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A Chinese Biographical Dictionary/Chang Shang-ying

100 Chang Shang-ying 張商英 (T. 天覺). Died A.D. 1121. Younger brother of Chang T'ang-ying, by whom he was taught in his youth. He rose to high office under the Emperors Chê Tsung and Hui Tsung, and was for a time associated with Ts'ai Ching in the administration. His career was a chequered one, and on several occasions he was dismissed to petty provincial posts. He edited and wrote a preface to the 素書, a short and shallow ethico-political treatise supposed to have been given to Chang Liang by the mysterious old man whose shoe fell over the bridge, and to have been discovered in Chang Liang's tomb at the beginning of the 4th cent. A.D. It is, however, generally admitted that this treatise was written by Chang Shang-ying himself. Canonised as 文忠.