A Chinese Biographical Dictionary/Chêng Chih-lung
267 Chêng Chih-lung 鄭芝龍 (T. 飛皇). Died A.D. 1662. A native of Nan-an, near Amoy. As a young man, he visited Macao and Japan, and married a Japanese wife, by whom he had a son, the famous Koxinga (see Chêng Ch'êng-kung). Having obtained the leadership of a large fleet of junks, traders or pirates as occasion served, he was compelled to place his services at the command of the last sovereign of the Ming dynasty, in whose cause he fought against the Manchu invaders. In 1628 he tendered his submission to the latter, and for a time was well treated, and cleared the seas of other great pirates. Gradually however he became too powerful, and it was deemed necessary to restrain him by force. He was finally induced to surrender to the Manchu general in Fuhkien; and having been made a prisoner was sent to Peking with two of his sons, Chêng 世恩 Shih-ên and Chêng 世蔭 Shih-yin, together with other of his adherents, all of whom were executed upon arrival.