A Chinese Biographical Dictionary/Chang Huang-yen
66Chang Huang-yen 張煌言. Died A.D. 1668. The last adherent of the Mings on the Chehkiang coast. A chü jen of the 鄞 Yin District, he embraced the cause of the Prince of La, and rose to be his President of the Board of War. At the head of a naval force he made an incursion up the Yang-tsze, and later on he assisted Koxinga in his raid on Chinkiang, Wuhu, etc. After Koxinga's death, he maintained his independence on the small and barren island of 懸嶴 Hsüan-ao, using trained apes to warn him of the approach of the enemy, and harassing the neighbouring coast of Chehkiang. At length he was betrayed by a lieutenant into the hands of Chao T'ing-ch'ên, who kept him in honourable confinement until his death.