME, (R.P.D.) Late Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Two Internationals. Editor of The Labour International Handbook. Communism; International, The. EDDINGTON, ARTHUR STANLEY, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.S. (A.S.E.) Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy and Director of the Observatory, Cambridge. Author of Stellar Movements and the Structure of the Uni- verse; Space, Time and Gravitation. A stronomy. EDDISON, ERIC RUCKER, B.A. (E.R.E.) Controller of the Profiteering Act Department of the Board of Trade (London). Profiteering (United Kingdom). EDRIDGE-GREEN, FREDERICK WILLIAM, C.B.E., M.D., F.R.C.S (F.W.E.-G.) Special Examiner and Adviser to the Board of Trade on Colour Vision and Eyesight. Author of The Physiology of Vision. Inventor of the Colour Percep- tion Spectrometer and Colour Perception Lantern used as the Official Test of the British Navy. Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. EDSON, MIRA BURR. (M.B.E.) Editor of the Arts and Crafts Magazine and Arts and Crafts Bulletin. Arts and Crafts (United States). EGERTON, HUGH EDWARD. (H.E.E.) Sometime Beit Professor of Colonial History, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Author of A Short History of British Colonial Policy; Origin and Growth of the English Colonies; "Canada" (Part II.) in Sir Charles Lucas's History and Geography of the British Colonies; etc. British Empire. ELLIOT, WALTER ELLIOT, B.Sc., M.B.,'Ch.B., M.P. (W.E.EL.) Secretary, Medical Committee, House of Commons. Health Ministry; Pensions Ministry. ELOESSER, ARTHUR, Ph.D.(Berlin). (A.E.) Author of Die Aelteste Deutsche Uebersetzung Molierescher Lustspiele; Das Burgerliche Drama; Litterarische Portraits aus dem Modernen Frankreich. German Literature. ENDRES, MAJOR FRANZ CARL. (F.C.E.) Late General Staff, Turkish Army. Author of a Life of Moltke; Die Ruine des Orients; etc. Member of Committee, German League of Na- tions Union. Army (Turkish); Balkan War s (in'part) ; Essad; Turkish Cam- paigns (Caucasus). ERVINE, ST. JOHN GREER. (ST.J.E.) Dramatic Critic of The Observer. Author of The Magnanimous Lover; Mixed Mar- riage; Jane Clegg; and other plays. Drama. EVEREST, ARTHUR ERNEST, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.I.C. (A.E.Ev.) Joint-author of The Natural Organic Colouring Matters (Perkin and Everest). Author of various papers on Colour- ing Matters, etc. in Proc. Roy. Soc., Journ. Chem. Soc., etc, Botany ( Chemistry of Sap Pigments of Plants). FANNING, LEONARD M. (L.M.F.) Director of Publicity and Statistics, American Petroleum Institute. Formerly Editor of the Oil Trade Journal. Petroleum. FARMER, R. C., D.Sc., Ph.D. (R.C.F.) Late Chief Chemist, Ex- plosives Department, Ministry of Munitions. Explosives (in part). FAWCETT, MILLICENT GARRETT (Mrs. Henry Fawcett), J.P., LL.D. (Hon. St. Andrews and Birmingham). (M.G.F.) See the biographical article: FAWCETT, M. G. Woman Suffrage. FEILER, ARTHUR. (A.F.*) " On the Staff of the Frankfurter Zeitung. Member of the Economic Council of the German Reich. Author of Die Konjunktur- Periode, 1907-13, in Deutschland; Handelspolitik und Krieg; etc. Germany ( Finance). FELLOWS, GEORGE EMORY, A.M., Ph.D., L.H.D., LL.D. (G.E.F.) Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Utah. President of the University of Maine, 1902-11. Author of Recent European History; Outline Study of the Sixteenth Century; etc. Utah. FIELD, CAPTAIN RAYMOND ERNEST, O.B.E. (R.E.F.) Medals and Decorations. FISH, CARL RUSSELL, M.A., Ph.D. (C.R.F.) Professor of American History in the University of Wisconsin. Author of Civil Service and the Patronage; Development of American Diplomacy; etc. Wisconsin. FISHER, IRVING, A.B., Ph.D. (I.F.) Professor of Political Econo- my at Yale University. Author of The Nature of Capital and Income; The Purchasing Power of Money; The Rate of In- terest; etc. See the biographical article: FISHER, IRVING. Dollar Stabilization. FLACK, WING COMMANDER MARTIN, C.B.E., M.A., M.B. (M.FL.) Director of Medical Research, Royal Air Force. Author of papers on the medical aspect of flying, etc. Aerotherapeutics. FLEMING, ALEXANDER, M.B., F.R.C.S. (A.Fi..) Director of the Department of Systematic Bacteriology in St. Mary's Hospital, London. Antiseptics. FLEMING, JOHN AMBROSE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., M.Inst.E.E. (J.A.F.) Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Some- time Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Author of The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy and Telephony; The Propagation of Electric Currents in Telephone and Telegraph Conductors; The Tliermionic Valve; The Wonders of Wireless Telegraphy; etc. Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony. FLETT, JOHN SMITH, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D.; F.R.S. (J.S.F.) Director, and formerly Petrographer, of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. Author or Part-author of many Geological reports and memoirs. Petrology. FLEXNER, ABRAHAM. (A.Fx.) Secretary of the General Edu- cation Board, New York. Author of Medical Education in the United States. Medical Education ( United States). FOERSTER, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WOLFGANG. (W.F.) Late General Staff, German Army. Chief Ober-Archivrat of the Reichsarchiv. Formerly member of the Historical Section of the Great General Staff. During the World War, General Staff Officer with troops. Chief of the General Staff of the XI. Corps, 1918. Author of Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen; Graf Schliefen und der Weltkrieg. Western European Front Campaigns (in part). FORD, GUY STANTON, Ph.D. (G.S.F.) Professor of History and Dean of the Graduate School, University of Minnesota. Director of Division of Educational and Civic Publications, Committee on Public Information. Censorship (United States).

FORD, JAMES, Ph.D. (J.F.) Associate Professor of Social Ethics in Harvard University. Sometime Division Manager, U.S. Housing Corporation. Editor of the Report of the U.S. Housing Corporation. Author of Go-operation in New England; etc. Housing (United States).

FORSDYKE, EDGAR JOHN, M.A., F.S.A. (E.J.F.) Assistant in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Editor of the Journal of Hellenic Studies. Archaeology (Greece).

FOSDICK, RAYMOND ELAINE, B.A., M.A., LL.B. (R.B.F.) Formerly Commissioner of Accounts, City of New York. Author of American Police Systems; European Police Systems; Keeping our Fighters Fit; etc. New York City. FOWLER, ALFRED, F.R.S. (A.F.) Corresponding Member, Academy of Science, Paris. Professor of Astrophysics, Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington.

FOX, FRANK, O.B.E. (F.F.) Author of Australia; Problems of the Pacific; “G.H.Q.” Served in the World War as Artillery officer and as Staff officer.
Australia; Canteens; Supply and Transport, Military (in part).

FRANCIS, PERCY A., M.B.E., N.D.A., N.D.D. (P.A.F.) Technical Head of the Small Livestock Branch, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, London. Late Senior Agricultural Inspector to the Board of Agriculture for Scotland. Superintending Instructor in Poultry-Keeping and Dairying to the Irish Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction. County Instructor in Poultry-Keeping to the Antrim County Council.

FRANCKE, ERNST. (E.F.*) Head of the Bureau for Sozialpolitik. Member of the Economic Council of the German Reich. Publisher and Editor of Soziale Praxis. Germany (Social and Industrial Legislation).

FRANKLIN, ERNEST LOUIS, F.S.S. (E.L.F.) Member of the Royal Economic Society. Partner in the banking house of Samuel Montagu, London. Exchanges, Foreign.

FREAR, WALTER FRANCIS, LL.D. (W.F.F.) Formerly Chief Justice and late Governor of Hawaii. Chairman of the Hawaiian Code Commission. Hon. Member of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. Author of The Evolution of the Hawaiian Judiciary. Hawaii.

GABRIEL, RALPH HENRY, Ph.D. (R.H.G.) Assistant Professor of History in Yale University. Author of The Evolution of Long Island; etc. Connecticut.

GAUVAIN, SIR HENRY, M.A., M.D., M.Ch. (Cantab.). (H.J.G.) Medical Superintendent, Lord Mayor Treloar Cripples' Hospital and College, Alton and Hayling Island, Hants. Hon. Consulting Surgeon to the Welsh National Memorial Association. Consultant in Surgical Tuberculosis to the Essex and Hampshire County Councils. Tuberculosis.

GEYL, PEETER, Litt.D. (Leiden). (P.G.*) Professor of Dutch Studies in the University of London. Holland (in part).

GIBB, BRIGADIER-GENERAL SIR ALEXANDER, G.B.E., C.B., D.S.M. (U.S.A.), Commander of the Order of the Crown of Belgium, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E., A.I.N.A., F.R.S. (Edin.). (A.Gi.) Late Civil Engineer-in-Chief, Admiralty. Late Director-General of Civil Engineering, British Ministry of Transport. Consulting Civil Engineer, Ministry of Transport. Transport (in part).

GIBSON, ARNOLD HARTLEY, D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., F.R.Ae.S. (A.H.Gi.) Professor of Engineering, University of Manchester; late Professor of Engineering, St. Andrews University. Member, Board of Trade Water Power Committee; Hon. Secretary, Conjoint Board, Water Power Committee. Member of the Air Ministry I.C.E. Committee. President, British Association, Section 9, 1921. Aeronautics (Aero- Engines).

GITTINGER, ROY, Ph.D. (R.Gi.) Dean of Undergraduates and Professor of English History in the University of Oklahoma. Author of The Formation of the State of Oklahoma; etc. Oklahoma.

GLAISE-HORSTENAU, MAJOR EDUARD. (E.G.-H.) Late General Staff, Austro-Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. Formerly Staff Officer to Field-Marshal Conrad von Hotzendorf. Austria, Republic of (History); Eastern European Front Campaigns (in part).

GLOERFELDT-TARP, F., M.A. (F.G.-T.) Chief Secretary to the Danish Extraordinary Commission on Regulation of Prices. Secretary to the General Director of the Great Northern Telegraph Company (Store Nordiske). Denmark (in part).

GLOVER, JAMES ALISON, O.B.E., M.A., M.D. (Cantab.), D.P.H. (J.A.G.) Medical Officer, Ministry of Health. Late Officer in Charge Cerebro-Spinal Fever Laboratory, London District. Cerebro-Spinal Fever.

GOLIGHTLY, COLONEL R. E. (R.E.G.) Volunteers.

GOLOVINE, LIEUTENANT-GENERAL N. N. (N.N.G.) Russian Cross of St. George. British Military C.B. French Croix de Guerre. Commander of the Legion of Honour. Formerly Professor in the Russian General Staff College. Kaledin, Alexei; Sukhomlinoii.

GOODSPEED, EDGAR JOHNSON, Ph.D. (E.J.G.) Professor of Biblical and Patristic Greek, and Secretary to the President, Chicago University. Author of the Story of the New Testament; Index Patristicus. Contributor to the Atlantic Monthly. Chicago University.

GRAPER, ELMER D., Ph.D. (E.D.G.) Instructor in Government, Columbia University. Author of American Police Administration. New York State.

GRAVELL, WALTER, Ph.D. (W.Gu.) Regierungsrat in the Statistical Offices of the Reich, Berlin. Member of tlje German Statistical Society. Author of Abhandlungen iiber Bevolkerungs-, Berufs- und Belriebsstatistik; etc. Germany (Statistics).

GREENWOOD, MAJOR M., M.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. (M.G.*) Medical Officer (Medical Statistics), Ministry of Health. Reader in Medical Statistics, University of London. Epidemiology (in part).

GREGORY, JOHN WALTER, D.Sc., F.R.S., M.I.M.M. (J.W.G.) Professor of Geology in the University of Glasgow. Author of The Great Rift Valley; The Dead Heart of Australia; British Museum Catalogues of Fossil Bryozoa, etc. Victoria Medallist of the Royal Geographical Society. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society. Geology (Cosmic).

GREVE, CHARLES THEODORE, A.B., LL.B. (C.T.G.) Referee-in-Bankruptcy, U.S. District Court, Southern District of Ohio. Secretary to the Trustees of the Sinking Fund of Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati. GRIEVE, REV. ALEXANDER JAMES, M.A., D.D. (A.J.G.) Principal and Professor of Systematic Theology in the Scottish Congregational College, Edinburgh. Assistant Editor of Peake's Commentary on the Bible. Church History (Free Churches; Presbyterian Church of Scotland).

GRIFFITH, WILLIAM L. (W.L.G.*) Permanent Secretary, Office of the High Commissioner for Canada, London. Author of The Dominion of Canada; article on "Canada," Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Alberta; British Columbia; Canada (in part); Manitoba; New Brunswick; North-West Territories; Nova Scotia; Ontario; Prince Edward Island; Quebec; Saskatchewan; Yukon Territory.

GRIMSHAW, HAROLD ATHELING, B.A., M.Sc.(Econ.). (H.A.G.*) Lecturer in Public Administration at the London School of Economics, London University. Member of the International Labour Section of the League of Nations. Hours of Labour (in part).

GROAT, GEORGE G., Ph.D. (G.G.G.) Head of the Department of Commerce and Economics, University of Vermont. Author of Attitude of American Courts in Labor Cases. Vermont.

GROGAN, ELINOR F. B. (Lady Grogan). (E.F.B.G.) Wife of Colonel Sir Edward Grogan, Bart., C.M.G., D.S.O. Travelled and lived for some years in the Balkans. Author of articles on Balkan subjects in the Nineteenth Century; New , Europe; etc. Bulgaria.

GUDMUNDSSON, VALTYR, M.A., D.Ph. (V.G.) Knight of the Dannebrog. Professor of Icelandic Language and Literature in the University of Copenhagen. Member of the Icelandic Parliament, 1894–1914. Editor of the Periodical Eimreidin. Author of Privatboligen paa Island i Sagatiden; Islands Kultur; etc. Iceland.

GUNN, JAMES ANDREW, M.A., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.). (J.A.G.*) Professor of Pharmacology, University of Oxford. Formerly Assistant in the Department of Pharmacology, Edinburgh University. Pharmacology.

HAEFTEN, MAJOR-GENERAL HANS VON. (H.v.H.) Late General Staff, German Army. Director in the Archives of the Reich. Formerly member of the Historical Section of the Great .General Staff. During the World War a General Staff Officer with troops. Representative of the Supreme Command at the Foreign Office, 1918. Champagne, Battles in (in part); Noyon, Battle of. HALDANE, ELIZABETH SANDERSON, C.H., LL.D., J.P. (E.S.H.) Member of Education Authority for Perthshire. Vice-chairman, Territorial Force Nursing Service Committee. On Royal Commission on the Civil Service. Member of the Scottish Universities Committee. Author of The Life of Descartes; etc. Child Welfare (United Kingdom); Nursing (in part).

HALE, JAMES E., S.B., M.S.A.E. (J.E.HA.) Technical Development and Sales Engineer, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. Tire.

HALL, SIR ALFRED DANIEL, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (A.D.H.) Chief Scientific Adviser and Director-General of the Intelligence Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Author of The Soil; Fertilisers and Manures; A Pilgrimage of British Farming; Agriculture after the War; etc.* Agriculture.

HALL, HARRY REGINALD HOLLAND, D.Litt., M.B.E., F.S.A. (H.H.*) Assistant Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. Archaeology (Egypt and Western Asia).

HALNAN, E. T. (E.T.H.) Senior Inspector, Intelligence Depart- ment, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Great Britain. Milk.

HAMILTON, JOSEPH GREGOIRE DE ROULHAC, M.A., Ph.D. (J.G.de R.H.) Kenan Professor of History and Government in the University of North Carolina. Author of Reconstruc- tion in North Carolina; North Carolina since 1860; etc. North Carolina.

HAMMER, S. C., F.R.S.A. (S.C.H.) Chief Archivist and Librarian of the Norwegian Foreign Office, Christiania. Norway.

HANEY, LEWIS HENRY, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (L.H.H.) Bureau of Markets, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Formerly Di- rector, New York University, Bureau of Business Research. Member of the Economic Advisory Board of the Federal Trade Commission, 1916-9. Prices ( United States ) ; Profiteering ( United States) .

HAPPOLD, CAPTAIN FREDERICK CROSSFIELD, D.S.O. (F.C.H.) Late General Staff (Intelligence), V. Army, and Lecturer at the Intelligence School, Harrow-on-the-Hill. Intelligence, Military (in part).

HARDY, GODFREY HAROLD, M.A., F.R.S. (G.H.H.) Fellow of New College, Oxford. Savilian Professor of Geometry in Oxford University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Mathematics ( Theory of Numbers; Theory of Series; Theory of Functions).

HARING, CLARENCE HENRY, B.Litt.(Oxon.), Ph.D. (Harvard). (C.H.H.) Associate Professor of History in Yale University. Author of The Buccaneers in the West Indies in the X VII. Century; Trade and Navigation between Spain and the Indies in the Time of the Habsburgs; etc. Brazil; Rio de Janeiro.

HART, ALBERT BUSHNELL, A.B., LL.D., Litt.D. (A.B.H.) Professor of Government, Harvard University. Author of Salmon Portland Chase; Slavery and Abolition; National Ideas Historically Traced; Monroe Doctrine; etc. Editor of the American Nation; Cyclopaedia of American Government' etc. Roosevelt, Theodore; United Stales (History).

HATCHER, MAJOR JULIAN SOMERVTLLE. (J.S.HA.) Ordnance Department, U.S. Army. Member of the American Institution of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. Life Member of the National Association of America. Experimental Engineer at the Government Small Arms Plant, Springfield Armory. Formerly Chief of the Machine-Gun and Small Arms Section, Ordnance Department. - Machine-Guns; Sights (in part).

HAWKINS, CHARLES CAESAR, M.A., M.I.E.E., Assoc. American I.E.E. (C.C.H.) Author of The Dynamo. Joint-author of Papers on the Design of Alternate Current Machinery. Electrical Engineering (in part).

HEADLAM-MORLEY, JAMES WYCLIFFE, M.A., C.B.E. (J.W. H.-M.) Historical Adviser to the Foreign Office. Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Author of Election by Lot at Athens; Life of Bismarck; Special Reports issued by the Board of Education on Classical Studies in Germany The History of Twelve Days; The Issue; etc. Europe.

HELLFRON, EDUARD, Geheimer Justizrat. (E.H.) Judge at the Court of Berlin. Professor at the Commercial Univer- sity College of Berlin. Germany (Administration).

HELDT, PETER MARTIN, (P.M.H.) Engineering Editor of Automotive Industries. Author of The Gasoline Automobile. Motor Vehicles; Tractors.

HENNIKER, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL A. M. (A.M.H.) Inland Water Transport.

HERBERT, SYDNEY. (S.H.) Lecturer in International Politics, University College, Aberstwyth. Author of Modern Europe, 1789–1914; Nationality and its Problems; Fall of Feudalism in France. Syndicalism (in part).

HEZLET, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ROBERT KNOX, C.B.E., D.S.O. (R.K.H.) Royal Field Artillery, Superintendent of External Ballistics, Ordnance Committee. Author of Nomography; Interior Ballistics; etc. Ballistics (in part); Nomography.

HELDERBRAND, KARL, Ph.D. (K.H.*) Member of the Swedish Debt Board. Chief Editor of the daily paper Stockholms Dagblad, 1904–13. Member of the Swedish Parliament, 1907–18. Sweden.

HILL, SQUADRON LEADER R. M., R.A.F., M.C., A.F.C. (R.M.H.) Associate Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. For- merly in charge of the Experimental Flying Department, Royal Aircraft Establishment. Author of paper to the Royal Aeronautical Society: A Comparison of the Flying Qualities of Single and Twin-Engined Aeroplanes; Aeronautical Re- search Committee Reports and Memoranda No. 678; The Influence of Military and Civil Requirements on the Flying Qualities of Aeroplanes. Aeronautics (Performance of Aeroplanes).

HILTON, JOHN (J.H.) Strikes and Lockouts (in part); Unemployment (United Kingdom Statistics). HODDER, FRANK HEYWOOD, Ph.M. (F.H.H.*) Professor of American History in the University of Kansas. Kansas.

HOEN, LIEUTENANT-FIELD-MARSHAL MAXIMILIAN. (M.H.) Director of the Austrian Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. Part-author of the Austrian Official history of the First Silesian War. Author of Der Krieg 1809; etc. Rovno, Battle of.

HOLDERNESS, SIR THOMAS WILLIAM, Bart., G.C.B., K.C.S.I. (T.W.Ho.) Late Permanent Under-Secretary of State for India. Author of Peoples and Problems of India; Narra- tive of the Indian Famine, 1896-97. Editor of the 4th edi- tion of Strachey's India. India.

HOLLAND, CAPTAIN EDGAR STOPFORD. (E.S.H.*) Late Royal West Kent Regiment. Formerly Mobilization Direc- torate, War Office. Member of Gray's Inn. Army (British Demobilization); Dogs, War (in part); Marines (in part).

HOLLANDER, JACOB H., Ph.D. (J.H. Ho.) Professor of Political Economy in Johns Hopkins University. Author of David Ricardo; The Abolition of Poverty; War Borrowing; etc. Treasurer of Porto Rico, 1900–1. Financial Adviser of the Dominican Republic, 1908–10. Haiti; Porto Rico; Santo Domingo.

HOLT, COLONEL LUCIUS H.,B.A.,M.A., Ph.D. (Yale). (L.H.H.*) Professor of English and History at the United States Military Academy, West Point. Author of Introduction to the Study of Government. Joint-author (with Major A. W. Chilton) of History of Europe, 1789–1815; History of Europe, 1862–1914. West Point.

HOOPER, FRANKLIN HENRY. (F.H.H.) American Editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica (i2th Edition). Public Assistance (United States).

HOPKINS, ERNEST MARTIN, A.M., Litt.D., LL.D. (E.M.Ho.) President of Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. Dartmouth College.

HOWARD-VYSE, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL RICHARD GRANVILLE HYLTON, C.M.G., D.S.O. (R.G.H.-V.) Royal Horse Guards. Served during the World War as Chief-pf-Staff of 5th Cavalry Brigade and 5th Cavalry Division in France, and of Desert Mounted Corps in Palestine. Mounted Troops. HOWARTH, OSBERT JOHN RADCLIFFE, O.B.E., M.A. (OJ. R.H.) Assistant Secretary of the British Association. Sometime of the Geographical Section, Naval Intelligence Department Editor of the Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Geography; Malay States, Federated; Malay States, Non- Federated; Netherlands India; Pacific Ocean, Islands of; Straits Settlements and Dependencies; United Kingdom (Statistics).

HUBBARD, HOWARD ARCHIBALD, M.A. (H.A.H.) Associate Professor of History and Social Science University of Arizona. Arizona.

HUNTER, J. DE GRAFF, M.A., Sc.D. (J.DEG.H.) Mathematical Adviser to the Survey of India. Author of Formulae for Atmospheric Refraction and their Application to Terrestrial Refraction and Geodesy; Survey of India, Prof. Papers Nos. 14, 1913 {The Earth's Axes and Triangulation) , and 16, 1918. Geodesy (in part).

HURST, ARTHUR FREDERICK, M.A., M.D.(Oxon), F.R.C.P. (A.F.Hu.) Lieutenant-Colonel, late R.A.M.C. Physician and Neurologist to Guy's Hospital. Medicine and Surgery (Diseases in the World War).

HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D., D.Litt. (D.Hv.) Professor of Modern Irish in University College, Dublin. President of the Irish Texts Society. Author of Literary History of Ireland; etc. See biographical article: HYDE, DOUGLAS. Ireland (Language and Literature) ; Pearse, Patrick.

INGALLS, WALTER RENTON. (W.R.I.) Consulting Mining and Metallurgical Engineer, New York. Author of Metallurgy of Zinc and Cadmium. Copper.

INMAN, ARTHUR CONYERS, M.A., M.B., B.Ch.(Oxon.). (A.C.I.) Pathologist to the Brompton Hospital for Consumption. Hon. Captain, R.A.M.C. Special Bacteriologist in the British Expeditionary Force during the World War. Vaccine Therapy.

IRWTN, FLORENCE. (F.I.) Author of The Complete Auction Player; Master- Auction; etc. Bridge, Auction. JACKSON, SIR HERBERT, K.B.E., F.R.S. (HjN.) Director of Research, British Scientific Instruments Research Associa- tion. Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of London. Glass (in part).

JACKSON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR LOUIS, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G. (LJ.) Commander of the Legion of Honour. Knight of St. Stanislas. Late Royal Engineers. Formerly Director-General of Trench Warfare Supply, and Controller of Chemical War- fare Research, British War Office. Mining, Military; Poison Gas Warfare.

JAMES, HERMAN GERLACH, M.A., J.D., Ph.D. (H.G.J.) Professor of Government in the University of Texas. Author of Principles of Prussian Administration; Applied City Government; A Handbook of Civic Improvements; etc. Chile.

JEANS, JAMES HOPWOOD, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (J.H.jE.) Secretary of the Royal Society. Author of The Dynamical Theory of Gases; Problems of Cosmogony and Stellar Dynamics; etc. Relativity.

JOCELYN, COLONEL JULIAN ROBERT JOHN, C.B. (J.R.J.J.) Late Royal Artillery. Gold Medallist of the Royal Artillery Institution. Air Bombs (in part).

JOHNSON, BURGES, A.B.(Amherst). (B.J.*) Associate Professor of English and Director of the Bureau of Publication! Vassar College. Editor of the Bulletin of the Authors' League of America. Vassar College. JOHNSON, EMORY RICHARD, M.L., Ph.D., Sc.D. (E.RJ.) Professor of Transportation and Commerce and Dean of the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Principles of Railroad Transportation; Principles of Ocean Transportation; etc. Interstate Commerce.

JOHNSTONE, JAMES, D.Sc. (J.J.) Professor of Oceanography' in the University of Liverpool. Author of Conditions of Life in the Sea; British Fisheries; etc. Oceanography.

JOLY, MAJOR ERNST. (EJ.) Late General Staff, Austro- Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. Part- author of the Austrian Official War Chronology Tables; etc. Army (Austro- Hungarian, in part); Brest Litovsk, Battles Round, 1915; Dunajec-San, Battles of the; Lemberg (Lvov), Battles Round (Part 1 1.); Lodz- Cracow, Battles of; Przemysl, Sieges of; Strypa- Czernowitz, Battle of; Vistula-San, Battle of the.

JONES, SIR ROBERT, K.B.E., C.B., D.S.M.(U.S.A.), F.R.C.S., Hon.D.Sc. (Wales), Hon.LL.D. (Aberdeen). (RJo.) Lecturer in Orthopaedic Surgery, Liverpool University. Director of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Thomas's Hospital. Surgeon to the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital. Hon. Adviser in Or- thopaedic Surgery, Ministry of Pensions. Orthopaedic Surgery.

JORGA, NICHOLAS, Dr. Juris. (N.J.) Professor at the Uni- versity of Bucharest. Member of the Academie Roumaine. Correspondent of the Institut de France and of the Academie Serbe. Author of Die Geschichte des Osmanescher Reiches; The Byzantine Empire; etc. Rumania (History).

JUNCK, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WTLHELM. (WJ.*) Austro-Hungarian Engineer Corps. Formerly of the Munitions Section of the Austro-Hungarian Military Technical Committee and the Munitions Department of the War Ministry. Munitions of War ( Central Powers, in part).

KARSTEN, CARL. (C.K.*) Member of the Staff of the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Allenstein-Marienwerder; Ballin, A.; Berlin; Bernstorjf, Count; Dresden; Ebert, F;Erzberger, M. (in part); Eucken, R. C. (in part); Germany (Political History, in part); Saxony; Schleswig; Silesia, Upper.

KAY, J. A. (J.A.K.) Editor of the Railway Gazette. Railways (British).

KAYE, H. W., M.D.(Oxon.). (H.W.K.) Director of Medical Services, Ministry of Pensions. Late Personal Assistant to Chief Commissioner of Medical Services, Ministry of National Service. United Kingdom (Medical Examination of the Nation).

KEEBLE, FREDERICK WILLIAM, C.B.E., F.R.S. (F.KE.*) Sherardian Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford. Botany (Introductory).

KELLOG, VERNON LYMAN, M.S., LL.D. (V.L.K.) Permanent Secretary, National Research Council, Washington. Some- time Professor in Leland Stanford Jr. University. Director in Brussels of Commission for Relief in Belgium. Member of the American Relief Administration. Red Cross Work (United States); Y.M.C.A. (United States).

KELSEN, HANS, Dr. Juris. (H.K.) Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Vienna. Austria, Republic of (Constitution and Administration). KENT, O. B., B.S., M.S., Ph.D. (O.B.K.) Professor of Poultry Department of New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University. Managing Editor Poultry Science. Secretary-Treasurer of American Association of Instructors and Investigators of Poultry Husbandry. Poultry ( United States).

KERSHAW, JOHN BAKER CANNINGTON, F.I.C., F.S.S. (J.B.C.K.) Consulting Chemist and Chemical Engineer. Author of The Electric Furnace in Iron and Steel Production; Electrometallurgy; Electrothermal Methods of Iron and Steel Production. Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy.

KIRK, EDWARD CAMERON, D.D.S., Sc.D., LL.D. (E.C.K.) Late Dean and Emeritus Professor of Dental Pathology and Therapeutics, Dental School, University of Pennsylvania. Editor of The Dental Cosmos. Dentistry.

KISZLING, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL RUDOLF. (R.K.) Late General Staff, Austro-Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegs- archiv, Vienna. Eastern European Front Campaigns (in part) ; Luck, Battles of.

KITCHIN, JOSEPH, F.S.S. (J.K.) Manager in London of the Union Corporation, Limited. Gold.

KLIMBERG, BARON OTTO VON, Dr. Juris. (O.v.K.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.

KNECHT, EDMUND, Ph.D. (Zurich), M.Sc.Tech., F.I.C. (E.K.) Associate Professor of Applied Chemistry, Manchester Uni- versity and College of Technology. Dyeing ( United Kingdom).

KRAUSE, DR. ALLEN K. (A.K.K.) Staff of Johns Hopkins Hos- pital, Baltimore. Managing Editor of the American Review of Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis ( United States).

KRIEGK, OTTO, Ph.D. (Gottingen). (O.Ku.) Member of the Staff of the Weser Zeitung, Berlin Office. Bremen; Hamburg. KRISTIANSEN, DR. M. (M.K.) Denmark (in part).

KUBENA, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHANN. (J.K.*) Austro-Hungarian Engineer Corps. Formerly of the Munitions Department of the Austro-Hungarian War Ministry. Munitions of War ( Central Powers, in part).

LAMB, MORRIS CHARLES, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. (M.C.L.) Direc- tor of the Light Leather Department of the Leathersellers' Company's Technical College, London. Author of Leather Dressing, including Dyeing, Staining and Finishing; etc. Leather.

LANE, SIR WILLIAM ARBUTHNOT, Bart., C.B., M.S. (W.A.LA.) Consulting Surgeon to Guy's Hospital, etc. Intestinal Stasis.

LAW, EDWARD F. (E.F.L.) Consulting Engineer. Formerly of the Armour Plate Department, Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Armour Plate; Helmet.

LAYTON, WALTER THOMAS, M.A., C.H. (W.T.L.) Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. University Lecturer, Cambridge University. Lecturer, Workers' Educational Association, 1916-9. Member of British Munitions Council during the World War. Temporary Director, Economic and Financial Section, League of Nations. Director, National Federation of Iron and Steel Manufacturers. Director, Welwyn Garden City. Author of Capital and Labour; Introduction to the Study of Prices. Munitions of War (United Kingdom, in part).

LAZARUS-BARLOW, WALTER SYDNEY, M.D., F.R.C.P. (W.S.L.-B.) Professor of Experimental Pathology in the University of London. Director of the Cancer Research Laboratories at the Middlesex Hospital. Author of General or Experimental Pathology; Pathological Anatomy and Histology; etc. Radiotherapy.

LEAKS, JAMES MILLER, A.B., Ph.D. (J.M.L.) Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Florida. Author of The Virginia Committee System and the American Revolution; etc. Florida.

LEFROY, HAROLD MAXWELL, M.A..F.Z.S. (H.M.L.) Professor of Entomology in the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington. Author of Indian Insect Pests; Indian Insect Life; etc. Economic Entomology.

LELY, C., C.E. (C.LY.) Ex-Minister of Public Works, Holland. Member of the Second Chamber of the States General. Zuider Zee.

LENOX-CONYNGHAM, COLONEL SIR GERALD PONSONBY, R.E., F.R.S. (G.P.L.-C.) Superintendent of the Trigonometrical Survey of India. Geodesy (in part).

LEVY, ALFRED GOODMAN, M.D., M.R.C.P. (A.G.L.) Physi- cian to the City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest. Anaesthelics.

LEVY, RAPHAEL GEORGES. (R.G.L.) Senator of France. Member of the Finance Committee of the Senate. France (Finance).

LEWIS, WILLIAM MATHER, M.A. (W.M.LE.) Formerly Direc- tor of the Savings Division U.S. Treasury Department. Savings Movement (United States). LIBBY, ORIN GRANT, Ph.D. (Wisconsin). (O.G.L.) Professor of American History, University of North Dakota. Secretary of the State Historical Society. Editor of Collections of State Historical Society of North Dakota (vols. i.-iv. and vi.). North Dakota.

LINDEMANN, FREDERICK ALEXANDER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. (F.A.L.) Professor of Experimental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Einstein, A.

LINDSAY, SAMUEL McCUNE, Ph.D., LLD. (S.McC.L.) Profes- sor of Social Legislation in Columbia University. President of New York Academy of Political Science. Editor of Ameri- can Social Progress Series. Author of Railway Labour in the United States; Financial Administration of Great Britain; etc. Liquor Laws and Liquor Control ( United States) ; Prohibition.

LLOYD, CHARLES MOSTYN, M.A.(Oxon.). (C.M.L.) Barrister- at-Law. Lecturer at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Author of Trade Union-ism; Essays on the Reorganization of Local Government; etc. Poor Law.

LLOYD, G. I. H. (G.I.H.L.) Assistant Director, Department of Overseas Trade. Munitions of War (United Kingdom, in part).

LOCKER-LAMPSON, COMMANDER OLIVER STILLING- FLEET, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.P., B.A. (O.L.-L.) R.N.A.S. Parliamentary Secretary (Private) to Mr. Austen Chamber- lain as Chancellor of the Exchequer and as Leader of The House of Commons. Author of The Great Preference Debate. Chamberlain, J. Austen. LONG, BASIL KELLETT. (B.K.L.) Editor of the Cape Times. Formerly Foreign Editor of The Times. Botha, General; Jameson, Sir L. S.; Smuts, J. C.

LONG, MAJOR-GENERAL SIDNEY SELDEN, C.B. (S.S.L.) Assistant Director of Supplies, 1909-12. Director of Supplies and Quartering, 1913-4. Director of Supplies and Transport, War Office, 1914-6. Food Supply (Feeding of the British Army During the World War).

LUND, H., M.A. (H.Lu.) Denmark (in part) .

MacBRIDE, ERNEST WILLIAM, D.Sc.(Lond.), M.A. (Cantab.), Hon.LL.p.(McGill), F.R.S. (E.W.MAcB.) Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. Vice-Chairman of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Professor of Zoology in McGill University, Montreal. Professor of Zoology in the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Author of Textbook of the Embryology of the Invertebrata; etc. Cytology; Embryology; Eugenics.

McCLELLAN, MAJOR E. N. (E.N.McC.) U.S. Marine Corps. Officer-in-charge, Historical Section, Marine Corps. Marines (United States).

McCLURE, WILLIAM KIDSTON, M.A.(Oxon.). (W.K.McC.) Late Correspondent of The Times in Rome. Correspondent of The Times on the Italian Front, 1915-7. Author of Italy's Part in the War; Italy in North Africa; Chapters on Italy in The Times History of the War; etc. Asiago, Battle of; Cadorna, General; Caneva, Carlo; Caporelto, Battle of; Italian Campaigns; Italo- Turkish War.

McCORMICK, SAMUEL BLACK, A.B., M.A., D.D., LL.D. (S.B.McC.) Chancellor Emeritus, University of Pittsburgh. Pa. Pittsburgh.

McCORVEY, THOMAS CHALMERS, M.A., LL.D. (T.C.McC.) Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Alabama. Author of The Government of the People of the State of Alabama. Contributor to The Library of Southern Literature and The South in the Building of the Nation, etc. Alabama.

MACDONELL, ARTHUR ANTHONY, M.A., Ph.D., Hon.LL.D., F.B.A. (A. A.M.) Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the Uni- versity of Oxford. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Turanians and Pan-Turanianism; Eurasian Routes; Vedic Mythology; A History of Sanskrit Literature. Pan- Turanidnism.

McGRATH, HON. SIR PATRICK THOMAS, K.B.E., LL.D- (P.T.M.) Editor of the Newfoundland Evening Herald. President of the Legislative Council, Newfoundland. Newfoundland.

McKINLEY, ALBERT E., Ph.D. (A.E.McK.) Professor of His- tory, University of Pennsylvania. Secretary, Pennsylvania War History Commission. President, Pennsylvania Federa- tion of Historical Societies. Pennsylvania; Philadelphia.

M'MAHON, COLONEL SIR ARTHUR HENRY, G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E., C.S.I., F.S.A., F.L.S., etc. (A.H.McM.) Foreign Secretary to the Government of India, 1911-4. British High Commissioner in Egypt, 1914-6. See biographi- cal article: M'MAHON, SIR ARTHUR HENRY. Afghanistan.

MACNAMARA,ERICDENVERS, M.A.,M.p.,F.R.C.P. (E.D.M.) Lecturer in Psychological Medicine in the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School. Physician to the West End Hos- pital for Nervous Diseases. Psychotherapy.

MACON, WILLIAM WATTS. (W.W.M.) Editor of The Iron Age, New York. Iron and Steel.

MacPHERSON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM GRANT, K.G.M.G., C.B., LL.D. (W.G.MA.) Editor-in-Chief of the Medical History of the Great War. Formerly Deputy Director- General, Army Medical Service. Author of Handbooks of the Medical Services of Foreign Armies; etc. Army Medical Service (British). MADARIAGA, SALVADOR DE. (S.DE M.) Author of Shelley and Calderon, and other Essays on Spanish and English Poetry; Romances de Ceigo; Manojo de Poesias Inglesas; etc. Spanish Literature.

MAGEE, WILLIAM KIRKPATRICK. (W.K.M.) Second Libra- rian, National Library of Ireland. Pseudonym, "John Eglin- ton." Author of Anglo-Irish Essays; etc. Synge, J. M.

MAKINS, SIR GEORGE HENRY, G.C.M.G., C.B., LL.D., F.R.C.S. (G.H.M.) Consulting Surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital, London. Late Consulting Surgeon to the British Expedi- tionary Force, etc. Medicine and Surgery (Surgery During the War).

MALCOLM, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR NEILL, K.C.B., D.S.O. (N.M.*) General Commanding British Army of Occupation in Germany. Formerly Instructor in Military History at the Staff College, Camberley. Tactics.

MANGIN, GENERAL CHARLES MARIE EMMANUEL,K.C.B., etc. (C.M.E.M.) See the biographical article: MANGIN, C. M. E. Champagne, Battles in (in part); Verdun, Battles of (in part).

MANNING, WILLIAM R., Ph.D. (W.R.MA.) Economist, Latin- American Division, U.S. Department of State. Author of Nootka Sound Controversy (Justin Winsor Prize Essay of American Historical Association, 1904); Early Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Mexico (Albert Shaw Lectures, Johns Hopkins University, 1913); etc. Cuba; Havana; Virgin Islands. MARDON, HENRY WILLIAM, F.R.G.S. (H.W.M.) Commander of the Mejidieh. Formerly Lecturer in Geography and Edu- cation in the Tewfikieh and Dar el Ulum Colleges, Cairo. Author of A Geography of Egypt and the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan; etc. Arabia; Ukraine. MARGOLIOUTH, DAVID SAMUEL, M.A., D.Litt., F.B.A. (D.S.M.*) Laudian Professor of Arabic in the University of Oxford. Editor of Yaquit's Dictionary of Learned Men; etc. Author of Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; etc. Pan-Islamism. MARTIN, CHARLES JAMES, C.M.G., D.Sc.; M.B., F.R.S., F.R.C.P. (C.J.M.*) Director of the Lister Institute of Pre- ventive Medicine. Professor of Experimental Pathology, University of London. Filter- Passing Germs. MARTIN, HAROLD MEDWAY, A.C.G.I. (H.M.M.) Whitworth Scholar. Member of the Nozzles Research Committee, appointed by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. Mem- ber of the Lubricants and Lubrication Enquiry Committee, appointed by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (London). Turbines, Steam (in part). MARTIN, LIONEL ALFRED. (L.A.M.) Director of Henry Tate & Sons, Limited, Sugar Refiners, London and Liverpool. Vice-President of the London Chamber of Commerce. Member of the Port of London Authority. Sugar. MARVIN, WINTHROP LIPPITT, A.B., Litt.D. (W.L.M.) Vice- President and General Manager, American Steamship Own- ers' Association. Author of The American Merchant Marine: Its History and Romance. Former Secretary of U.S. Merchant Marine Commission. Shipping ( United States). MASARYK, THOMAS GARRIGUE. (T.G.M.) President of the Czechoslovak Republic. Czechoslovakia. MATHESON, COLONEL JOHN COLIN, R.E. Q.C.M.*) Deputy Chief Engineer, Southern Command. Formerly Chief In- structor in Fortification, School of Military Engineering, Chatham. Fortification Adviser to the Chilean Government. Member of the Belgian Coast Defences Commission, 1919, and of the Heligoland Commission, 1920. Coast Defence. MATTHEWS, DR. J. MERRITT. (J.M.M.) Head of the Depart- ment of Chemistry and Dyeing, Philadelphia Textile School, 1898-1907; Consulting Chemist and Expert in Textile Chem- istry and Dyestuffs since 1910. Editor Colour Trade Jour- nal since 1917. Dyeing ( United States). MAUGHAN, CUTHBERT. (C.MA.) Contributor'on Finance, Ship- ping and Insurance to The Annual Register, etc. Representa- tive of Admiralty Section of the British Ministry of Informa- tion in North America, 1918. Insurance (United Kingdom); Shipping (British). MAURICE, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR FREDERICK BARTON, K.C.M.G., C.B. (F.B.M.) Commander of the Legion of Honour. Croix de Guerre. First Class orders of St. Stanislas of Russia. Director of Military Operations, Imperial General Staff, 1915-6. Author of Forty Days in 1914; The Last Four Months; etc. Western European Front Campaigns (in part). MAVROGORDATO, JOHN NICOLAS, M.A. Q.N.M.*) Author of Cassandra in Troy; Letters from Greece; The World in Chains; etc. Greece. MAXSE, LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR IVOR, K.C.B., C.V.O., D.S.O. (F.I.M.) Late Inspector-General of Training to the British Armies in France, 1918-9. Infantry. MAXTED, EDWARD BRADFORD, Ph.D., B.Sc. (E.B.M.) Consulting Chemist. Author of Catalytic Hydrogenalion and Reduction; Ammonia and the Nitrides; etc. Nitrogen Fixation. MAY, SIR GEORGE ERNEST, K.B.E., F.I.A. (G.E.M.) Secretary of the Prudential Assurance Company, Limited. Manager to the Dollar Securities Committee. Dollar Securities Mobilization. MAYENCE, F. (P.M.) Professor at the University of Louvain. Mercier, Cardinal. MAYERN, MAJOR KARL. (K.M.) Late General Staff, Austro- Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. Author of various monographs on the World War. Carpathians, Battles of The. MEANS, PHILIP AINSWORTH, M.A. (P.A.ME.) Investigator for the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Author of History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas; A Survey of Ancient Peruvian Art; etc. Peru. MEANY, EDMOND STEPHEN, M.S., M.L. (E.S.M.) Professor of History in the University of Washington. Author of History of tlie Stale of Washington; Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound; etc. Washington (State). MELVILLE, LEWIS. (L.M.) Author of biographies of Thackeray, Sterne and William Cobbett, and of many works on the social life of the Georgian period. Newspapers (in part). MENDELL, A. E., B.L.I. (A.E.M.) Director of the Analytic Re- port of the Second Chamber of the States General, Holland. Holland (in part). MEYENDORFF, BARON ALEXANDER. (A.M.) Teacher of Russian Law, Institutions and Economics, King's College (London University). Formerly Member of the Russian Duma and Senator. Formerly Privat-Dozent at Petrograd University. Esthonia; Latvia. MILEY, SQUADRON LEADER ARNOLD JOHN, O.B.E., R.A.F. (A.J.M.) Design Branch, Directorate of Research, Air Min- istry, in charge of Seaplane Development. Assistant Direc- tor, Air Department, Admiralty, June 1915 to June 1916; Senior Flying Officer Naval Air Station, Felixstowe, August 1916 to June 1917. Aeronautics (Seaplanes). MILL, COURTENAY J. (C.J.M.) Financial Editor of The Times. English Finance; National Debt; Stock Exchange. MILL, HUGH ROBERT, D.Sc., LL.D. (H.R.M.) Gold Medallist of the Royal Geographical Society. Author of The Siege of the South Pole; etc. See the biographical article: MILL, HUGH ROBERT. Antarctic Regions. MILNER, HAROLD WOOD, M.Sc., A.M.I.C.E. (H.W.M.*) Executive Engineer, Public Works Department, Government of India. Delhi. MISES, LUDWIG VON, Dr. Juris. (L.v.M.) Professor of Political Economy in the University of Vienna. Austrian Empire (Finance and Banking); Austria, Republic of (Finance and Banking). MITCHELL, PETER CHALMERS, C.B.E. (Military Division) F.R.S., D.Sc., LL.D. (P.C.M.) Secretary, Zoological So- ciety of London. Attached to Directorate of Military Intel- ligence, War Office, 1916-8. Liaison Officer with British War Mission, 1918. Editorial Staff of The Times. Propaganda. The Initials in brackets indicate the Signatures adopted to distinguish the Contributors. MITCHELL, SUSAN LANGSTAFF. (S.L.M.) Author of The Living Chalice; Aids to the Immortality of Certain Persons in Ireland; etc. Russell, G. W.

MOORE, CLIFFORD HERSCHEL, A.B. (Harvard), Ph.D.(Mu- nich), Litt.D. (Colorado College). (C.H.M.) Professor of Latin at Harvard University. Author of Religions Thought of the Greeks; Pagan Ideas of Immortality; etc. Harvard University.

MOORE, FREDERICK CECIL, H.M.C.S. (F.C.Mo.) Head of the Sugar and Rationing Department for Ireland during the World War. Ireland (Statistics).

MORGAN, CONWY LLOYD, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. (C.LL.M.) Emeritus Professor of Psychology in the University of Bristol. Author of Animal Life and Intelligence; Instinct and Experience; etc. Behaviourism.

MORRISON, S. W. (S.W.M.) Board of Trade, London. Glass (in part).

MOTT, SIR FREDERICK, K.B.E., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (F.W.Mo.) Director of the Pathological Laboratory of th.e L.C.C. Asy- lums. Consulting Physician, Charing Cross Hospital. Late Member of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases. Shell Shock; Venereal Diseases.

MOTTRAM, JAMES CECIL, M.B.(Lond.), D.P.H. (Cantab.). (J.C.Mo.) Director of the Research Department, Radium Institute. Late Experimental Officer, Camouflage School, G.H.Q. Author of Controlled Natural Selection. Camouflage (Natural); Colours of Animals.

MOVES, RT. REV. MGR.J..D.D. (J.Mo.*) Canon of Westminster Cathedral. Formerly Editor of the Dublin Review. Domestic Prelate to H.H. Pope Benedict XV. Church History (Roman Catholic); Pius X.

MUIRHEAD, JAMES F., M.A., L.H.D., F.R.G.S. (J.F.M.) Author of America, the Land of Contrasts, and of Baedeker's Handbooks to London, England, the United States and Can- ada. Editor of Muirhead Guidebooks, (The Blue Guides). London. MULLENDORE, WILLIAM CLINTON, A.B., J.D. (W.C.M.) Attorney-at-Law. Late Assistant Counsel and Liquidator, United States Food Administration. Representative, Ameri- can Relief Administration, Berlin, Germany, 1920. Food Supply (United States); Rationing (United States). MULLER-LOEBNITZ, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILHELM. (W.M.-Lo.) Late General Staff, German Army. Ober- Archivrat in the Reichsarchiv. Formerly in the Military History Section of the Great General Staff. During the World War served on the General Staff of XII. Corps and VI. and "A" Armies, and as a Regimental Commander. Author of Der Wendepunkl des Wellkriegs and other mono- graphs. Lys, Battles of the; Somme, Battles of the (in part). MURPHY, WALLACE CARLTON, B.A., M.A. (W.C.M.*) Pro- fessor of History in the University of Mississippi. Mississippi. NATHAN, COLONEL SIR FREDERIC LEWIS, K.B.E. (F.L.N.) Late Royal Artillery. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Director of Alcohol Section Fuel Research Board. Alcohol. NEILSON, WILLIAM A., LL.D. (W.A.N.) President, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. Smith College. NICHOLSON, JOSEPH SHIELD, Sc.D., LL.D., F.B.A. (J.S.N.) Professor of Political Economy in the University of Edin- burgh. Author of Principles of Political Economy; Money and Monetary Problems; etc. Inflation. NICHOLSON, JOSEPH SINCLAIR, M.A. (J.S.Nc.) Juvenile Employment (United Kingdom); Unemployment (United Kingdom). NICKERSON, CAPTAIN HOFFMAN, B.A., M.A. (Harvard). (H.N.*) Late U.S. Army. Member of New York State Legislature, 1916. In the World War served in G.H.Q. Intelligence Staff, American Expeditionary Force, France. Artois, Battles in (in part). NICOD, JEAN, Agrege de Philosophie(Paris), B.A. (Cantab.). (J.N.) Teacher of Philosophy in the Lycee of Laon, France. Mathematics (Logic and Foundations). NOBLE, SIR WILLIAM. (W.No.) Engineer-in-Chief, General Post Office, London. Knight of the Order of the Cross of Belgium. Telegraph (in part); Telephone (in part). NYSTROM, PAUL HENRY, Ph.D. (P.H.N.) Formerly Professor of Economics in the Universities of Wisconsin and Minne- sota. Director of the Retail Research Association. Author of Economics and Retailing; Retail Selling and Store Manage- ment; Text-iles; etc. Marketing. O'CALLAGHAN, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR DESMOND DYKES TYNTE, K.C.V.O., R.A. (D.D.T.O'C.) Colonel Comman- dant, Royal Artillery. Secretary, Member and President of the Ordnance Committee. President of the Committee on Explosives. Formerly on the Experimental Staff at Shoebury- ness. Ammunition (in part). O'GORMAN, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MERVYN, C.B., D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E. (M.O'G.) Formerly Superintendent of the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough. Consultant to the Director-General of Military Aeronautics. Chairman of the Royal Aeronautical Society, and of the Accidents Investiga- tion Committee of the Air Ministry. Aeronautics (Introductory). OLDHAM, RICHARD DDCON, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. (R.D.O.) Author of numerous papers on various aspects of Geology and kindred subjects. Geology (Dynamical); Isoslasy; Seismology. O'LEARY, MAJOR HERBERT (H.O'L.) U.S. Army. Chief of Small Arms Division, Ordnance Officer, Washington. Pistol; Rifles and Light Machine-Guns (in part); Sights (Rifle and Pistol). OSBORN, HENRY FAIRFIELD, LL.D., D.Sc. (H.F.O.) Honorary Curator of Vertebrate Palaeontology in the American Mu- seum of Natural History, New York City; and Vertebrate Palaeontologist, United States Geological Survey. Palaeontology. OVERSTRAETEN, CAPTAIN-COMMANDANT R. VAN. (R. VAN O.) Aide-de-Camp to H.M. the King of the Belgians. Graduate of the Staff College. Order of Leopold. D.S.O. Legion of Honour. Antwerp (Siege of 1(114); Army (Belgian); Ypres and Yser, Battles of (Part I V.). PAIN, MAURICE. (M.PA.) General Secretary of the French Ministry of the Devastated Regions. France (Invaded Regions). PAINE, SYDNEY GROSS, D.Sc., F.I.C. (S.G.P.) Assistant Professor of Bacteriology, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Bacteriology (General and Agricultural). PALAT, GENERAL-pF-BRIGADE BARTHELEMY EDMOND. (B.E.P.) Late French Army. Commanded a Division 1915-6. Author of La Grande Guerre sur le Front Occidental; Les Batailles d' Artois et de Champagne; and, under the pseu- donym "Pierre Lebautcourt," of La Defense Nalionale, 1870-1 and other works, including a general bibliography of 1870-1. Champagne, Battles in (in part); Frontiers, Battles of the (in part). PARISH, JOHN CARL, Ph.D. (J.C.P.) Associate Editor of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Lecturer in Iowa History in the State University of Iowa. Iowa. PARSONS, FLOYD W., E.M. (F.W.P.) Founder and former Editor of The Coal Age. Coal (United States). PARSONS, ROBERT HODSON, A.M.I.C.E. (R.H.P.) Member of the Engineering Institute of Canada. Turbines, Steam. PATTERSON, WOODFORD, B.A. (W.P.) Secretary of Cornell University. Cornell University.

PAXSON, MAJOR FREDERICK L. (F.L.P.) Professor of History in the University of Wisconsin. Formerly of U.S. General Staff. Munitions of War (United States).

PEARSON, SIR ARTHUR, Bt., G.B.E. (died 1921). (A.P.) Chair- man of the Blinded Soldiers and Sailors Care Committee. President of the National Institute for the Blind. Author of Victory Over Blindness; The Conquest of Blindness. See the biographical article: PEARSON, SIR ARTHUR. Blindness. PEARSON, HENRY CLEMENS, F.R.G.S. (H.C.P.) Editor and Publisher of the India Rubber World, New York. Author of Crude Rubber Compounding Ingredients; Rubber Machinery; Pneumatic Tires; Rubber Country of the Amazon; What I Saw in the Tropics; etc. Rubber.

PEASE, THEODORE CALVIN, Ph.B., Ph.D. (T.C.P.) Assistant Professor of History in the University of Illinois. Author of The Leveller Movement; The Frontier State ( Vol. II. of Illi- nois Centennial History); etc. Illinois.

PEELE, ROBERT, E.M. (R.P.*) Professor of Mining in the School of Mines, Columbia University. Hon. Member of the Insti- tution of Mining and Metallurgy, London. Author of Com- pressed Air Plant. Editor-in-chief of Peele's Mining Engi- neer's Handbook; etc. Mining.

PENDEREL-BRODHURST, JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH. (J.P.- B.) Editor of The Guardian. Church History ( Church of England). PHELPS, WILLIAM LYON, M.A., Ph.D., Litt.D. (W.L.P.) Lampson Professor of English Literature at Yale University. Author of Essays on Modern Novelists; Essays on Russian Nov- elists; Essays on Modern Dramatists; The Twentieth Century Theatre; The Advance of English Poetry; etc. American Literature.

PHILLIPS, PAUL CHRISLER, M.A., Ph.D. (P.C.P.) Professor of History in the University of Montana. Joint-author (with N. J. Lennes) of The West in the Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Author of The Story of Columbus; etc. Montana. PHILLIPS, ULRICH BONNELL, Ph.D., F.R.H.S. (U.B.P.) Professor of American History in the University of Michigan. Author of The Life of Robert Toombs; American Negro Slavery; etc. Michigan.

PHILLIPS, WALTER ALISON, M.A.(Oxford and Dublin). (W.A.P.) Leclcy Professor of Modern History in the Univer- sity of Dublin. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author of Modern Europe; The Confederation of Europe; etc. Diplomacy; Ireland (History); Putumayo; Round, John Hor- ace; Self-Determination.

PINCHOT, GIFFORD, A.B.(Yale), Hon. A.M. (Yale and Prince- ton), Sc.D. (Michigan Agricultural College), LL.D.(McGill). (G.P.) Professor of Forestry, Yale University. U.S. Forester, 1898-1910. President of the National Conservation Associa- tion. Pennsylvania Commissioner of Forestry. Author of The Adirondack Spruce; The Training of a Forester; The Fight for Conservation; etc. Conservation Policy; Forestry (United States).

PIRENNE, HENRI. (H.P.) Rector of the University of Ghent- Member of the Royal Academy of Belgium and of the Insti- tute of France. Corresponding Member of the Royal Histori- cal Society. Author of Histoire de Belgique; etc. Belgium (History, in part); Fredericq, Paul.

PIRENNE, JACQUES. (J.P.) Avocat at the Court of Appeal of Belgium. Professor of History to Prince Leopold of Belgium, Duke of Brabant. Albert, King of the Belgians; Belgium (History, in part).

PIRIE-GORDON, HARRY, D.Sc., M.A. (H.P.-G.) Served in the World War. Deputy Governor of Jerusalem, 1918. Editor of A Brief Account of the Advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. Hejaz Railway; Palestine; Syria; Transjordania; Turkish Campaigns (Palestine).

POLLARD, ALBERT FREDERICK, M.A., Litt.D., F.B.A. (A.F.P.) Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Chairman of the Insti- tute of Historical Research. Author of A Short History of the Great War; The Evolution of Parliament; etc. World War (Political History). POLLOCK, COURTENAY EDWARD MAXWELL, R.B.S., F.R.S.L. (C.Po.) Sculpture (in part).

POUND, ROSCOE, Ph.D., LL.D. (R.Po.*) Carter Professor of Jurisprudence and Dean of the Faculty of Law in Harvard University. Sometime Commissioner of Appeals of the Supreme Court of Nebraska. Women, Legal Status of (United States).

POWER, JOHN DANVERS, M.V.O. (J.D.P.) Vice-chairman, British Red Cross Society. Editor of the Report by the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John on their joint war work, 1914-9. Red Cross Work (British).

PRESTON, W. E. (W.E.P.) Silver.

PREUSS, HUGO, Dr. Juris. (H.P.*) Formerly Lecturer at the University of Berlin and Professor Public Law at the Berlin University College of Commerce. Municipal Deputy and Municipal Councillor in Berlin. After the Revolution Secretary of State for the Interior and Minister of the Interior for the Reich up to the German acceptance of the Peace of Versailles. Member of the Prussian Constituent Assembly and of the first Diet of the Free State of Prussia. Bore the leading part in drafting, and carrying through the Constituent Assembly of the Reich, the new Republican Constitution of Germany. Author of Das deutsche Volk und die Politik; etc. Germany (Republican Constitution).

PRIBRAM, ALFRED FRANCIS, Ph.D. (A.F.PR.) Professor of Modern History in the University of Vienna. Member of the Vienna Academy of Science; etc. Aehrenthal; Austrian Empire (Austro-Hungarian Foreign Poli- cy); Berchtold, Count L.; Burian, R. S. von; Charles (Emperor of Austria); Czernin, Count; Francis Ferdinand; Francis Joseph I.; Plener, E.

PRIBRAM, KARL, Dr. Juris. (K.P.) Professor in the University of Vienna. Austrian Empire (Economic Conditions, in part); Austria, Republic of (Economic Conditions, in part).

PRIESTLEY, HERBERT INGRAM, M.A., Ph.D. (H.I. P.) As- sociate Professor of Mexican History and Librarian of the Bancroft Library, University of California. Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Huerta; Madero; Mexico; Nicaragua; Obregon; Panama; Salvador; Villa.

PRIESTLY, MAJOR R. E., M.C., B.A. (R.E.P.) Author of the Official History of the Signal Service during the European War, 1014-8; Breaking the Ilindenburg Line; The History of the 46th, North Midland, Division; etc. Signal Service, Army (in part).

PROCTOR, JOHN CLAGETT, LL.M. (J.C.P.*) Member of the Bar of the District of Columbia. Historian of the Society of Natives of the District of Columbia. Washington (D.C.).

PROUDMAN, JOSEPH, M.A., D.Sc. (J.P.*) Professor of Applied Mathematics, and Hon. Director of the Tidal Institute, in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Tides.

RAIT, ROBERT SANGSTER, C.B.E., M.A., LL.D. (R.S.R.) Historiographer Royal for Scotland. Professor of Scottish History and Literature in the University of Glasgow. Au- thor of The Scottish Parliament; History of Scotland; etc. Scotland.

RANKINE, ALEXANDER OLIVER, O.B.E., D.Sc., F.Inst.P. (A.O.R.) Fellow of University College, London. Professor of Physics in the Imperial College of Science and Technology. Sound.

RAPER, GEORGE. (G.A.R.) Formerly Correspondent of The Morning Post in Paris. France (in part).

RECLUS, MAURICE. (M.R.*) Conseiller d'Etat. Colonial Editor of Le Temps. Algeria; France (in part); French Equatorial Africa (in part); Indo- China, French. REED, HERBERT (H.R.*) Sports Editor of The New York Evening Post. Sports and Games (U.S. portion).

REES, JOHN MORGAN, M.A., F.R.Econ.S. (J.M.R.) Lecturer in Economics and Political Science in the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Author of Wages and Costs in South Africa; South Wales Iron, Steel and Tinplate Industries as Affected by the^ War; etc. Syndicalism (in part).

RENOLD, CHARLES GARONNE, M.E. (Cornell). (C.G.R.) Managing Director of Hans Renold, Limited. Author of Workshop Committees; etc. Scientific Management.

RICKARD, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL F. M. (F.M.R.) Royal Artillery. Chief Instructor, Artillery College, Woolwich (as- sisted by Instructional Staff, Artillery College). Ammunition (in part); Magazines and Shell Stores; Ordnance (in part); Propellants. RIDDELL, RIGHT HON. LORD. (Rl.) Vice-chairman of the Newspaper Proprietors' Association. Chairman of the Weekly Newspaper and Periodical Proprietors' Association. Rep- resented the British Press at the Peace Conference, 1919-21. See the biographical article: RIDDELL, BARON. Censorship (in part).

RILEY, GEORGE WASHINGTON, Ph.B., D.O. (G.W.Ri.) Late President, New York State and City Osteopathic Societies. President, American Osteopathic Association, 1917-8. Osteopathy.

ROBERTSON, JAMES ALEXANDER, Ph.B., L.H.D. (J.A.Ro.) Chief of the Near Eastern Division Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Co-editor of Blair and Robertson's The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (55 vols.). Compiler of Bibliography of the Philippine Islands; etc. Guam; Philippines.

ROBERTSON, WILLIAM SPENCE, Ph.D. (W.S.Ro.) Professor of History in the University of Illinois. Author of Francisco de Miranda and the Revolutionizing of Spanish America; Rise of the Spanish American Republics; etc. Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; Venezuela. ROBINSON, COMMANDER WILLIAM MALCOLM MARTYN, R.N. (W.M.M.R.) Torpedo.

ROOD, RIGHT HON. SIR JAMES RENNELL, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O. (J.R.R.) Grand Cross of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. Commander of the Osmanieh. Grand Cross of Polar Star. Late Ambassador to the Court of Italy. Mem- ber of Lord Milner's Mission to Egypt, 1920. Special Envoy to King Menelek II., 1897. Author of Customs and Lore of Modern Greece; Poems in Many Lands; etc. Egypt (History); Sudan (in part).

ROGERS, SIR LEONARD, C.I.E., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S., I.M.S. (retired). (L.Ro.) Physician and Lecturer, London School of Tropical Medicine. Late Professor of Pathology, Calcutta. Author of works on fevers in the tropics; etc. Kala-Azar.

ROSENHAIN, WALTER, B.A., D.Sc., F.Inst.P., F.R.S. (W.RN.) Superintendent, Metallurgy Department, National Physical Laboratory. Author of Introduction to the Study of Physical Metallurgy; Glass Manufacture; etc, Metallurgy.

ROSS, COLONEL SIR RONALD, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., Hon.M.D., D.Sc., etc. (R.Ro.) Nobel Medical Prizeman, 1902. _ Author of The Prevention of Malaria; etc. See the biographical article: Ross, SIR RONALD. Malaria.

RODRE, REMY. (R.R.*) Labour Correspondent of L'Edair, Paris. France (in part).

RUSHTON, THOMAS ARTHUR. (T.A.R.) Editor and writer on social subjects. Housing (in part).

RUSSELL, EDWARD JOHN, D.Sc.; F.R.S. (E.J.R.) Director of the Rothamsted Experimental Station. Author of Soil Conditions and Plant Growth; The Fertility of the Soil; Lessons on Soil; Manuring for Higher Crop Production; etc. Botany (Soil Sterilization).

RUTHERFORD, SIR ERNEST, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (E.RuJ Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, University of Cambridge. Author of Radioactivity; Radioactive Substances and their Radiations; etc. See the biographical article: RUTHERFORD, SIR ERNEST. Radioactivity; Matter, Constitution of.

SAITO, HIROSI, M.A. (H.S A .) Secretary of Embassy and Consul in the Japanese Diplomatic and Consular Service. Member of the Japanese Delegation to the Peace Conference in Paris, 1919, and to other Inter-Allied and International Conferences in Europe, 1919-21. Formosa; Japan; Korea; Sakhalin.

SALISBURY, EDWARD JAMES, D.Sc., F.L.S. (E.J.S.) Lecturer in Botany and Fellow of University College, London. Hon Secretary, British Ecological Society. Author of An Intro- duction to the Study of Plants; etc. Botany (Ecology).

SALMON, ERNEST STANLEY, F.L.S. (E.S.S.) Reader in Eco- nomic Mycology, University of London. Mycologist to the South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, Kent. Botany (Mycology).

SALTER, EMMA GURNEY, M.A., Litt.D. (E.G.S.) Author of Franciscan Legends in Italian Art; Nature in Italian Art- etc Morocco; Rio de Oro.

SANDERS, HERBERT MITCHELL, M.A. (H.M.SA.) Assistant Secretary to the Board of Inland Revenue. Assistant Sec- retary to the Royal Commission on the Income Tax, 1919-20. Income Tax (United Kingdom). SANDFpRD, ERNEST (E.S.) Secretary to the Lord Mayor of Birmingham. Joint-author (with R. H. Brazier) of Birming- ham and the Great War. Birmingham.

SANER, F.D.,M.A.(Cantab.),F.R.C.S. (F.D.S.) Surgeon to Out- Patients, Great Northern Hospital, London. Surgeon, Eve- lina Hospital for Childern. Late Consulting Surgeon, British Rhine Army. Fractures.

SAUNDERS, GEORGE, O.B.E., B.A. (Oxpn.),Hon.LL.D. (Glasgow). (G;S.) Correspondent of the Morning Post in Berlin, 1888-97; and of The Times in Berlin, 1897-1908, and in Paris, 1908-14. Bethmann Hollweg, T. von; Billow, Prince von; Delbriick, Hans; Eisner, Kurt; Erzberger, M. (in part); Eucken, R. C. (in part); Tirpitz, Alfred von.

SCALES, REAR-ADMIRAL ARCHIBALD HENDERSON. (A.H.S.) Superintendent, United States Naval Academy. United States Naval Academy. SCANE, JOHN W., M.D. (J.W.S.) Assistant Dean, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University. Medical Education (Canada).

SCHILLER, FERDINAND CANNING SCOTT, M.A., D.Sc. (F.C.S.S.) Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christ! College, Ox- ford. President of the Society for Psychical Research, 1914. Author of Formal Logic; Humanism; Studies in Humanism; Riddles of the Sphinx; etc. Psychical Research.

SCHOLES, PERCY ALFRED, B.Mus., A.R.C.M. (P.A.S.) Music Critic of The Observer, London. Editor of The Music Student. Author of The Listener's Guide to Music; etc. Scriabin, A.

SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR, Ph.D., Sc.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. (A.S.*) Hon. Professor of Physics in the University of Manchester. Author of Introduction to the Theory of Optics; etc. Joint- author (with Sir Arthur Shipley) of Britain's Heritage of Science. See the biographical article: SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR. International Science.

SCHUTZE, HARRY L. H., M.D. (H.L.H.S.) Bacteriologist at the Lister Institute, London. Bacteriology (Medical).

SCOGGIN, GILBERT CAMPBELL, M.A., Ph.D. (G.C.S.) Some- time Scholar of Harvard University. Formerly Assistant Professor of Greek at the University of Missouri. Associate Editor of The Classical Journal. Member of the American Editorial Staff of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hoover, Herbert Clark; Tennessee. SCOTT, AUSTIN, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. (A.Sc.) Professor of History and Political Science, Rutgers College, New Bruns- wick, N.J. New Jersey.

SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR GEORGE KEN- NETH, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., Hon.M.Inst.C.E., Late R.E. (G.K.S.-M.) Director of Fortifications and Works, War Office, 1911-8. Author of The Water Supply of Barracks and Cantonments; The Principles of Structural Design; etc. Barracks and Hutments (United Kingdom); Engineers, Military (United Kingdom); Training Camps, Military (in part); Water Supply, Military.

SCROGGS, WILLIAM OSCAR, A.M., Ph.D. (W.O.S.) Financial writer on the New York Evening Post. Formerly Professor of Economics and Sociology, Louisiana State University. Author of Filibusters and Financiers. Louisiana.

SECCOMBE, THOMAS, M.A. (T.SE.) Professor of English Lit- erature, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; etc. English Literature (in part). SELLS, HON. CATO, M.A., LL.D. (C.SE.) Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the U.S.A., 1912-21. Indians, North American.

SETON-WATSON, ROBERT WILLIAM, D.Litt.(Oxon-), Hon. Ph.D. (Prague and Zagreb). (R.W.S.-W.) Lecturer in East European History at King's College, University of London. Author of Racial Problems in Hungary; The Southern Slav Question; The Rise of Nationality in the Balkans; etc. Editor of The New Europe. Serbia; Yugoslavia.

SEYMOUR, CHARLES, M.A., Ph.D., Litt.D. (C.S E Y.) Professor of History in Yale University, Technical Delegate at the Paris Peace Conference. Author of The Diplomatic Back- ground of the War; Woodrow Wilson and the World War. Harding, Warren G.; Wilson, Woodrow; Washington Confer SHAW, W. B. (W.B.S.) General Secretary, Alumni Association, University of Michigan. Author of History of University of Michigan. Michigan, University of.

SHELDON, ADDISON ERWIN, A.M., Ph.D. (A.E.S.*) Superintendent, Nebraska State Historical Society. Author of History and Stories of Nebraska; Poems and Sketches of Nebraska; Nebraska Constitutional Conventions. Editor of Nebraska Blue Book. Nebraska.

SIEGER, ROBERT, Ph.D. (R.Si.) Professor of Geography, Uni- versity of Graz; Member of the Academy of Science, Vienna. Austria, Republic of (Introduction; Economic Conditions).

SILLS.KENNETH CHARLES MORTON, M.A..LL.D. (K.C.M.S.) President of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. Candi- date of the Democratic party in Maine for the U.S. Senate, 1916. President of the Board of Visitors to the Naval Academy at Annapolis, 1920–1. Maine.

SIMON, LEON, B.A. (Oxon.). (L.Si.) Author of Studies in Jewish Nationalism. Zionism.

SIMON, MAJOR and BREVET-COLONEL M. St. L., C.B.E., R.E. (M.Sl.L.S.) Assistant Director, Engineering Services, Canada, 1908-10. Staff Captain, War Office (Fortifications and Works), 1911-5. Anti-Aircraft Defence Commander, London, 1916-8. Anti-Aircraft Defence, Independent Force, R.A.F., 1918. Anti-Aircraft Defence, Leeds, 1919. Com- mander of Northern Air Defences, 1919. General Staff, War Office, 1920-1. Air Defence. SINZHEIMER, H. (H.Si.) Professor in the University of Frankfort- on-Main. Germany (Factory Councils Law). SLATER, JOHN, B.A.(Lond.), F.R.I.B.A. (J.SL.) Formerly Presi- dent, Architectural Association, and Vice-president, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1900-4. Member of Appeal Tribunal under the London Building Acts. Author of a Short History of The Berners Estate; Joint-author of Classic and Early Christian Architecture. Architecture (British). SMITH, EDGAR FAHS, Ph.D., Chem.D., Sc.D., L.H.D., M.D., LL.D. (E.F.S.*) Late Provost of the University of Penn- sylvania, and Emeritus Professor of Chemistry. Pennsylvania, University of. SMITH, GRAFTON ELLIOT, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S. (G.E.S.) Professor of Anatomy in the University of London. Author of The Ancient Egyptians; The Royal Mummies; Migrations of Early Culture; Evolution of the Dragon; etc. Anthropology. SMITH, STANLEY PARKER, D.Sc., M.I.E.E., A.M.I.C.E. (S.P.S.) Joint-author of Papers on the Design of Alternate Current Machinery. Electrical Engineering (in part). SOANE, ELY BANNISTER, C.B.E. (E.B.S.) Civil Administration of Mesopotamia. Examiner in Kurdish to the Civil Ad- ministration of Mesopotamia. Author of To Kurdistan and Mesopotamia in Disguise; A Kurdish Grammar; An Elemen- tary Grammar of Kurmanji; etc. Kurdistan. SPALDING, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GEORGE REDFIELp. (G.R.S.) Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. Instructor in Supply, General Staff College, Washington, D.C. Light Railways, Military (in part). SPAULDING, WILLIAM F., Cert.A.I.B., F.R.Econ.S. (W.F.S.) Examiner in Banking, Currency and Foreign Exchange to various public bodies. Author of Foreign Exchange and Foreign Bills in Theory and in Practice; Eastern Exchange; Currency and Finance; etc. Sometime Editor of the Statist (British Banking Supplement and International Banking Supplement). Banking (British). SPENCER, LEONARD JAMES, M.A., Sc.D., F.G.S. (L.J.S.) Assistant Keeper in the Mineral Department, British Muse- um Natural History. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. Author of The World's Minerals. Crystallography; Mineralogy. STARK, OSKAR. (O.S.) Member of the Berlin Staff of the Frank- furter Zeitung. Bavaria (Political History). STEVENS, WALTER BARLOW, B.A., M.A., LL.D. (W.B.Sx.) President, State Historical Society of Missouri. Author of History of Si. Louis; Centennial History of Missouri^; Mis- souri's Travail for Statehood; etc. Director of Exploitation, St. Louis World's Fair of 1904. St. Louis. STOCKING, WILLIAM, M.A. (Yale). (W.Sx.) Newspaper Editor, 1865-1900. Historian and Statistician, Detroit Board of Commerce, 1903-21. Author of Under the Oaks; History of the Republican Party; k etc. Detroit. STOCKLEY, BREVET-COLONEL ERNEST NORMAN, D.S.O. (E.N.S.) Royal Engineers. Bridging, Military. STOKES, ANSON PHELPS, D.D., LL.D. (A.P.S.) Secretary of Yale University. Author of Memorials of Eminent Yale Men; etc. Yale University. STOPES, MARIE CARMICHAEL, D.Sc.(Lond.), Ph.D. (Munich). (M.C.S.) Fellow of University College, London. Sometime Lecturer in Palaeobotany, Universities of Manchester and London. Author of Catalogue of Cretaceous Plants in the British Museum, etc. Botany (Anatomy and Palaeobotany). STOREY, SOMERVILLE. (S.S.) Literary Critic of Le Monde Nov. veau, Paris. French Literature. STRIEGL, RICHARD, Dr. Juris. (R.SiR.) Secretary of the In- dustrial District Commission. Austrian Empire (Economic Conditions, in part). BUTTON, SIR GEORGE AUGUSTUS, Bart. (G.A.S.) Chairman of the Amalgamated Press, Limited. Hon. Director of Pub- licity to the British Treasury, 1917-9. War Loan Publicity Campaigns. SWINTON, MAJOR-GENERAL ERNEST DUNLOP, C.B., D.S.O. (E.D.S.) Late Royal Engineers. Author of The Green Curve; The Great Tab Dope; The Defence of Duffer's Drift. Official "Eyewitness" with the British Army in France, 1914-5. Originator of the Tank. Raiser and first commander of the Tank Corps. Tanks. SYKES, BRIGADIER-GENERAL SIR PERCY MOLESWORTH, K.C.I.E., C.B., C.M.G. (P.M.S.) Formerly British Consul- General, Persia. Late Inspector-General, South Persia Rifles. Author of History of Persia; Manners and Customs; Glory of the Shia World; etc. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., 1902. Persia. SZEKFU, JULIUS, Ph.D. (J.S.*) Lecturer at the University of Budapest. Hungary (in part). TAFT, LORADO, N.A., L.H.D. (L.T.) National Academy of Arts and Letters. Sculptor, Lecturer, and Professorial Lecturer, University of Chicago. Non-resident Professor of Art, Uni- versity of Illinois. Author of History of American Sculpture, Sculpture (United States). TARBELL, IDA MINERVA, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. (I.M.T.) Former Associate Editor of The Chautauguan, McClure's Magazine, American Magazine. Author of Life of Abraham Lincoln; The History of the Standard Oil Company; The Tarifj in our Times; New Ideals in Business; etc. Women's War-Work (United States). TAYLOR, ALFRED EDWARD, M.A., D.Litt., F.B.A. (A.E.T.) Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of St. Andrews. Author of The Problem of Conduct; Elements of Metaphysics; Varia Socratica; etc. Philosophy. TAYLOR, ARTHUR H. E., B.A. (A.H.E.T.) Author of The Future of the Southern Slavs; etc. Montenegro. TAYLOR, RICHARD F., M.B.E., F.S.S. (R.F.T.) Statistician to the Ministry of Mines. Coal (United Kingdom). THEVENET, FREDERIC. (F.T.) General of Division, French Army. Formerly Governor of Belfort. Commanded Belfort region in the World War. Author of La Place de Belfort. Frontiers, Battles of the (in part); Vosges, Battles in the. THICKNESSE, RALPH. (R.Tn.) Barrister-at-Law. Author of Digest of Law; Husband and Wife; etc. Children, Law Relating to (United Kingdom); Divorce (United Kingdom); Women, Legal Status of (United Kingdom). THOMAS, DAVID YANCEY, M.A., Ph.D. (D.Y.T.) Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Arkansas. Author of A History of Military Government in Newly Acquired Territory of the United States. Joint-author of The South in the Building of the Nation; Studies in Southern History and Politics. Associate Editor of the Southwestern Political Science Quarterly. Arkansas.

THOMASSON, P. DE. (P.DE T.) French Delegate to the Saar Commission. Saar Valley.

THOMSON, ELIHTT, A.M., Ph.D., D.Sc. (E.T.) Consulting Engineer of the General Electric Company. Originator of Resistance Electric Welding (Thomson Process). Welding, Electric.

THOMSON, JOHN ARTHUR, M.A., LL.D. (J-A.T.) Regius Professor of Natural History in the University of Aberdeen. Author of The System of Animate Nature; The Wonder of Life; The Biology of the Seasons; etc. Zoology.

THOMSON, SIR JOSEPH JOHN, O.M., D.Sc., Hon.F.R.S.E., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. (J.J.T.) See the biographical article: THOMSON, SIR JOSEPH JOHN. Gases, Electrical Properties of.

TIDY, HENRY LETHEBY, M.A., M.D.(Oxon.), F.R.C.P. (Lond.). (H.L.T.) Assistant Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. Physician to the Great Northern Hospital, London. Encephalitis Lethargica.

TIEKE, HANS, Ph.D. (H.TK.) Professor of Art History in the University of Vienna. Austrian Empire (Art).

TODD, JOHN AITON, B.L. (J.A.T.*) Lecturer in Economics, Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The World's Cotton Crops; etc. Cotton and Cotton Industry.

TOVEY, DONALD FRANCIS, Master of Music (Hon., Birm.), Mus.D.(Oxon.). (D.F.T.) Reid Professor of Music in Ed- inburgh University. Author of Lessons in Musical A nalysis; etc. Music.

TOWER, SIR REGINALD THOMAS, K.C.M.G., C.V.O. (R.T.T.) Administrator of Danzig and High Commissioner of the League of Nations, 1919-20. Danzig.

TOWNSEND, CHARLES HARRISON, F.R.I.B.A. (C.H.T.) Past- Master of the Art Workers' Guild. Late Member of Council of the Royal Institute of British Architecture. Cantor Lec- turer on Mosaic. Belcher, J.; Bentley, J. F.

TOYE, GEOFFREY. (G.T.*) Scholar and Exhibitioner, Royal Col- lege of Music. Author of Esperance Morris Dance Book, No. 2. Conductor, Philharmonic Societies, London and Liverpool. Dancing.

TROTTER, WILFRED, M.S. (Lond.), F.R.C.S. (W.T.) Surgeon, University College Hospital. Nervous System (Surgery).

TROUP, ROBERT SCOTT, M.A., C.I.E. (R.S.T.*) Professor of Forestry in the University of Oxford. Author of Tlie Silvi- culture of Indian Trees; etc. Forestry (in part).

TSCHAPPAT, COLONEL W. H. (TJ.S.Army). (W.H.T.) Author of Ordnance Treatise, U.S. A . Ammunition (in part); Ballistics (in part).

TUTHILL, EDWARD, M.A., Ph.D. (E.T.*) Professor of History, University of Kentucky. Author of Government of Kentucky. Kentucky.

VANDERGRIFT, HOLLAND A., M.A. (R.A.V.) Assistant in His- tory in the University of California. Los Angeles; San Francisco.

VANDERVELDE, LALLA. (L.VA.) Secretary of the Institut des Hautes Etudes, Brussels University. Belgium (Literature).

VAN DYKE, JOHN C., L.H.D. (J.C.VAN D.) Professor of the History of Art, Rutgers College. Author of Art for Art's Sake; Meaning of Pictures; History of Painting; etc. Painting (United States).

VAUGHN, ERNEST VANCOURT, M.A., Ph.D. (E.V.V.) Profes- sor of History in the University of Delaware. Author of The Origin and Early Development of the English Universities to the Close of the i^th Century. Delaware.

VIALL, ETHAN. (E.Vi.) Editor of American Machinist, Member A.S.M.E., A.I.E.E., A.S.T.M., S.A.E. Author of Broaches and Broaching; Electric Welding; Gas-Torch and Thermit Welding; United States Rifles and Machine Guns; United States Artillery Ammunition; Manufacture of Artillery Am- munition; etc. Machine Tools; Thermit and Thermit Welding; Welding (Gas Torch).

VILES, JONAS, Ph.D. (J.Vi.) Professor of American History in the University of Missouri. Missouri.

VILLARI, LUIGI. (L.V.*) Officer of the Crown of Italy. Cheva- lier of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. Italian Croce di'Gue'rra. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. French Croix de Guerre. British Military Cross. Member of Staff of League of Na- tions. Formerly attached to the Italian Foreign Office. During the war, Liaison Officer with the Allied Armies in Macedonia, and, after the Armistice, at Constantinople; and Secretary Inter-Allied Commission, Smyrna. Italy.

VINCENT, SWALE, LL.D., D.Sc., M.D..F.R.S.E., F.R.S.C. (S.V.) Professor of Physiology in the University of London. Author of Internal Secretion and the Ductless Glands. Ductless Glands.

VINOGRADOFF, SIR PAUL, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Dr.Hist, Dr. Juris. (P.Vi.) Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence, Oxford. Author of Villainage in England; The Growth of the Manor; Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence; etc. See the biographical article: VINOGRADOFF, SIR PAUL. Benckendorjf, Count; Denikin, Anton; Gutchkov; Kornilov (in part); Lenin; Milyukov; Nicholas II.; Russia; Trotsky, Lev; Tschaikovsky, N. V.; Wrangel.

VOGEL, HON. MARTIN, A.B. (Columbia). (M.V.*) Formerly Assistant Treasurer of the United States, New York. Liberty Loan Publicity Campaigns.

WALKER, JANE HARRIETT, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S.E., M.D. (Brus- sels). (J.WA.*) Medical Superintendent, East Anglian Makings Farm and East Anglian Children's Sanitpria, Mayland, Suffolk. Member of Departmental Committee on Provision for Treatment of Tuberculosis, 1911-2. Presi- dent, Medical Women's Federation, 1917-20. Consulting Physician, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, London, etc. Infantile Mortality (United Kingdom).

WALLACE, DAVID DUNCAN, A.M., Ph.D. (D.D.W.) Professor of History and Economics in Wofford College, Spartanburg, S. Carolina. Author of Life of Henry Laurens; Civil Govern- ment of South Carolina and the United States. South Carolina.

WARBURTON, REV. STACEY R., B.A. (S.R.W.) Editor of Year Book of the Churches. Secretary of Literature of the General Board of Promotion of the Northern Baptist Convention, U.S.A. Church History (United States).

WARD, ROBERT DE COURCY, A.M. (R.DEC.W.) Professor of Climatology, Harvard University. Author of Climate Con- sidered Especially in Relation to Man. Climate and Climatology.

WARDLE, CAPTAIN M. K. (M.KAY.) France (in part).

WARE, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR FABIAN, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G. (F.W.) Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Commander of the Order of the Crown (Belgium), etc. Vice-chairman of the Imperial War Graves Commission. Formerly Editor of the Morning Post. War Graves.

WARNER, ANDREW R., A.M., M.D. (A.R.VV.) Executive Secre- tary, American Hospital Association, Superintendent Lake- side Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, 1907-19. Member of the War Service Committee on Hospitals during the World War. President American Hospital Association, 1918-9. Joint- author of Dispensaries. Hospitals ( United States).

WELLS, JOSEPH, M.A. (J.WE.*) Warden of Wadham College, Oxford. Author of Oxford and its Colleges; A History of Wadham College. Oxford.

WERTHEIMER, EDUARD VON. (E.v.W.) Emeritus Professor of History in the University of Pressburg. Andrassy, J. J.; Fejervary; Hungary (in part); Kossuth, Francis; Szell, K.; Szilagy, D.; Tisza.

WEST, JAMES E., LL.B., LL.N. (J.E.W.) Chief Scout Executive, Boy Scouts of America. Formerly Secretary of President Roosevelt's White House Conference on care of Dependent Children. Boy Scouts ( United States). WHITE, MRS. AMBER BLANCO, O.B.E. (A.B.W.) Director, Women's Wages Section, British Ministry of Munitions, 1917-8. Member of National Whitley Council for the Civil Service, 1919-20. Women's Employment (United Kingdom).

WHITE, COLONEL H. A. (H.A.W.*) Judge Advocate, United States Army Department. United Stales (Military Law).

WHITE, LAURA A., Ph.D. (L.A.W.*) Professor of History in the University of Wyoming. Wyoming.

WHITTON, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL FREDERICK ERNEST, C.M.G., B.A. (F.E.W.*) Late Prince of Wales's Leicester Regiment. Formerly Secretary, Historical Section, Committee of Imperial Defence. Author of The Marne Campaign; A History of Poland; Moltke; etc. Frontiers, Battles of the (in part); Guise, Battle of; Marne, Battle of the.

WHYTE, ADAM GOWANS, B.Sc., A.I.E.E. (A.G.W.) Editor of the Electrical Press Limited. Author of The Electrical Industry; Electricity in Locomotion; The All-Electric Age. Electricity Supply (United Kingdom). WIER, JEANNE ELIZABETH, B.Bi., B.A. (J.E.W.*) Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Nevada. Executive Secretary of the Nevada Historical Society. Nevada. WILBUR, RAY LYMAN, A.M., M.D., LL.D. (R.L.W.) President of Leland Stanford Jr. University, Cal. Leland Stanford Jr. University. WILKINSON, NORMAN, O.B.E., R.I. (N.W.) Marine Painter and Etcher. Originator of Dazzle Painting (Naval Camou- flage) as used by the Allied Powers in the World War. Author of The Dardanelles. Camouflage (Naval). WTLLCOX, WALTER FRANCIS, Ph.D., LL.D. (W.F.W.) Professor of Economics and Statistics, Cornell University. Author of The Divorce Problem a Study in Statistics; Supplementary Analysis and Derivative Tables, I2th Census; etc. Negro. WILLCOX, SIR WILLIAM HENRY, K.C.I.E., C.B., C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.P. (W.H.W.) Consulting Physician to the Mesopo- tamia Expeditionary Force, 1916-9. Physician to St. Mary's Hospital, London. Mesopotamia (Medical Conditions); Persia (Medical Condi- tions) ; Persian Gulf (Medical Conditions). WILLIAMS, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ARTHUR CECIL, C.B.E., R.G.A. (A.C.W.) Late Chief Instructor in Range-finding at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. During the World War Director of Inspection of Optical Supplies for the British Army. Rangefinders and Position Finders (in part). WILLIAMS, LEONARD, M.D. (L.Wi.) Vitamines. WILLIAMS, S. B. (S.B.W.) Assistant Managing Editor Electrical World. Electricity Supply (United States). WILLIS, HENRY PARKER, Ph.D. (H.P.W.) Professor of Bank- ing in Columbia University. Director of Research, Federal Reserve Board. Authtor of American Banking; The Federal Reserve; etc. Banking (United States); Federal Reserve Banking System. WILNER, MERTON M. (M.M.W.) Editorial Writer on the Buffalo Express. Buffalo. WILSON, SIR ARNOLD TALBOT, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., C.M.G., D.S.O. (A.T.W.) Late Civil Commissioner in Mesopotamia and Political Resident in the Persian Gulf. Mesopotamia (in part); Persian Gulf. WILSON, C.M..M.C., M.D. (Lond.),F.R.C.P.(England), (C.M.Wi.) Dean of the Medical School, St. Mary's Hospital, London. Secretary to the Faculty of Medicine, University of London. Physician to Out-Patients, St. Mary's Hospital, and to the Hospital for Epilepsy and Paralysis, Maida Vale. Consult- ing Physician to Paddington Infirmary. Medical Education (in part). WILSON, H. J., C.B., C.B.E. (H.J.W.) Arbitration and Conciliation (United Kingdom); Labour Legis- lation (United Kingdom). WILSON, HERBERT WRIGLEY, M.A. (H.W.W.) Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Oxford. Author of Ironclads in Action. Contributor to The Cambridge Modern History. Assistant Editor of The Daily Mail. Northclijfe, Lord; Rothermere t Lord. WILSON, ROBERT, M.A., B.Sc., F.R.Econ.S. (R.Wi.) Industrial Councils. WILSON, R.McNAER,M.B.,Ch.B. (R.M.Wi.) Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine. Editor, Oxford Medical Publications. Late Research Worker in Cardiology, Medical Research Committee. Consultant to the Ministry of Pensions in Trench Fever. Bilharziosis; Burns and Scalds; Cancer; Fasting; Heart Dis- ease; Immunity; Medicine and Surgery (General Progress); Tetanus; Trench Fever; Yellow Fever. WILTON, CAPTAIN STANLEY T.H., R.N. (S.T.H.W.) Assistant Director of Naval Ordnance, British Admiralty. Ordnance (in part). WTMPERIS, MAJOR H. E., O.B.E., M.A., M.I.E.E., A.M.I.C.E., F.R.Ae.S. (H.E.Wl.) Superintendent of the Air Ministry Laboratory. Lecturer on Air Navigation at the Imperial College of Science. Served in Royal Air Force. Aeronautics (Air Navigation). WINTERBOTHAM, HAROLD ST. JOHN LOYD, C.M.G.,- D.S.O. (H.S.L.W.) Ordnance Survey, Great Britain. Victoria Med- allist of the R.G.S., 1920. Surveying (in part). WITHERS, HARTLEY (H.W.) Editor of the Financial Supple- ment of the Saturday Review. Formerly Editor of The Economist. Author of The Meaning of Money; Case for Capitalism; etc. Capitalism; Money Market. WOLFE, HUMBERT, C.B.E. (H.Wr.) Demobilization and Resettlement (United Kingdom); Labour Ministry (United Kingdom); Labour Supply and Regulation (United Kingdom); Trade Boards. WOOD, SIR KINGSLEY, M.P. (K.W.) Parliamentary Private Secretary to the British Minister of Health. Author of The Law and Practice of Housing; etc. Housing (in part). WOOD, MAJOR-GENERAL LEONARD (L.Wo.) Chief-of-Staff, U.S. Army, 1910-4. See the biographical article: WOOD, LEONARD. Training Camps (United Stales). WOOD, RONALD McKINNON, B.A.(Cantab.), A.M.I.C.E., F.R.Ae.S. (R.McK.W.) Head of Aerodynamics Department, Air Ministry. Aeronautics (Development of Aeroplane Design). WOOD, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILLIAM, D.C.L., F.R.S. (Canada). (W.Wo.) Reserve of Officers, Canadian Army. Coordinating Officer of the Canadian Special Mission at the Naval and Military Fronts, 1917. Formerly President of English Section of Royal Society of Canada and of Historic Landmarks Association. Author of The Fight for Canada; The Logs of the Conquest of Canada; Folk Songs of New France; etc. Canada (Literature, French Canadian). WOODBURN, JAMES ALBERT, A.B., Ph.D., LL.D. (J-A.W.) Professor of American History, Indiana University. Member of the American Historical Society. Author of The American Republic and its Government; etc. Indiana. t WOODRUFF, CLINTON ROGERS, A.B., Ph.B., LL.B. (C.R.W.) Attorney-at-Law. Hon. Secretary, National Municipal League. Vice-President, American Civic Association. Presi- dent, Civil Service Commission of Philadelphia. City Government. WOOLF, LEONARD SIDNEY, B.A. (L.W.*) Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Empire and Com- merce in Africa; International Government; Cooperation and, the Future of Industry; etc. Cooperation. WROTH, LAWRENCE C., A.B. (L.C.W.) First Assistant Libra- rian, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore. Author of Parson Weems: A Biographical and Critical Study; etc. Baltimore; Maryland. WYATT, MAJOR F. J. C., O.B.E., M.C. (F.J.C.W.) Royal Engi- neers. Organizer and Controller of Camouflage, British Ex- peditionary Force, France, 1916-8. Camouflage (Military). WYNN, WING-COMMANDER A. W. H. E. (A.W.H.E.W.) Fly- ing Corps (in part).

The Initials in brackets indicate the Signatures adopted to distinguish the Contributors.
YAPP, SIR ARTHUR KEYSALL, K.B.E. (A.K.Y.) Officer of the Order of the Crown of Belgium. Order of Wen Hu (China). National Secretary of the Y.M.C.A. Director of Food Economy (Hon.), Sept. 1917–Feb. 1918. Author of Romance of the Red Triangle; etc.
Young Men's Christian Association (United Kingdom).
YOUNG, FREDERIC GEORGE, B.A., LL.D. (F.G.Y.) Dean of the School of Sociology and Professor of Sociology in the University of Oregon. Editor of the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. Author of Financial History of Oregon.
YOUNGBERG, GILBERT A., D.S.O. (G.A.Y.) Lieutenant-Colonel, Corps of Engineers, Assistant to the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army.
Engineers, Military (United States).
Denmark (in part).
ZOLNAY, BELA, Ph.D. (B.Z.) University of Budapest.
Hungary (Literature).

The Initials in brackets indicate the Signatures adopted to distinguish the Contributors.