A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Anticipation

ANTICIPATION is when a part of a chord about to follow is introduced beforehand. Thus it has been very customary in a perfect cadence at the end of a strain, to anticipate, before the conclusion of the dominant harmony, one of the notes of the tonic or following chord. This is very common in the old masters, as in the following example from the 'Messiah':—

{ \time 12/8 \key bes \major \partial 8 << \relative g'' { g8 | d4.( c4) bes8 bes2. \bar "||" s8 } \addlyrics { un -- to your souls }
\new Staff { \clef treble \key bes \major \relative b' << { bes8 | bes4. a <bes d,>2. \bar "||" s8 } \\ { bes,8 f'4. ees s2. } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key bes \major \relative e { ees8 | f4. f, bes2. \bar "||" s8 } } 
\figures { < _ >8 <6 4>4. <5 2> } >> }

It is considered a grace of style by modern singers to give the anticipated note with peculiar deliberation and emphasis.

The following passage from Handel's 'Funeral Anthem' contains an anticipation of two notes in the closing chord.

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 \key ees \major << \relative e'' << \autoBeamOff { <ees g,>8 f16([ g)] <bes, g>8( <aes f>16.) <g ees>32 <g ees>4 r } \\ { s8 aes } >> \new Lyrics \lyricsto "1" { then it bless -- ed her } 
\new Staff { \clef treble \key ees \major \relative g' { <bes g ees>8 <aes f c> <g ees bes> <f d aes> <ees g,>4 r } }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key ees \major \relative e { e8 a, bes bes ees,4 r } } 
\figures { < _ >8 < 6 > <6 4> <7 5 2> } >> }

Professor Ouseley ('Harmony,' p. 204) is of opinion that the third note, G, of the first soprano is also a sort of anticipation of the succeeding chord.

Beethoven has many striking examples of anticipation of a quite different and bolder kind. Thus, in a well-known passage in the last movement of the C minor Symphony, the basses, first with the drums alone and then with the stringed instruments, anticipate the harmony of the great crash of the Allegro four bars before it breaks in (see the original 8vo score, p. 150).

There is a similar anticipation of four bars at the beginning of the last movement of the Pastoral Symphony.

In the first movement of the 'Sinfonia Eroica,' just before the reprise of the principal subject, there is an anticipation of four bars of a melody, still more daring because it is more completely separated from the part anticipated.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 3/4 \key ees \major \relative b' << { <bes aes>2.:16^\pp^\markup { \italic Strings } | <bes aes>:16 | <bes aes>:16 | <bes aes>:16 | <d aes f>:16^\f | <aes' d, bes f>:16^"etc." } \\ { s2. | s | ees,2\pp_\markup { \halign #1.5 \italic Cor. } g4 | ees2 bes4_\markup { \italic Bass. }  | bes2.:8| bes:8 } >> }
This is a musical illustration of the adage, 'Coming events cast their shadows before,' and it is difficult to explain it on any other principle. (See Harmony.)

[ W. P. ]