A Dictionary of Artists of the English School/F
FABER, John, engraver. Born in Holland, where he drew portraits from the life on vellum, and also practised mezzo-tint engraving. He came to England about 1687, some accounts say later, and settled in London, residing for a long time in Fountain Court, Strand. His engraved portraits were many of them drawn from the life, and his works, though not distinguished by taste or execution, are no less held in some estimation by collectors. Among them are 25 portraits of the Founders of the Oxford Colleges, the Heads of the Philosophers, after Rubens, and many portraits of the time. He died at Bristol in May 1721.
FABER, John, engraver. Son of the foregoing. Born in Holland in 1684, and when only 3 years old, brought to London by his father, by whom he was instructed. He was also a student in Vanderbank's Academy. His art was confined to mezzo-tint engraving, in which he greatly excelled, his manner being at once bold and free, with great finish and beauty. He was patronised by Kneller, and his works are very numerous. Among them are the 48 portraits of the Kit-Cat Club, published in 1735 by Jacob Tonson; the 'Hampton Court Beauties,' 'Charles II. in his State Robes,' 'The Taking of Namur.' His collected works, comprising 165 plates, were published in two folio volumes. He died of gout, May 2, 1746, at his house in Bloomsbury.
FACIUS, George Sigmund,
FACIUS, John Gotlieb, }engravers. Two brothers, who were born at Ratisbon about 1750. Their father was the Russian consul at Brussels, and both studied engraving in that capital. They were induced by Alderman Boydell to come to London in 1766, and settling here in his employment, they executed a great number of plates, chiefly etched, which were much esteemed. Among these works are a set of plates from Sir Joshua Reynolds's window at New College, Oxford. They both died, it is said, at the latter part of the last century; but there is an engraved plate after Reynolds, dated 1802, which bears their name.
FAGAN, Robert, portrait painter. Studied for some years in Rome, and was in that capital 1794-98. He purchased the celebrated Altieri Claudes, and on the entry of the French troops he suffered imprisonment on this account, but he assisted in getting the pictures out of Rome, and brought to this country, where one of them is now an ornament of the National Gallery.
FAIRAM, John, portrait painter. Practised in London in the first half of the 18th century. Many of his portraits are engraved.
FAIRFIELD, Charles, copyist. He imitated with great skill the works of the Flemish and Butch schools, and practised in London during the latter part of the 18th century. He was of a retired, diffident temperament, and during a needy and laborious life, passed in seclusion, was in the hands of dealers, who availed themselves of his powers, and purchased his exquisite copies for small sums, which by their means found their way into many collections, where they are esteemed as originals. He, however, left behind him some few original works, which are evidence of his ability. He died in Brompton in 1804, aged about 45
FAIRHOLT, Frederick William, F.S.A., antiquarian draftsman. Was born in London of German parents in 1818, and brought up in the heart of the city to his father's trade as a tobacco manufacturer. He had, however, a taste for literature, and when about 15 years of age contributed two papers to Hone's 'Every Day Book.' He then tried art, and commenced his career as a teacher of drawing, also gaining some employment in scene painting. He was next engaged in book illustration, and made some of the designs for the 'Pictorial Bible,' 'Palestine,' 'The History of England,' and an edition of Shakespeare. From 1839 he was engaged as an antiquarian draftsman, and is better known as an antiquary than as an artist. The Percy Society published his 'History of the old City Pageantry.' He also wrote 'A History of Costume in England,' 'A Dictionary of Terms in Art,' and several other works, and contributed the drawings in illustration of some important publications. In the latter part of his life he suffered from spasmodic asthma, which ended in consumption, of which he died April 2, 1866, at Brompton, and was buried in the cemetery there. He left to the Society of Antiquaries a collection of books on pageants, and an unfinished manuscript by himself on the pageants of the middle ages; to the Stratford Museum a Shakesperian collection, a few scarce books to the British Museum, and to the Literary Fund the proceeds of the remainder of his library.
FAIRLAND, Thomas, engraver, lithographer, and portrait painter. As a boy he was fond of drawing, and practised from nature in Kensington Gardens. He afterwards entered as a student at the Royal Academy, and obtained the silver medal in the antique. He first tried line engraving, and became a pupil of Warren, and then, taking up the new art of lithography, produced some very good works after the painters of that time, but from the competition in this art was induced to turn his attention to portrait painting, and had many sitters. His perseverance did not, however, meet with success, and though he was employed by the Queen, he was unable to secure for his family more than the wants of the day. Ill-health could not overcome his resolute application, and he died prematurely in October 1852, aged 48.
FAIRLESS, Thomas Kerr, landscape painter. Was born at Hexham, Northumberland, and was a pupil of Nicholson, a wood engraver at Newcastle, but he was unsettled, and eventually came to London, determined to study art as his profession. From 1848 to 1851 he was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He painted landscape in a free, bold manner, and was a teacher of drawing. He died in his native town in his 28th year, on July 14, 1853, before he had time to develop his art.
FAITHORNE, William, engraver and draftsman. Was born in London in 1616, and was brought up under Robert Peake, the well-known engraver. After working with him for three or four years, on the outbreak of the Civil War, he was induced by his master to join the royal army, and was one of the defenders of Basing House, and on its surrender became the prisoner of the Parliamentarians. He was for a time imprisoned in Aldersgate, and during his confinement resumed his profession, till the solicitations of his friends obtained his release on condition of leaving the country, and he made his way to Paris. Here he is said to have been assisted in his art by both Nanteuil and Champagne, but this is doubtful.
About 1650 he obtained permission to return to England, and soon after married and set up a print-shop near Temple Bar. He at the same time followed his art, and was much employed by the booksellers upon the portrait frontispieces in vogue at that time. About 1680 he left his shop, and devoted himself more exclusively to drawing and engraving portraits, the former chiefly in crayons from the life. At this time he removed to Printing House Square, and here he died, when well advanced in life, in May 1691, and was buried at St. Anne's Church, Blackfriars. His early manner was founded on the Dutch and Flemish schools, but he made considerable improvement while in France. His best portraits are finished with the graver in a free and delicate style, with much force and colour. He did not draw the figure well, and confined himself chiefly to the head; but there are some historical plates from his graver, among them four subjects engraved for Taylors 'Life of Christ.' Of his numerous portraits, Lady Paston, probably after Vandyke, is considered his chef-d'œuvre; an impression sold at Sir Mark Sykes's sale in 1824 for 54l. 12s. He published his ' Art of Graving' in 1662. His friend Flatman says of him —
'A Faithorne sculpsit, is a charm can save
From dull oblivion and a gaping grave.'
FAITHORNE, William, engraver. Son of the preceding; born in London 1656, and instructed by his father. He practised solely in mezzo-tint, and produced a few works of some merit; but Walpole tells that 'he was negligent and fell into distress, involving his father in much care.' He died prematurely in 1686, and was buried in St. Martin's Churchyard. About 30 plates by him are known; of these, perhaps the most prominent are 'Mary, Princess of Orange,' after Hanneman; 'Sir William Reade, the Oculist;' and 'Thomas Flatman showing a Drawing of Charles II.'
FALCONET, Peter, portrait painter. Was born in Paris, the son of Falconet, the sculptor, who executed the largest equestrian statue of Peter the Great at St Petersburg. He came to London, where he practised some years as a portrait painter. He was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists in 1766, and found considerable employment between 1767-73, exhibiting in the latter year two small whole-lengths in the Academy. He drew the portraits of the 12 most reputed artists in London, which were engraved, and the portrait of Granger, which forms the frontispiece to his 'Biographical Dictionary.' Several of his portraits were also engraved by Val. Green, Dixon, Earlom, and others. He composed some historical subjects, which were extravagant in their manner, and painted the decorations of a Chinese temple for the Baroness de Grey at her seat in Bedfordshire. He is said to have returned to France soon after 1773, but probably not much before 1780.
FANELLI, Francis, modeller and sculptor. Was a Florentine artist and came to this country before 1640, in which year he called himself 'Sculptor to the King.' He was celebrated for his works in metal, which were finely finished. There is by him in Westminster Abbey a bust of Lady Cottinton, one of Charles I. at the Bodleian, and several of his works are at Welbeck.
FANSHAWE, Catherine Maria, amateur. Born in London about 1775. She etched about 20 historical and figure subjects with much ability. She died about 1834.
FARINGTON, George, history painter. He was of an ancient Lancashire family. His father was rector of Warrington, where he was born in 1754. In 1770-71 he gained premiums at the Society of Arts for landscape views. He received his first instructions in art from his brother Joseph, and then became the pupil of Benjamin West, P.R.A., and an industrious student of the Royal Academy, where he gained the silver medal in 1779, and the gold medal for 'Macbeth' in 1780. He exhibited a portrait at the Academy in 1773, and again in 1783. He was employed by Alderman Boydell, for whom he made some excellent drawings from the Houghton collection. In 1782 he was induced to visit the East Indies, where he painted many pictures, and while engaged on a large work representing the Durbar of one of the native princes, he imprudently exposed himself to the night air, and was seized with an illness which terminated his life in a few days in 1788.
FARINGTON, Joseph, R.A., landscape painter. Was the elder brother of the foregoing, and was born at Leigh, Lancashire, on Nov. 21, 1747. He chose the profession of a painter, and in 1763 was placed under Richard Wilson, with whom he continued for several years, and was esteemed one of his best pupils. He gained several premiums at the Society of Arts, and at the age of 21 he was elected a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists. He worked with his brother upon the drawings of the Houghton collection, and on the completion of this work he returned to his own county, and studied the landscape scenery of the lake districts of Cumberland and Westmoreland. He returned to London in 1781, where he then settled. He was one of the first students of the Royal Academy, and from 1778 to 1813 was a constant exhibitor there of landscapes and landscape views. He was elected associate in 1783, and full member in 1785, and then gave much time and exercised great influence in the Academy councils. On the suspension of the five members of the council in 1804, Copley, R. A., says 'he was the avowed and active member of the confederacy which led to this schism.' In his landscapes he has not shown much poetry or grandeur; his composition is poor; his colouring is better, often possessing power and brilliance; his pencilling is free and firm, but with a tendency to hardness. He made numerous topographic drawings, using the reed pen with much spirit, and slightly washing in the breadths with sepia or Indian ink. Many of his views of the English lakes were engraved by Byrne, Medland, Pouncey, and others, and published in 1816; and 76 views by him, in illustration of the history of the River Thames, were published in 1794. He died of a fall from his horse in returning from church, December 30, 1821.
FARNBOROUGH, Amelia, Lady, amateur. Daughter of Sir Abraham Hume, Bart. Was born January 29, 1772, and married in 1793 Sir Charles Long, who was in 1826 created Lord Farnborough. As an amateur, she was distinguished by her very clever water-colour drawings, works of great truth and feeling. She exhibited 'The Boulevards of Paris' at the Royal Academy in 1819, and had from 1807 been an honorary exhibitor of many drawings of considerable merit. She died June 15, 1837.
FARRER, Nicholas, portrait painter. Born at Sunderland in 1750. He studied art under Robert E. Pine and in the schools of the Society of Artists, and was admitted to the friendship of Reynolds and Northcote. He practised as a portrait painter, and imitated the manner of Reynolds. He was much patronised by the Duke of Richmond, and painted the portraits of the Duke and his family. He died 1805.
FAULKNER, Joshua Wilson, portrait painter. Was a native of Manchester, and practised in that city. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1809 the portrait of a lady in character, and two other works. Soon after he became a member of the Liverpool Academy, and exhibited at that Institution. He settled in London about 1817, and in that and the two following years exhibited portraits at the Academy. In 1820 he exhibited there for the last time, sending some portrait-groups and 'A Boy with a Butterfly.'
FAULKNER, Benjamin Rawlinson, portrait painter. Brother of the above. Was born in 1787, at Manchester, and in early life engaged in a commercial house, and had charge of a branch establishment at Gibraltar, where he lost his health from an attack of the plague, and returned to England about 1813. During his convalescence he developed a taste for drawing, and, assisted by his brother, devoted himself to study from the antique. He then came to London and established himself in Newman Street. In 1821 he first exhibited at the Academy, and continued an exhibitor, exclusively of portraits, till his death. His works were distinguished by quiet taste and finish, but he did not gain much patronage. Some of his best portraits are at Manchester. He died October 29, 1849, aged 62. With great musical talent, he had the gift of a fine voice, and was for some time organist at Irving's church in Hatton Garden.
FAYRAM, J., landscape painter. He practised about the middle of the 18th century. One of his landscapes is engraved by Major, and there are some etchings by him of views about Chelsea and Battersea, and one of the Hermitage in Kew Gardens.
FEARY, John, Landscape painter. Practised in London. He gained a premium at the Society of Arts in 1775, and painted views of gentlemen's seats and parks. He exhibited at the Academy, first time, in 1772, and continued, with little intermission, an exhibitor up to 1788.
FELLOWES, James, portrait painter. Practised with some repute in the reigns of George I. and Geerge II. He was the reputed painter of 'The Last Supper,' an altar-piece, at St. Mary's, Whitechapel, which gave great offence from the assumed representation of Judas by the portrait of Dean, afterwards Bishop Kennet. This work, which has also been ascribed to Sir James Thornhill, was said to have been removed to the Abbey Church at St. Alban's. It was engraved, and the Society of Antiquaries possessed a print of it.
FERG, Francis Paul, landscape painter. Born in Vienna 1689, the son of an obscure artist. He studied under several masters in that capital, and gained a name by his small landscapes with figures, which he painted chiefly on copper. Invited by the Court to Dresden, he passed several years there, and after a short stay at Brunswick, he came to London in 1718, and at once found employment and settled. His circumstances became depressed by an imprudent marriage, and he was always poor, not from excess but from indolence. His works, though sought after by purchasers, were no sooner hurriedly finished than they were taken to the pawnbroker, and were rarely redeemed. He is said to have died in the street, near the door of his lodging, and to have been in want of common necessaries. This happened in 1740, at the age of 51, and he was buried by a subscription raised for the purpose. His landscapes were pleasing, combining picturesque ruins and small figures well drawn. His 'Four Seasons' were engraved by Major in 1754, and Vivares and others engraved after him. He etched eight plates, which he inscribed 'Capricci fatti, per F. P. F.'
FERGUSON, William G., still-life painter. Born in Scotland, he learned the rudiments of art there, and then greatly improved himself by travel in France and Italy. He painted still-life with great skill, his composition good, and light and shade effective. His principal subjects were dead birds, particularly pigeons and partridges, sometimes hares, rabbits, and other objects. He died in London about 1690.
FERGUSON, James, portrait draftsman. He was born in Banffshire, of very poor parents, in 1710, and learned to read by hearing his father teach his elder brother. He had no other instruction, no books; and servant to a farmer he discovered a peculiar aptitude for mathematics, and studied the stars while he minded his master's sheep, gaining a knowledge of astronomy by his own contemplation of the heavens. He had also cultivated some power of drawing. Finding at last some friends, he was sent by them to Edinburgh to study, and there, and afterwards in England, supported himself for several years by drawing miniature portraits in black lead while pursuing his more serious studies, which have given him a well-known name as an astronomer. Several of these portraits existed at Bristol. He died in 1776, aged 66.
FERNELEY, J. E., animal painter. Was born in 1781, and brought up as a wheelwright; but, urged by a desire to try art, he abandoned his trade and studied, with some success, to paint animals. He settled among the sporting men at Melton Mowbray, and his first sitter was Mr. Assheton Smith, of fox-hunting celebrity. Others soon followed, and from 1818 to 1849 he exhibited at the Royal Academy portraits of Huntsmen and their horses, dogs and fox-hunting, and hunting-groups. He died June 3, 1860, aged 79.
FERRERS, Benjamin, portrait painter. He was deaf and dumb, and practised about the middle of the 18th century. There is a portrait by him of Bishop Hoadly, said to have been his kinsman, which is painted with a good deal of rude vigour, and in the Bodleian Library a small oval portrait of Bishop Beveridge. Several of his portraits are engraved.
FERRIÈRE, F., miniature painter. He is believed to have been a native of Switzerland. He came early to this country, and practised both in oil and colours. He first exhibited at the Academy in 1793, and continued an exhibitor up to 1822. In 1819 he was appointed portrait painter to the Dowager Empress of Russia. His water-colour miniatures were executed with much power, and were greatly esteemed.
FERRIÈRE, L., miniature painter. Lived in the same house with the foregoing, and was probably his son. He exhibited miniature portraits at the Academy in 1817, and again in 1826-27-28, when there is no further trace of him.
FIELDING, Theodore Nathan, portrait painter. Resided near Halifax; painted in oil, and enjoyed a considerable local reputation about the middle of the 18th century. His works were marked by an elaborately minute finish, and he was much patronised by the gentry of Yorkshire and Lancashire. He was the father of four artist sons—Theodore, Copley, Thales, and Newton.
FIELDING, Theodore Henry Adolphus, water-colour painter. He was the eldest son of the above, and was educated in art by his father. He exhibited a 'View on the River Tyne' at the Academy in 1779, and continued an occasional exhibitor, chiefly of landscape views, for some years. He was appointed teacher of drawing and perspective at the Military College at Addiscombe, and resided in the neighbouring town of Croydon, where he died July 11, 1851, aged 70. He published a 'Treatise on the Ancient and Modern Practice of Painting in Oil and Water-Colours,' with some other works on art-teaching.
FIELDING, Mrs. T. H., water-colour painter. Wife of the above. She was elected a member of the Water-Colour Society in 1821, and from that year to 1835 was a constant contributor to the Society's Exhibitions. She painted flowers, birds, and insects.
FIELDING, Anthony Vandyke Copley, water-colour painter. Was the second and most distinguished son of the foregoing Theodore Nathan Fielding. He was born in 1787, and became early in life the pupil of John Varley, and was one of the talented party of young men who were accustomed to meet at Dr. Monro's. He devoted himself to water-colours, and his name is first met with as an associate exhibitor of the Water-Colour Society in 1810, from which time he became a regular exhibitor, and occasionally also sent a painting in oil to the Royal Academy. In 1813 he was elected a member of the Society; in 1817, treasurer; and in the following year, secretary. In 1831 he was elected the president, and held this office till his death. His works are very numerous; for several years his contributions to the Water-Colour Society's Exhibitions averaged between 40 and 50. He was at the same time a fashionable teacher, largely employed.
Such an amount of labour, added to his teaching, naturally produced mannerism—slight dexterous works, in which execution prevailed over individuality and truth; yet his art was very popular, his style agreeable and pleasant, and his works fetch high prices. Some of his early drawings possess great breadth and space, with good colour; and with them his marine drawings, effects of clouds and storm, may be classed as his best works. He exhibited some Italian views on several occasions, which were from the sketches of others. It does not appear that he ever visited the Continent. His career was successful, and he amassed some property. He had been in the habit of visiting Brighton, where latterly he chiefly resided. He died at Worthing, on March 3, 1855, in his 68th year, and was buried at Hove.
FIELDING, Thales, water-colour painter. He was a younger brother of the foregoing. He drew the figure well, and was a clever artist. In the years 1816-20, when the Water-Colour Exhibition was open to the profession, he was a contributor, sending classic compositions, which were well grouped and coloured, and landscapes, introducing cattle in the foreground, with some well-known line of scenery or buildings in his background. He was for many years teacher of drawing at the Woolwich Military Academy. He died in Newman Street, London, December 20, 1837, aged 44.
FIELDING, Newton, engraver and water-colour painter. He was the youngest of the four brothers. He was an exhibitor of some views at the Water-Colour Society in 1815, and of some cattle in 1818. He chiefly painted animals, but without much ability. He produced some works in aquatint, and is best known as an engraver. He engraved Sir Humphrey Davy, after Lawrence, 1829, and worked also as a lithographer. He published many works on art. He taught the family of Louis Philippe, and was well esteemed in France. He died June 13, 1856.
FIELDING, John, engraver. Was born about 1758, and was the pupil of Ryland and also of Bartolozzi. He worked so much for Ryland, that the plates which bear his own name are very few; of these are 'Jacob and Rachael,' after Stothard, and 'Moses saved by Pharaoh's Daughter;' also some plates after Angelica Kauffman. His best works are between 1780-90.
FILLANS, James, sculptor. Was born in Lanarkshire in 1808, and was apprenticed to a stonemason at Paisley. He was afterwards employed there in modelling small groups, by which he eventually made himself known, and by his ability as a bust modeller found employment. In 1835 he was enabled to visit Paris, where he studied for a time in the Louvre. On his return he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1837, was a contributor up to 1850, and became successful as a portrait sculptor. He visited Vienna, and from thence Italy, and maturing his art he produced some good groups—'Blind Girls reading the Scriptures,' 'Rachael weeping for her Children;' but his forte was as a bust modeller. He died of rheumatic fever at Glasgow, September 27, 1852, leaving a widow and a large family, for whom in his short career he had been unable to make provision.
FILLIAN, John, engraver. He was a pupil of Faithorne, and practised towards the latter part of the 17th century, but died young, about 1680. Evelyn speaks of him as a hopeful young man. There are a few portraits by him—a head of his master, Faithorne; of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex; and of Paracelsus. He imitated the manner of Faithorne, and had he lived might have attained some excellence.
FINCH, Francis Oliver, water-colour painter. Was born November 22, 1802, the son of a merchant in Cheapside. A weakly child, he passed his boyhood at Stone, a little village near Aylesbury. When of a proper age he was articled to John Varley for three years, but continued with him for five years. He then made a sketching tour in the Highlands. For a time he painted portraits and made some study of the figure. He also painted some landscapes in oil, but returning to his first art, he was in 1822 elected an associate, and in 1827 a member, of the Water-Colour Society. The profits of art were at that time small, and he regretted being so much drawn aside from his art by the necessities of teaching. He was frequently depressed by a want of confidence in his abilities, and was slow in his execution. His landscapes were chiefly compositions, palaces, gardens, and stately terraces, painted in the early pure manner, but laboured in their execution and following too much the style of Barret. His love of twilight and moonlight scenes, in which he excelled, was acquired by his rambles when a young man, frequently extended through the night, with some fellow-student, sketch-book in hand. He exhibited at the Water-Colour Society from 1820 till his death; but between 1817 and 1828 he was also an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He died August 27, 1862, after a lengthened illness. He possessed a fine voice, and was a good musician. He had also some poetical tastes, and printed a small collection of sonnets and 'An Artist's Dream.' His widow wrote an affectionate memoir of him, published in 1865.
FINDEN, Edward Francis,
FINDEN, William, }engravers. Two brothers, both pupils of James Mitan, who practised their art together, and were largely assisted in their work by their pupils. They first engaged in the illustrations for the 'Arctic Voyages' published by Murray. Next they projected and published the landscape illustrations of Byron, followed by 'The Landscape Bible,' 'Beauties of the Poets,' and some others. Realising a profit by these undertakings, the brothers commenced their most important work, 'The Gallery of British Art,' which, by its failure, involved them in difficulties they hardly ever surmounted, though the work was both well planned and ably executed. Their next attempt was 'The Beauties of Thomas Moore,' and this too was unhappily unsuccessful. Edward, the younger brother, died, after a long illness, February 9, 1857, aged 65. He worked chiefly in conjunction with the pupils and assistants, and did not complete any important plates with his own hand. William died in his 65th year, September 20, 1852. The best works from his own graver are, 'The Highlander's Return' and 'Naughty Boy' after Edwin Landseer, R.A., and 'The Village Festival,' after Wilkie, R.A.
FINLAYSON, John, draftsman and mezzo-tint engraver. Was born about 1730, and practised his art in London. He was a member of the Free Society of Artists in 1763, and in 1764 and 1773 was awarded a premium by the Society of Arts. He engraved a considerable number of portraits after Hone, Cotes, Zoffany, and Reynolds, and died about 1776. He also engraved two or three subject pictures, one of them, 'Candaules showing his Wife as she is leaving the Bath,' after his own design.
FINNEY, Samuel, miniature painter. He was born in Cheshire, of an old county family, and practised his art, both on ivory and in enamel, with much success in London. He exhibited his miniatures with the Society of Artists, of which he was a member, 1761-66. He was appointed portrait painter to Queen Charlotte, and exhibited a portrait of Her Majesty in 1765. He quitted his profession on inheriting some family property, and retired to his native county, where he died in 1807, aged 86.
FISCHER, John George Paul, miniature painter. Was born at Hanover, September 16, 1786, and was the youngest of ten sons. His father, a line engraver, dying the year after his birth left the family in very straitened circumstances. At 14 years of age he became the pupil of Heinrich Bamberg, court painter in Hanover to George III. The youth showed so much talent that he was employed by his master to paint portraits, theatrical scenery, and frescoes, and on leaving the studio was able to support his mother in the long sickness of her last years. In 1810 he fled to England to escape the French Conscription, and was by friends here introduced to royalty, and painted in miniature Queen Charlotte and all the younger members of the Royal Family. These are now at Windsor. In 1819, he painted the infant Princess Victoria in her cradle, and another large miniature of her in 1820. He occasionally painted landscapes in water-colour. He was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 1811 to 1871. For the Prince Regent he painted 20 examples of miniature costumes, his last miniature was executed in his 81st year. He died on December 12, 1875, leaving behind him a devoted widow who herself practised art.
FISHER, Jonathan, landscape painter. He was born in Dublin, and was originally a draper in that city. Self-taught in art, he was patronised by Lord Portarlington. His works did not go beyond the mechanical imitation of nature, were cold in colour, and wanting in all the higher qualities of art; nor did they enable him to gain a maintenance. This he owed chiefly to a situation in the Stamp Office, Dublin, which he held till his death, in 1812. He published, in 1782, a set of views of the Lake of Killarney, aqua-tinted, from his paintings, by Mazell, and some illustrations of Irish scenery.
FISHER, Edward, mezzo-tint engraver. Born in Ireland in 1730; he was originally apprenticed to the trade of a hatter. He then took to engraving, and was distinguished by his plates, after Reynolds, which were brilliant, and the expression well rendered. Some of his best are Lady Elizabeth Keppel, Lady Sarah Bunbury, and Lord Ligonier. His works are distinguished by great breadth and delicacy of finish. Reynolds said of him that he was 'injudiciously exact,' and wasted as much time in giving the precise shape to every leaf as he bestowed on the features of a portrait. He was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, 1766, and resided in London, where he died about 1785.
FISHER, Thomas, amateur. Was born at Rochester in 1782, and was a clerk in the India Office. He made numerous drawings of antiquarian and other subjects, which he etched himself. His best known works are his Bedfordshire antiquities, and that from the paintings in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon. He died at Stoke Newington, July 20, 1836.
FISK, William H., portrait and history painter. He was born 1796-97, at Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, in which county his family, a long race of yeomen, had possessed some property in land. Educated at Colchester, he came to London at the age of 19, and for 10 years had some mercantile employment. He had always felt a desire towards art, and when past 30 he turned earnestly to its study. He first gained a place on the Academy walls in 1829, and then, and for several years, exhibited portraits; but from 1835, with a higher aim,he exhibited historical works—in 1836, 'The Coronation of Robert the Bruce;' in 1838, 'Lionardo da Vinci expiring in the arms of Francis I.;' in 1839, 'Attempt to Assassinate Lorenzo de Medici,' for which he was awarded, in 1840, the gold medal at the Manchester Exhibition. In 1842 he exhibited 'The Trial of Charles I.;' and in 1843, 'Charles I. on his Way to the Scaffold.' From that time his subjects were of a more domestic character, and he was only an occasional exhibitor; but towards the end of his career he exhibited two or three subjects from Scripture. He purchased some property in Essex, to which he had for some years retired, and died at Banbury, in that county, November 8, 1872. Several of his works are engraved.
FITTLER, James, A.E., engraver. He was born 1758, in London, and in 1788 entered the Academy Schools, where he studied his art and attained much distinction. He engraved portraits, landscapes, marine subjects, and topographical views, and was appointed marine engraver to George III. He was employed on the illustrations for Bell's 'Theatre' and Bibdin's 'Ædes Althorpianæ.' His 'Lord Howe's Victory' and 'Battle of the Nile,' both after De Loutherbourg, are his most important works. He published 'Scotia Depicta,' from drawings of Claude Nattes, and an 'Illustrated Bible.' He was elected an associate engraver of the Royal Academy in 1800. He died at Turnham Green, December 2, 1835, aged 79, and was buried in Chiswick Churchyard. He worked in the line manner; was powerful in light and shade, hard and not agreeable in manner.
FITZ-OTTO, William, medallist. He is styled 'goldsmith,' and was engraver of the dies for the Royal Mint in the reign of Henry I., having been confirmed to that office, 'the mystery of the dyes,' which his father, in Domesday-book, is described to have held, and which it appears was at that time hereditary.
FLATMAN, Thomas, miniature painter. He was the son of a clerk in Chancery, and born in London about 1633. Educated at Winchester School, he went from thence to New College, Oxford, where he was elected a fellow in 1654, but left, without taking his degree, to study the law in the Inner Temple, and was called to the bar, but it does not appear that he ever followed the profession. He early took up the study of art, and distinguished himself as a miniature painter. His works are somewhat larger in scale than those of his predecessors, and he used more body colour. They are a little after Cooper's manner, but deficient in his refinement of drawing expression, and finish, and are greatly behind him in grace, though they are far from wanting in merit, and are highly esteemed. Some portraits in oil by him also exist. They are pleasing in colour, well painted, with no appearance of littleness in manner. He was also a poet, and a small volume of 'Poems and Songs' by him, published in 1674, reached a third edition in 1688. His miniatures were, however, preferred to his writings by his contemporaries, for Lord Rochester says of him:
'Flatman, who Cowley imitates with pains,
And rides a jaded muse whipt with loose reins.'
And Granger, 'One of his heads is worth a ream of his pindarics;' and it is said also that his art was highly esteemed by Vertue. He lived in Three-leg Alley, St. Bride's, London, where he died, December 8, 1688, and was buried in the parish church. He possessed a small estate at Tishton, near Diss.
FLAXMAN, John, modeller. He was of an old Buckinghamshire race, originally from Norfolk, and four brothers of the family fought on the side of the Parliament at Naseby. He was descended from the youngest son, who settled in Buckinghamshire. Roubiliac and Scheemakers both employed him as a modeller. He kept a shop for the sale of plaster casts in Covent Garden, and afterwards in the Strand, where he died about 1795.
FLAXMAN, William, modeller. He was the eldest son of the above, and practised towards the end of the last century. He exhibited a 'Venus' with the Free Society of Artists in 1768, and at the Academy for the first time in 1781, sending a portrait of his brother in wax, and contributed a portrait in wax to three subsequent exhibitions, the last in 1793. He is said to have been distinguished as a carver in wood.
FLAXMAN, John, R.A., sculptor. Second son of the above John Flaxman. Was born in York city, July 6, 1755. He was a delicate boy, in very weakly health, and finding his amusement at home, probably received his first inspirations in art from the classic models in his father's shop. For this his taste had been quickened by a fair knowledge of Latin and Greek. He exhibited at the Free Society of Artists, as early as 1767, 'Models from the Antique;' in the next year, busts; and in 1769, 'The Assassination of Julius Caesar,' a model; probably the first idea of his completed work in 1781. In 1769 he was admitted a student of the Royal Academy. He had acquired the technicalities of his art from his father, and was diligent in his studies. In 1770-71 he exhibited portraits in wax at the Royal Academy; and in 1772 was an unsuccessful competitor for the gold medal, and could not refrain from tears when the decision was announced. The same year he exhibited a 'Figure of History;' the following year, 'A Figure of Grecian Comedy,' with, at the same time, some wax portraits. Continuing to exhibit with little intermission, in 1777 he contributed a clay model of 'Pompey' and of 'Agrippina;' in 1778, 'Hercules tearing his hair after having put on the poisoned Shirt;' in 1781, 'The Death of Julius Caesar' and 'Acis and Galatea,' two bas-reliefs; in 1782, a bust of Venus; in 1784, 'Prometheus;' followed in 1785-86 by some monumental groups, including that to the poet Collins at Chichester Cathedral and to Mrs. Morley at Gloucester Cathedral; and in 1787, 'Venus and Cupid.' During these years he was largely employed by Messrs. Wedgwood, and added greatly to his means by his designs for their celebrated pottery, and then for the next seven years he sent no work to the Academy Exhibitions.
His early art companions were Stothard, R. A., and Blake, and at this time, leaving his home, he lived in Wardour Street, where he worked zealously, modelling in wax and clay, and occasionally making a study in oil. In 1782 he married Anne Denman, an accomplished young lady of a family in the City, and in 1787, taking his wife, his helpmate ever by his side, as the companion of his travels, visited Italy, where he pursued his studies for seven years. At Rome, while he had to support himself by his work, he attracted great notice. He executed for the Earl of Bristol, but for a price which proved very inadequate, a marble group of four figures above life-size from Ovid's 'Metamorphosis,' representing the fury of Athamas. He began his designs in illustration of the great poets—the 'Iliad' and 'Odyssey,' 80 designs, 1793; from Æschylus, 1795; and Dante, 1797; and these works were engraved at Rome under his supervision by Piroli. On his return home, he was presented with the diplomas of the academies of Florence and Verona, and later he made the designs from 'Hesiod,' which were engraved in 1816.
He reached England in 1794, and in the following year took a house in Buckingham Street, Fitzroy Square, where he resided till his death. His first work was his monument to Lord Mansfield, in Westminster Abbey—a fine monumental group—the great judge represented seated in his full robes, with figures of Justice and Mercy, and an emblematic figure, said to be of Death. Following this work, he was elected in 1797 an associate, and in 1800 a full member, of the Academy. He afterwards completed his monument to Captain Montague, in St. Paul's, and the monuments to Sir Joshua Reynolds, Earl Howe, and Lord Nelson; and anxious to distinguish himself, proposed to erect a statue of Britannia, 200 feet high, on Greenwich Hill, as a naval trophy.
Weakly in frame and constitution, and of a gentle spirit, he quietly pursued his art during a long career. Of the numerous works from his chisel, these should be specially noticed—'Michael and Satan,' executed for Lord Egremont; a monument to the Baring family at Micheldever Church, Hants; to Mary Lushington, at Lewisham, Kent; Earl Howe, in St. Paul's; and his drawings and model for the 'Shield of Achilles,' completed in 1818, comprising upwards of 100 figures, besides animals. He was elected, in 1810, professor of sculpture to the Royal Academy, and delivered from the professor's chair 10 lectures, which are published. Simple in all his tastes and habits, his art was founded on the highest Greek examples. His imaginative genius is shown in his numerous drawings and designs, full of poetry and sentiment in their conception, but never sensual; classic and poetical, religious and monumental, his grouping was distinguished by its grandeur of style. Skilled in the use of his modelling tool, he was weak and ineffective when he took his chisel in hand. He was of some reputation as a writer on art subjects. He published, in 1799, 'A Letter to the Committee for raising a Monument to the Duke of Gloucester.' He contributed a sketch of Romney's career to 'Hayley's Life.' He wrote for Rees's 'Encyclopaedia' the articles 'Armour,' 'Basso-rilievo,' 'Beauty,' 'Bronze,' 'Bust,' 'Composition,' 'Cast,' and 'Ceres.' His health declined gradually towards the end of his life, and a bad cold caught at the beginning of December terminated in a few days in his death. He was buried in the ground belonging to St. Giles-in-the-Fields, adjoining the old church of St. Pancras, where his tombstone tells that 'his angelic spirit returned to the Divine Giver, December 7, 1826, in the 72nd year of his age.' He was a disciple of Swedenborg. His wife, who died in 1820, and his sister rest in the same grave. His property was sworn under 4.000l. Miss Denman, his wife's sister, and his adopted daughter, founded the Flaxman Gallery at the London University College.
FLAXMAN, Miss Mary Ann, amateur. Sister of the above. Her name first appears in art as an exhibitor at the Royal Academy, both of models and drawings. In 1786 she was an 'honorary' contributor of 'Turkish Ladies;' in 1789, of 'Ferdinand and Miranda playing Chess' and a portrait in wax; in 1790, of a drawing from Miss Burney's 'Cecilia;' and then, after an absence of six years, she again contributes—1797-1800, designs from the poets; in 1802, a portrait of Mrs. Billington. She was, probably at this time, governess in a family, with whom she travelled in Germany. In 1810 she had returned to London and was living with her brother, and then resumed her contributions to the Academy, exhibiting in that year 'Sappho;' in 1811, portrait of her friend, Miss Porden; in 1817, designs for the old ballad, 'The Beggar's Daughter;' in 1819, 'Maternal Piety,' her last exhibited work. She died April 17, 1833, in her 65th year. Her designs for 'Robin Goodfellow' were engraved; and six illustrations by her for Hayley's 'Triumphs of Temper,' engraved by Blake, were published in 1803. They are very simple in design, with much original feeling, and though weakly, are not badly drawn.
FLETCHER, Henry, engraver. Practised in London in the second quarter of the 18th century. He was chiefly employed upon portrait heads for frontispieces, but is best known as the first engraver of flowers in this country. Of these his 'Flowers of each Month' (some copies of which were coloured) are good examples. There is a plate by him of the story of 'Bathsheba,' after Sebastian Conca.
FLETCHER, Henry, engraver. Born at the beginning of the 18th century, and about 1760 engraved several views of Ancient Rome, after Canaletti.
FLITCROFT, Henry, architect. Born September 3, 1697. His father was gardener to William III. at Hampton Court. He began life as a carpenter, but falling from a scaffold at Lord Burlington's about 1717-18, the accident gained him the notice of that nobleman, by whose patronage and his own merit he attained celebrity and wealth. He held several offices at the Board of Works, succeeding to the appointment of comptroller in 1758. He built the church of St. Giles-in-the-Field, opened 1734, and rebuilt St. Olave's, Southwark and also, about 1745, the church at Hampstead, where he built a house for himself, and dwelt some time. He also made some extensive alterations at Woburn Abbey, almost rebuilding the mansion, and adding an elevation of much pretension. He was elected sheriff for London and Middlesex in 1745, but declined to serve, and paid the fine. He died March 5, 1769, and was buried at Teddington. He was nicknamed 'Burlington Harry.'
FLOWER, Bernard, 'glazier.' He contracted to paint the windows of Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster Abbey, but died about the 4th Henry VIII., before the completion of the work.
FLYNTE, Nicholas, die sinker. Was sculptor of the irons for the Royal Mint. 'Sculptor de et pro Ferris,' 2nd Henry VII.
FOGGO, James, history painter. Was born in London, June 11, 1790. His father was a warm advocate for the emancipation of the negroes, and during the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in 1799 thought it prudent to leave England, and went with his family to Paris. The son was educated in the schools of the French Academy, and adopted art as his profession. In 1815, on the return of Napoleon from Elba, he hastily left Paris and came to London with small means, which were soon exhausted. But he did not want perseverance. He painted his 'Hagar and Ishmael,' which was exhibited at the British Institution, and gained favourable notice. He was also fortunate in obtaining some teaching, which proved his chief means of support. In 1819 he was joined by his brother George, who was educated in art with him, and from that time they worked together, their pictures being the effort of their combined talent. In 1822 they completed their large work, 'Christians at Parga preparing to Emigrate;' in 1824, 'Christ healing the Impotent Man at the Pool of Bethesda;' in 1826, 'The Entombment of Christ;' but they exhibited very few works, and those generally at the British Institution. In 1840-43 they were competitors in the Westminster Hall Exhibitions for the decorations of the Houses of Parliament, but were not successful. The works they produced were chiefly Scripture subjects, and from their unusually large dimensions and treatment, were hardly of a class to find purchasers; but the two brothers, working harmoniously together for nearly 46 years, followed the bent of their own genius, undeterred by the want of public appreciation, while they found by teaching their chief means of living. James died in London, September 14, 1860, and was buried in the Highgate Cemetery.
FOGGO, George, history painter. Born April 14, 1793. He was younger brother of the above, and was associated with him in his principal works, and, like him, drew the figure well. He was an energetic, active man, and was associated with many plans for the advancement of art. He drew and lithographed the Raphael cartoons, and was the author of 'A Letter to Lord Brougham on the History and Character of the Royal Academy,' 1835; the 'Report of a Meeting to promote the free Admission to St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey,' 1837; 'Results of the Parliamentary Inquiry on the new Schools of Design and the Royal Academy,' 1837; 'A Catalogue of the National Gallery, with Critical Notes,' 1847. He died September 26, 1869, aged 76.
FOLDSONE, John, portrait painter, also styled himself history painter. He practised in the latter half of the 18th century. He painted small heads in oil; rapid in his execution, his practice was to attend his sitters at their own houses early in the morning, generally to dine with them, finish his work in the day, and to retire with his honorarium. He exhibited portraits at the Spring Gardens Exhibition in 1769, and small whole-length portraits, with two portrait-groups, at the Academy, in 1771, a classic subject in 1773, and continued to exhibit up to 1783. He died, early in life, soon after. His daughter (Mrs. Mee) was a successful miniature painter.
FOLEY, John Henry, R.A., sculptor. Was born in Dublin, May 24, 1818, and at the age of 13 entered the art schools of the Royal Dublin Society, where he studied the figure, architecture, and ornamental design. In 1834 he came to London, and the following year was admitted to the schools of the Royal Academy. In 1839 he first appears as an exhibitor contributing two groups. In the following year he sent his 'Ino and the infant Bacchus,' when his abilities were at once recognised. 'Lear and Cordelia' followed in 1841, 'Venus rescuing Eneas from Diomed' in 1842, 'Prospero and Miranda' in 1843. His attention was then directed to the National Competition in Westminster Hall, where he exhibited in 1844 'A Youth at a Stream,' and in 1847 his model for a statue of Hampden. In 1849 he was elected an associate of the Academy, but at this time his contributions to the exhibition were few, a bust or a statuette chiefly. In 1854 he exhibited his design for the Wellington Memorial, and in 1858 was elected a full member of the Academy. Subsequently he contributed in 1859 'Egeria,' in 1860 'The elder brother in Comus,' his diploma work, in 1861 his 'Oliver Goldsmith' and a part of 'General Nicholson's Monument.' This was the last year in which he exhibited. Some difference with the member charged with the arrangement of the sculpture at the following exhibition, led to his persistent refusal to exhibit, which, it is believed, was only overcome just before his death. Among his chief works are 'Selden and Hampden' for St. Stephen's Hall, Westminster, 'Goldsmith and Burke' for Trinity College, Dublin, 'Lord Herbert,' 'Lord Hardinge,' 'Sir James Outram,' two equestrian statues for India. 'The group of Asia' for the Prince Consort's Memorial, Hyde Park, and the seated figure of the Prince which he did not live to see completed. He had been long in declining health, and died at Hampstead after a short illness, August 27, 1874, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. His work was always graceful and dignified in its proportions, his conceptions are original and marked by true talent while his works show great beauty and finish. His 'Ino and Bacchus' is purely classical in its style, but perhaps his equestrian portraits will be remembered as amongst his most noteworthy productions. He possessed much musical talent, and was the writer of several songs published anonymously.
FOLEY, Edward A., sculptor. Was born in Dublin, and was brother to the above, with whom he came to London and resided from 1834 to 1843. From the former year he was an occasional exhibitor of portrait busts at the Royal Academy up to 1860, when he sent 'Helen of Troy,' in 1869 'The Nymph Ænone,' in 1870 'Penelope,' in 1873 'The Morning Star.' To the Westminster Hall Exhibition in 1844 he sent 'Canute reproving his Courtiers.' He was an artist of talent, and reputed an expert carver. He committed suicide early in the summer of 1874.
FOOTTIT, Harrison, miniature painter. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1772 and the two following years, and practised till towards the end of that century, though he does not appear again as an exhibitor.
FORD, M., mezzo-tint engraver. Produced several fine portrait plates early in the latter half of the 18th century.
FORD, Richard, amateur. He was the son of Sir Richard Ford, chief magistrate of Bow Street, and was born in London in 1796. Educated at Winchester School and at Trinity College, Oxford, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He then travelled, visiting the chief of the great European capitals. He cultivated the arts, was a very able sketcher, and had a knowledge and judgment of pictures, of which he made a good collection. His sketches were used in the illustration of Lockhart's 'Spanish Ballads' and several other works. He etched several fac-similes of plates by Parmegiano and Meldolla. He wrote a 'Handbook for Travellers in Spain,' 1846; 'Gatherings from Spain,' 1846; and 'Tauromania; or, The Bull-fights of Spain,' 1852; and contributed several articles to the 'Quarterly Review' on the art and literature of Spain. He died September 1, 1858.
FORD, Samuel, history painter. He was born at Cork, April 8, 1805. Weak in constitution, he was by his father's improvidence early inured to privation, and with his pencil and books passed many a sad day in want; yet persevering, he acquired a knowledge of Latin, French, and Italian, and studied drawing in the Cork School, where he was a fellow-student with Maclise. In 1828 he was chosen the master of the Cork Mechanics' Institute. He had often been without the means to procure materials for his work, and full of dreamy aspirations of great poetic subjects, he now tried to realise them. He finished and exhibited 'The Genius of Tragedy,' and in 1827 commenced a large cartoon of the 'Fall of the Angels' (purchased by the Earl of Shannon), by which he hoped to establish a name; but he took cold, which led to consumption, of which he died, July 28, 1828.
FORREST, ——, glass painter. Was the pupil of Jarvis, whom he assisted in the completion of the window in St George's Chapel, Windsor, after West's design of 'The Resurrection;' and was afterwards engaged there, from 1792-96. on three other windows by West—'The Angel's Appearance,' 'The Nativity,' and 'The Wise Men's Offering.' Later, he painted several windows with Eginton, of Birmingham.
FORREST, Robert, sculptor. Born in Lanarkshire, and bred a stonemason in the Clydesdale quarries. He was self-taught in art. In 1817 he cut a statue of Wallace, and was subsequently employed to cut a colossal figure of Lord Melville for the pillar in St. Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. He also executed the 'John Knox' in the Glasgow Necropolis, and in 1843 completed a good portrait statue of Mr. Ferguson, of Raith. He does not appear to have exhibited in London; but in 1832 he opened an exhibition of about 30 groups, executed by himself, which attracted much notice. His works were original, and had merits both of proportion and conception. He died at Edinburgh, December 29, 1852, in his 63rd year.
FORREST, Theodosius, amateur. He was the son of a solicitor, and followed his father's profession. In early life he was a pupil of Lambert and from 1769 to 1775 was a yearly exhibitor of tinted drawings at the Royal Academy, views of buildings and landscapes, with one or two attempts at classic subjects, but he is distinguished as one of the party who left a record of their 'Five Days' Peregrinations,' with illustrations by Hogarth. He was wealthy, was a member of the Beef-steak Club, and universally known by the artists of his day—a jovial companion, who wrote and sang his own songs. He wrote 'The Weathercock' for the Covent Garden stage. He died November 5 1784.
FORRESTER, Alfred Henry (pseudonym 'Alfred Crowquill'), comic draftsman. He was born in London in 1805, of a family long members of the Stock Exchange, and was educated with a view to that business. He was, however, more attached to literature than to the money transactions of the City, and at the age of 16 he made a beginning as an anonymous periodical writer. Under his assumed name he first wrote in the 'New Monthly Magazine,' and in 1828 he became a permanent contributor; and from that time he took a large share in the periodical literature of the day, but did not retire from the Stock Exchange till 1839. His writings were illustrated by his own comic designs, executed with great facility and power, and his works were among the most popular. In 1845-46 he was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy—'The Huntsman's Rest,' 'The Picnic,' and some other of his designs. He was a constant contributor to the 'Illustrated London News,' and published 'Alfred Crowquill's Sketch-book,' 'Eccentric Tales,' 'Leaves from my Memorandum-Book,' 'Wanderings of the Pen and Pencil,' 'Comic Arithmetic,' and 'Comic Grammar.' He died in May 1872, and was buried in the Norwood Cemetery.
FORRESTER, James, engraver. Practised about 1760. He resided some time in Italy, and in 1761 sent a large landscape from Rome to the Academy Exhibition. He etched some Italian scenes, whose chief merit is their neat execution.
FORSTER, Thomas, miniature draftsman. He practised at the beginning of the 18th century. He drew on vellum with the black-lead pencil, and many well-finished miniatures in this manner, carefully drawn and expressed, are known. They are dated and signed with his name, which is well worthy of record, though no other particulars respecting him can be traced.
FOSTER, Thomas, portrait painter. Born in Ireland. Came to England at the age of 15 or 16, and entered as a student of the Royal Academy in 1818, and the next year, and in each succeeding year to 1825, contributed to the Academy Exhibitions. He copied several of Lawrence's portraits, and made rapid advance as a portrait painter. He painted a picture of 'Mazeppa,' which gained him notice; and in 1823 exhibited 'Domestic Quarrels' and a portrait of Miss Tree and of Mr. J. Wilson Croker, in whom he found a friend and patron. In 1825 he exhibited 'Paul and Virginia.' His connections were respectable, his manners and person agreeable, but his love of society interfered with his art, in which he no less continued to make good progress. He is said, however, to have desponded over an ambitious work he had commenced, or, as was hinted, to have fallen hopelessly in love with a young lady whose portrait he was painting. From whatever cause, he unhappily committed suicide in March 1826, in his 29th year. He left a note saying that his friends had forsaken him, that he knew no cause, and that he was tired of life.
FOULIS, Robert, } amateurs. Two brothers, who were eminent printers in Glasgow, remarkable for the beauty and elegance of their editions of the classics. Their taste for the fine arts induced them to establish an academy of painting and sculpture in Glasgow, and to undertake, at their own charge, the instruction of young artists, and even to provide for the continuance of their studies in Italy. This generous undertaking partially succeeded, mainly in the branches of drawing and engraving, but for want of support the efforts of the two brothers were unsuccessful, and the fortunes which they had realised by printing were swallowed up by the charges of their academy which led to their ruin. Andrew died September 15, 1775, Robert in the following year. Mention will be too frequently made in this work of eminent artists who studied in Foulis's Academy to permit of the omission of their names.
FOULSTON, John, architect. Was born in 1772, and was a pupil of Thomas Hardwick. In 1796 he commenced practice for himself, and in 1811 was a successful competitor for a large building at Plymouth, comprising the Royal Hotel, Assembly Rooms, and Theatre. This induced him to settle in Plymouth, and establishing a reputation there, he was the architect of several public and private buildings of great merit in the West of England. He died near Plymouth. January 13, 1842. He published his chief designs, 'Public Buildings erected in the West of England.' 1838.
FOUNTAIN, ——, portrait painter. There are engravings of portraits painted by him in the reigns of George I. and of George II.
FOURDRINIER, Peter, engraver. Born in France. He came to this country and settled in London. He was chiefly employed upon plates for the illustration of books, and engraved the 'Four Ages of Man,' after Lancret; also the plates for a folio volume of 'The Villas of the Ancients,' published in 1728, and the plans and elevations of Houghton Hall. These architectural plates are carefully executed, but his manner was weak and black. He died in London, February 3, 1758, leaving many descendants.
FOURDRINIERE, Peter, engraver. Born in England. He excelled in architectural engraving, and was also largely employed upon illustrated frontispieces by the booksellers. He died about 1769.
FOURNIER, Daniel, engraver. He is believed to have been originally an engraver by profession, but eventually he was of many occupations. He was shoemaker, kept an à-la-mode beef shop, painted, engraved, modelled in wax, and taught drawing. He published, in 1764, 'The Theory and Practice of Perspective, on the Principles of Brooke Taylor,' which he illustrated by movable diagrams and 50 plates. With all his undertakings he was seldom free from difficulties. He died about 1766.
FOWKE, Captain Francis, R.E., architect. Was born at Ballysinnin, near Belfast, July 7, 1823. When about 12 years of age he was sent to Dungannon College, where he gained a gold medal for mathematics in a competition open to the whole school. In 1839, at the age of 16, he entered the Woolwich Academy, and passed his probationary examination in 1840, his theoretical in 1841, and his practical examination, coming out sixth, in 1842. The great ability he had shown, added to his talent in drawing, secured him the third out of the four engineer commissions only which were given in that year, and he was at once sent to Chatham. In December 1843 he returned to Woolwich, and in the following April was quartered at Limerick, from whence, in April 1845, he sailed for Bermuda, and was stationed at Ireland Island, and was soon after employed in designing the Bermuda Barracks in St. Georges Island. In 1849 he returned to England, and, quartered at Devonport, he designed the Raglan Barracks there, in the construction of which great regard was paid to the health and comfort of the men. In 1853 he was attached to the South Kensington Museum, as inspector of science and art; and in the following year was charged with the machinery of the English department at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, and subsequently appointed secretary to the British Commission. He was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour in recognition of his services. He wrote two able reports in connection with this duty—one on Civil Construction, the other on the Strength of Materials, including the results of valuable experiments upon colonial woods. He was afterwards appointed the architect of the South Kensington Museum, and built the fine picture galleries, which are admirably constructed with regard to light and convenience; the great north court, whose wide-spread roof is suspended without support from the floor; and the south court, with its elegant metal galleries. He was also the architect of the National Gallery of Ireland (interior), a work most pure and unpretentious in its style, and of the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art.
In 1858 he was appointed a member of the International Technical Commission, and made a separate report on the scheme for the navigation of the Danube. He planned the arcades and conservatory of the Horticultural Gardens, the latter highly decorative and original in its design; and the Prince Consort's Library at Aldershot. The building for the International Exhibition of 1862, a work of great constructive power, was also designed by him, the permanent galleries connected with which were admirably adapted for the exhibition of paintings. One of his last designs was for a Natural History Museum, ana was unanimously adopted, in an open court competition, by the judges appointed by the Government; but, from changes with regard to the intended site, has not been carried out. He was charged with the original design for the Albert Hall, but did not live to complete his plans.
He was a man of great invention and constructive power. He invented the collapsing pontoons, made improvements in drawbridges and conical shot and shell, and in gun-carriages. He constructed on a metal framework the large canvas tent used in the Horticultural Gardens; introduced with great skill terra cotta in his architecture, and other new material, with many other useful inventions. After a short illness, he died suddenly, December 4, 1865, and was buried in the Brompton Cemetery. He wrote in the 'Cornhill Magazine,' No. 3, 'The National Gallery Difficulty solved,' and No. 6, 'London the Stronghold of England.'
FOWLER, Charles, architect. He was born in May 1792, at Collumpton, Devon, where his family had lived for many generations, and was apprenticed for five years to a surveyor and Guilder at Exeter. On the completion of his apprenticeship in 1814 he came to London, and was employed in the office of Mr. D. Laing, where he remained three or four years, and then commenced practice for himself. His first work was the Court of Bankruptcy in Basinghall Street, finished 1821. In the following year he competed in the designs for the new London Bridge, and gained the first premium, but was not employed to carry out his design. He afterwards made some designs for other bridges, and in 1826 was the architect of the bridge over the Dart, at Totnes. He built Covent Garden Market, 1830, and Hungerford Market, 1831; a work of great skill, both in design and in the arrangement of the plan on two levels, but since pulled down; also Exeter Lower Market, 1835, and in the same year Charmouth Church and Honiton Church, and in 1838, Brickley Church; also the Devon Lunatic Asylum, 1848, and the London Fever Hospital, 1852. He was for many years honorary secretary of the Institute of British Architects, and afterwards vice-president. In 1862, his health failing, he retired into the country, and died at Great Marlow, September 26, 1867, in his 76th year.
FOWLER, William, portrait painter. Was born in 1796. He is best known by a portrait of Queen Victoria when young, from which an engraving was taken.
FOWLER, William, draftsman and engraver. He was brought up as a carpenter at Winterton, in Lincolnshire; and was, by his ingenious and laborious perseverance, a self-taught and trustworthy draftsman. He drew and engraved 'The principal Mosaic Pavements discovered in Britain,' 'The Stained Glass in York Minster,' published in 1805, and some other architectural antiquities. He lived at Winterton during a long life, and died there September 22, 1832, aged 73.
FOX, Charles, modeller. Executed from nature groups of animals, modelled with fidelity and taste. In 1847 he gained the Society of Arts' medal for a 'Group of Children.' He resided at Brighton, and died there in 1854.
FOX, Charles, engraver. He was born March 17, 1794, at Cossey Hall, Norfolk, where his father was steward to Lord Stafford, and was brought up in the gardens at Cossey. He was then apprenticed to an engraver at Bungay; on the completion of his term he came to London and engaged himself as an assistant to John Burnet, with whom he remained some time. His best plates are—'Village Recruits,' after Wilkie, R.A.; Sir George Murray, after Pickersgill, R.A.; and 'Queen Victoria's first Council,' also after Wilkie. He engraved for the annuals, and to illustrate Cadell's edition of Walter Scott's works. He left an unfinished plate of Mulready's 'Fight Interrupted.' He engraved in the line manner. He was a man of refined tastes, and painted some water-colour portraits, chiefly of his friends, which have great merit. He died at Leyton, Essex, where he was on a visit, in his 55th year, on February 28, 1849.
FOX, Charles, landscape and portrait painter. Born at Falmouth in 1749. Devoted to literature from a child, he also showed a taste for drawing. He began life as a bookseller, but losing all his possessions by a fire, he then tried art, and travelled on foot through Norway, Sweden, and a part of Russia, sketching the wild scenery of those countries. On his return he painted pictures from his sketches, and also had recourse to portraiture as a means of subsistence, but he never was much known as a painter. Later in life he studied the oriental languages, and in 1797 published a volume of poems from the Persian, 'The Plaints, Consolations, and Pleasures of Ahmad Ardabeli, a Persian Exile.' In 1803 he had prepared for the press two other volumes of translations from the Persian, and a Journal of his Travels, but these two latter works have not found a publisher. He died at Bath in 1809.
FRADELLE, Henry Joseph, history painter. He was born at Lisle about 1778, and came early to England, where he studied in the Academy Schools. He painted subject pictures, and occasionally portraits. He exhibited at the Academy, in 1817, 'Milton dictating "Paradise Lost" to his Daughter,' and continued an occasional exhibitor up to 1855; but he principally exhibited at the British Institution. His art was not of a high class, but was popular, and his 'Mary Queen of Scots and her Secretary,' 'Rebecca and Ivanhoe,' 'The Earl of Leicester's Visit to Amy Robsart,' and some other subjects of this class, were engraved. He died March 14, 1865.
FRAMPTON, Richard, illuminator. The name of this artist is only known as having illuminated a fine manuscript in the time of Henry V.
FRANCIA, Francois Louis Thomas, water-colour painter. Was born at Calais, December 21, 1772, and came early in life to London, where he settled in the practice of water-colour art. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1795, and continued to exhibit, with some intermission, up to 1822. He attained much excellence, painting landscape, but chiefly marine subjects. He was appointed painter in water-colours to the Duchess of York, for whom he made a great many drawings. In 1816 he was a candidate for the associateship at the Royal Academy. The following year he returned to France, settled at Calais, and died there on February 6, 1839. His marine subjects were treated with great poetry. His works possessed power, breadth, and an harmonious simple richness of colour. He published 'Lessons on Sketching and Painting trees in watercolour,' 1835. His son, A. Francia, sent a picture to the Academy Exhibition in 1841, and again in 1842.
FRANCIS, John, sculptor. Was born September 3, 1780, in Lincolnshire, and brought up to farming. He made some early attempts at carving, and his success led his friends to advise him to try the study of art in London. In the Metropolis he became the pupil of Chantrey, and received much friendly assistance from him. He succeeded as a bust modeller, and had very distinguished sitters—among them, William IV., the Queen and the Prince Consort. He exhibited at the Academy a bust of Mr. Coke in 1820, his first contribution, and was then living in Norfolk. He continued an occasional exhibitor of busts, never trying any higher subject, up to 1857. He died, aged 81, at Albany Street, Regent's Park, August 30, 1861. There is a bust of the Duke of Wellington by him in the National Portrait Gallery. Mrs. Thornycroft, the well-known sculptress, is his daughter.
FRASER, Alexander, A.R.S.A., subject painter. He was born in Edinburgh, April 7, 1786, and studied his art under John Graham, at the Trustees' Academy. In 1810 he sent his first picture, 'A Green Stall,' to the Royal Academy, followed by two domestic subjects in 1812; and in 1813 he came to reside in London, and was from time to time an exhibitor; and trusting to his profession for his support, soon gained a fair position. He then engaged as an assistant to Wilkie, R.A., who had been his fellow-pupil in Edinburgh, and for 20 years painted the details and still-life into Wilkie's pictures, working usually in his studio. The engagement did not, however, preclude his painting pictures of his own; he continued to exhibit at the Academy and the British Institution, and at the latter received in 1842 a donation of 50 guineas for the general merit of his works. He was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy. His pictures were chiefly founded on Scottish incidents, and he could scarcely avoid imitating Wilkie, yet his story was well told and his work well painted. For the last 10 years of his life the state of his health prevented him practising his profession. He died at Wood Green, Hornsey, February 15, 1865. His 'Interior of a Highland Cottage' is in the South Kensington Museum. His 'Robinson Crusoe reading the Bible to Friday' has been engraved, as have some of his designs in illustration of the Waverley novels.
FREEBAIRN, Robert, landscape painter. Born in 1765. He was Richard Wilson's last pupil, and on his master's death went to Italy to pursue his studies in landscape art. He continued there for 10 years, studied in Rome 1789-91, and formed his art upon the scenery and effects of the country, returning to London in 1792. He painted in oil. His subjects were almost exclusively Italian, and from 1782 to 1807, he was, with little intermission, an exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He was also a 'fellow exhibitor' in 1806 and 1807 at the then newly-formed Water-Colour Society. His works were carefully and neatly finished, his colour brilliant and pleasing, yet they never reached excellence. They were not numerous, and were chiefly painted on commission. He published, in 40 plates, 'English and Italian Scenery.' He died of decline, in Buckingham Place, New Road, January 23, 1808, aged 42, leaving a widow and four children.
FREEBAIRN, Alfred Robert, engraver. He was a student at the Royal Academy. His chief work, which he only just lived to finish, is an engraving from Flaxman's 'Shield of Achilles.' He died suddenly, August 21, 1846, aged 52, and was buried in Highgate Cemetery.
FREEMAN, John, history painter. He practised in the latter half of the 17th century, and was a rival of Isaac Fuller. He went early in life to the West Indies, and on his return was much employed. In the latter part of his life he was scene painter to the playhouse in Covent Garden. There are five paintings attributed to him in the gallery of the Louvre.
FREEMAN, Samuel, engraver. He practised chiefly in portrait and history. He engraved Corregio's 'Holy Family' and Raphael's 'Madonna,' 'Infant Christ and St. John,' also Vandyck's 'St. Ambrose refusing the Emperor Theodosius admission to the Church,' works of second class merit. He died February 27, 1857, aged 84.
FREESE, N., miniature painter. Artist to the Duke of Cambridge. He exhibited miniatures at the Royal Academy from 1797 to 1813, occasionally contributing a landscape in oil.
FRENCH, Thomas, scene painter. Practised towards the end of the 18th century as an antiquarian draftsman and scene painter. He resided chiefly at Bath, and painted the scenery for the Bath Theatre. He died there in September 1803.
FRENCH, Henry, history painter. Born in Ireland. He went to Italy early in the 18th century, and studied many years in Rome, where he gained a medal in the Academy of St. Luke. Returning to England, he painted some historical subjects, but found no encouragement, and went back to Italy. In 1725 he came again to England, but was attacked by illness, and died the following year.
FROST, George, amateur. He was born at Barrow (some accounts say Ousden). Suffolk, where his father was a builder. Brought up to this business, he was afterwards employed in the office of the Ipswich Coach, a connection which he continued till within a few years of his death, and in which he gained a competence. He early showed a love of drawing, and without instruction acquired by his own perseverance an artist-like love of nature. He drew picturesque buildings and landscape in a masterly manner, finding his subjects in Ipswich and its neighbourhood. He was an ardent admirer and imitator of Gainsborough, and possessed some good drawings and paintings by him. In a note by Constable, R. A., he speaks of him as 'my dear old friend Frost.' He died at Ipswich, June 28, 1821. aged 77, and was buried in St. Matthews Churchyard.
FROST, William Edward, R.A, figure painter. Was born at Wandsworth in September 1810. He studied at Sass's, and became a student of the Royal Academy in 1829, at a time when Etty was a constant attendant there. He adopted kindred subjects, though his first contribution to the exhibition was a portrait in 1836. He obtained the Academy gold medal for his picture of 'Prometheus bound by Vulcan,' and a third class medal at the Westminster Hall competition in 1843 for 'Una alarmed by the Fauns.' He painted many portraits, but will be better remembered by his figure pictures of Nymphs, illustrations of Milton, Spenser, &c. He exhibited in 1845 'Sabrina,' in 1846 'Diana and Acteon,' in 1847 'Una and the Wood Nymphs,' which was bought by the Queen, in 1850 'The disarming of Cupid,' in 1851 'Hylas,' &c., &c. He was chosen an associate of the Royal Academy in 1846, but was not elected a full member till 1871, and entered the retired list in 1877. His female figures are well drawn and coloured, but possess none of the vigour of those by Etty, though they have a chaste and graceful character. He was a simple, modest man and passed a quiet, uneventful life. Worn out by constant attacks of the gout, he died June 4, 1877, aged 67.
FRY, William Thomas, engraver. Born in 1789. He engraved after 'Annibale, Caracci, Parmegiano, and Flaxman, R.A., but his works did not attain distinction. He died in 1843.
FRYE, Thomas, portrait painter. He was born near Dublin in 1710, and was but poorly educated. He came to London early in life with Stoppelaer, the artist, and commenced painting portraits. In 1734 he painted a full-length portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales, for the Saddlers' Hall. Some years later he took the management of the china manufacture established at Bow. In 1749 he took out a patent for making porcelain, and devoting himself to this work, spent 15 years among the furnaces, to the great injury of his health. His ability was shown in the improved elegance of form and ornamentation, but the manufacture did not succeed. He then journeyed to Wales to restore his health, painting portraits with success on the way; and returning much invigorated and with some money in his pocket, he took a house in Hatton Garden, and resumed the practice of his art. He painted portraits in oil, crayons, life-size, in black and white chalk on coloured paper, and miniatures. He was happy in his likeness, and enjoyed contemporary reputation, particularly for his miniatures, some of which were highly finished in black lead, and some very small in water-colours, for the decoration of jewellery. He engraved several portraits life-size and ad vivum in mezzo-tint. These works are of great power, the light and shade excellent, the face finely moulded and well drawn, but the hands, when introduced, are indifferent. Of these works, the portraits of George III. and his Queen, with Miss Pond and the artist's own, are the most esteemed. A portrait by him of Leveridge, the singer, exhibited in 1760, is mezzo-tinted by Pether. He was very corpulent and subject to gout, and confined himself to such a spare diet that, added to his close application to his art, a complication of disorders ensued, ending in consumption. He died April 2, 1762 in his 52nd year, it is said insolvent. He left a son and two daughters, who died in obscurity.
FRYER, Leonard, serjeant-painter to Queen Elizabeth. He held the office till his death.
FULLER, Isaac, history and portrait painter. Born 1606. Little is known of his early life, except that he studied art in France under Perrier. He practised in the reign of Charles II., and painted 'wallpieces,' which were rather ornamental than artistic, decorating thus several London taverns, as was then the custom; and both in this manner and in portraiture, it appears, he found much employment, more especially at Oxford. In the chapel at Wadham College he painted his 'Children of Israel gathering Manna.' An altarpiece by him at Magdalen was praised by Addison; but Walpole speaks slightingly of a similar work at All Souls, which he attributes to him, though it is, in fact, by Thornhill. He also painted, in five large pictures, 'The Kings Escape after the Battle of Worcester.' They were presented to the Irish Parliament, and finally came into Lord Roden's possession. His own portrait of himself at Queen's College is a vulgar painting of a vulgar man, but not wanting in power and rich in colour. He etched a set of prints from his own designs, which have little merit. He died in Bloomsbury Square, July 17, 1672. He left a son, who was brought up to his art, and was clever but idle, and died young.
FULLER, Charles F., sculptor. Born in 1830, son of General Francis Fuller. At the age of 17 he entered the 14th Foot, and soon afterwards exchanged into the 12th Lancers. In 1853 he unexpectedly left the army, and going to Florence, placed himself under Hiram Powers, the American sculptor. In 1859 his works first appear in the Royal Academy Exhibition. In that year, 1860, and 1861 he sent some portrait busts in marble. In 1863 'Launcelot of the Lake' and 'Queen Guinevere,' in 1865 'Dalilah,' in 1867 'Europa, a marble statue,' in 1868 'The blind flower-girl of Pompeii.' Up to this time he had resided in Florence. In 1870 and 1871 he was in Rome, and sent from thence 'The Peri and her Child' for exhibition; about this time also he visited Constantinople. He died at Florence, March 10, 1875. His works, though technically incomplete and sometimes meretricious, showed nevertheless considerable ability.
FUSELI, Henry, R.A., history painter. Was born at Zurich. February 7, 1741. The second son of John Caspar Füessli, who was himself a painter of landscapes and portraits, a man of learning and a writer on art. Henry Fuseli was educated for the Church, took his M.A. degree and entered into holy orders in 1761, and it is recorded preached his first sermon at Zurich from St. Paul's text—'What will this babbler say?' His strong early predilection for art had probably only been stilled, yet he might have continued in the Church had he not united with his friend Lavater in exposing some peculation by the chief magistrate of the canton, who proved eventually too strong for him, and he was, with his friend, compelled to quit Zurich. Then he travelled, visiting several German cities, and at Berlin contributed eight designs to a work which was published there. He had, while pursuing his theological studies, among other acquirements, learnt English and read Shakespeare, whose 'Macbeth,' with 'Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Letters,' he translated into German. He was induced by the British Minister to the Prussian Court to come to London, where he arrived at the close of the year 1765, his object being to promote some scheme of literary union between England and Germany. He first found employment in translating, occasionally making some designs for book illustration, and then accepted the office of tutor to travel with a nobleman's son, for which he was little suited, and soon resigned.
On his return to England in 1767, intending to devote himself to literature, he gained an introduction to Sir Joshua Reynolds; whose warm appreciation of his drawings induced him to devote himself at once to art. He was now nearly 26 years of age. He had not attained even the rudiments of his adopted profession, which require great application; but he looked to Italy as the source of all art inspiration, and set out for that country, arriving at Rome in the spring of 1770. There he studied earnestly from the antique, and from the works of Michael Angelo, whose great manner he appears to have followed, but not by devoting himself to that laborious attendance at the schools which is essential to excellence. He was absent nearly nine years from England. From Rome he sent to the Spring Gardens Exhibition, in 1775, 'Hubert and Prince Arthur;' in 1778, 'Caius Gracchus;' and in 1783, 'The Pangs of Mona.' Meanwhile, he had sent to the Royal Academy, in 1774, his 'Death of Cardinal Beaufort;' and in 1777, his 'Scene from Lady Macbeth.' He set off on his return in 1778, visited Zurich on his way, where he stayed some time with his father, and reached London early in 1779, having made both friends and a reputation in Italy.
In 1782 he exhibited his 'Nightmare,' which was multiplied by engravings, and soon became very popular, the publisher having, it is said, realised 600l. from the plate. Zealously following art, he did not abandon literature. He edited the English translation of Lavater's work on Physiognomy, and contributed an occasional paper to the 'Analytical Review.' In 1786 Boydell's scheme of the Shakespeare Gallery was set on foot. Fuseli's co-operation was thought important, and he entered warmly into the undertaking, painting no less than eight large and one small subject for the gallery. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1788, and a full member in 1790; and the same year married a discreet young woman, who had sat to him as a model. About this time he projected his own Milton Gallery. In this he persevered under some difficulties during nine years; and though assisted both by the purses and the influence of his friends, his scheme proved, when opened to the public in 1799, in a pecuniary sense at least, a sad failure; yet it was a great undertaking, comprising 47 pictures by his own hand, most of them of large dimensions.
His knowledge and literary attainments made him well fitted for the office of lecturer on painting; and to this post he was elected in 1799. He compiled twelve lectures: viz. on Ancient Art, on Modern Art, Invention (two), Composition, Chiaroscuro, Design, Colour (two), Proportions of the Human Frame, History Painting, and the Modern State of Art. These he delivered with great effect, and they have since been published. He vacated the office in 1804, when he was elected keeper of the Royal Academy, but was subsequently re-elected to the professorship by the suspension of the bye-laws of the Academy, which made the two offices incompatible; and he then produced three additional lectures, completing the above series. In 1802 he visited Paris, and collected some materials for a work on the art-treasures in the Louvre, which was not gone on with, probably interrupted by the outbreak of war; and in 1805 he prepared for publication an enlarged edition of Pilkington's 'Dictionary of Painters.' He had also commenced a 'History of Modern Art,' and had completed between 500 and 600 pages in manuscript, bringing his subject down to Michael Angelo; and he left many fragmentary papers connected with art and artists. Among his acquirements are reckoned the Greek, Latin, French, English, German, Dutch, Danish, and Spanish languages.
He died while on a visit to the Countess of Guildford, at Putney Heath, April 16, 1825, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. As a teacher he was a great favourite with the students, and had considerable influence over them. His energetic manner, his wild enthusiasm, his caustic wit, and the irritable cynicism with which even his instruction was conveyed, took deep hold upon their young minds; and tales of him are still, and will long continue, rife in the schools. His pupils presented him on his retirement with a handsome silver vase, designed by Flaxman. That his instruction was not only appreciated by them, but was sound, is evidenced by the many very distinguished men who passed through the antique school during his keepership. The enthusiastic poetry of his art was hardly for the multitude, though he was made largely popular by the many engravings from his works. He was a congenial student of Michael Angelo; terrible often in his bold energetic style and the wild originality of his inventions—never tame or commonplace—the action of his figures violent and overstrained, very mannered, yet often noble and dignified. His females were without beauty—all framed on the same model—unfeminine and coarse. The critics did not spare him, nor he them. Dayes said 'he had no conception of female beauty; his women were the devil;' and Peter Pindar, that 'he was the fittest artist on earth to be appointed hobgoblin painter to the devil;' while Barry criticising his art, said, 'Talk of the beau ideal—it is the beau frightful you mean.' Yet as an illustrator of Shakespeare he stands far before all his contemporaries. Wanting in elementary knowledge and the proper training of his profession, he has no refinement or accuracy in drawing, and in some cases his attitudes are impossible. He is equally defective with regard to the laws of colour and the processes of painting, and many of his works are fast going to decay.