A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Haydn, Joseph

1504756A Dictionary of Music and Musicians — Haydn, JosephCarl Ferdinand Pohl

HAYDN, Joseph, or, according to the baptismal register, Franz Joseph, the father of the symphony and the quartet, was born in the night between March 31 and April 1, 1732, at Rohrau, a small Austrian village on the Leitha, which there divides Lower Austria and Hungary. He was the second child of Mathias Haydn, a master wheelwright, by his marriage (Nov. 24, 1728) with Maria Koller, daughter of the 'Marktrichter' and cook in Count Harrach's household. Haydn's ancestors came originally from Hainburg, a town close to the Danube, about 4 leagues from Rohrau. His great-grandfather Kaspar was a servant in the hill-castle there, one of the few who escaped massacre when it was stormed by the Turks on July 11, 1683. Kaspar's son Thomas, a master wheelwright and member of the town council, had 7 sons, of whom Mathias, the father of our Haydn, born Jan. 31, 1699, was youngest but one. Thomas's widow married a journeyman wheelwright, Mathias Seefranz (died May 2, 1762, aged 89), who thus became Haydn's step-grandfather; and one of their children, Julie Rosine, married a schoolmaster named Frankh, afterwards Haydn's first teacher. The sons nearly all learnt the wheelwright's trade, and then set out on their travels; after which Mathias settled in Rohrau, and built himself the little house at the end of the market-place, where Haydn was born, and which though twice rebuilt is still standing in its original form. Maria Haydn (born Nov. 10, 1707) bore her husband 12 children, of whom the sixth was Johann Michael, the church composer; and the eleventh Johann Evangelist, an unimportant tenor singer, who was admitted to the chapel of Prince Esterhazy on his brother Joseph's recommendation. After Maria's death (Feb. 23, 1754) Mathias married again, and had five more children, who died young. He himself departed Sept. 12, 1763.

Haydn's parents were honest, industrious people, who instilled into their children a love for work, method, cleanliness, and, above all, religion. In his old age Haydn gratefully acknowledged his obligations to their care. Both were fond of music, and both sang. The father had a fair tenor voice, and accompanied himself on the harp, though without knowing a note. The child soon began to sing their simple songs, astonishing them by the correctness of his ear and the beauty of his voice. But he did not stop there. Having seen the schoolmaster play the violin, he would sit on the stove-bench and accompany his parents as they sang, precisely imitating the schoolmaster's handling of the bow, and keeping strict time, with two pieces of wood as his instrument. He was one day surprised, when thus engaged, by his relation Frankh, from Hainburg. Thinking that he saw in him the making of a musician, Frankh persuaded the parents to commit their little boy to his care. The mother would have preferred his entering the priesthood, or becoming a schoolmaster, and it required all the father's authority to make her consent; but he felt that he had himself been capable of better things, and looked forward to seeing his son a Chor-regent or Capellmeister, as a compensation for his own lot. At the age of six, then, the little Joseph—in the Austrian dialect 'Sepperl'—was taken by his father to school at Hainburg.

Johann Mathias Frankh, Haydn's distant relative (he called him simply 'cousin'), was an excellent teacher, very strict, and eminently practical. Haydn not only became a first-rate singer, but also learned something of the instruments most in use, and spent nearly all his time in church or in school. Learning came easily to him, and if he had any difficulty, his master's severity soon overcame it. In his old age he spoke with thankfulness of this hard probation, and of his cousin's discipline. 'I shall be grateful to that man as long as I live,' said he to Griesinger, 'for keeping me so hard at work, though I used to get more flogging than food.' On another occasion, when speaking in his modest way of his own talents and industry, he added, 'Almighty God, to whom I render thanks for all His unnumbered mercies, gave me such facility in music, that by the time I was 6 I stood up like a man and sang masses in the church choir, and could play a little on the clavier and the violin.' But the lad sadly missed his mother's care. He was neglected both in clothes and person (he already wore a wig, 'for the sake of cleanliness'), and the results of this neglect distressed him long and sorely. When quite an old man he said to Dies the painter—who, like Griesinger, visited him frequently with a view to his biography—'I could not help perceiving, much to my distress, that I was gradually getting very dirty, and though I thought a good deal of my little person, was not always able to avoid spots of dirt on my clothes, of which I was dreadfully ashamed—in fact, I was a regular little urchin.' Dies has preserved another anecdote of this period, in which Haydn figures. A drummer was wanted for a procession, and his master thrust him into the vacant office, first showing him how to make the stroke. The effect must have been comical, as he was so small that the instrument had to be carried before him on the back of a colleague of equal height, who happened to be a hunchback. Haydn retained his liking for the drum, and prided himself on his skill, with which indeed he once astonished Salomon's orchestra during his stay in London. The drums on which he performed at Hamburg on the occasion just named are still preserved in the choir of the church.

At the end of two years a decisive change took place in his life. George Reutter, Hofcompositor and Capellmeister at St. Stephen's, Vienna, was on a visit to his friend Anton Johann Palmb, pastor of Hamburg, and having heard Haydn's 'weak, sweet voice' (as he himself called it), put him through an examination, and offered him a place as chorister at St. Stephen's. To go to Vienna seemed to the boy an almost incredible piece of good fortune. His parents gave their consent; and with a joyful heart he bade farewell to Hamburg. His grandmother had died just before—May 17, 1739; Frankh lived to be 75, and died May 10, 1783, his wife Julie Rosine (who did not do her duty by Haydn) having preceded him in Jan. 1760. Of their two daughters, Anna Rosalia, born 1752, married Philipp Schimpel, usher of the school, and afterwards Chor-regent. Haydn showed his gratitude to the family by leaving the latter couple a sum of money and his portrait of Frankh, 'my first instructor in music.' They both, however, died before him, in 1805, and the portrait has disappeared.

It was in 1740 that Haydn entered the Cantorei of St. Stephen's, where he was to pass his remaining years of study. The house was one of a row which came close up to the principal entrance of the cathedral, and from his window he looked straight on the glorious spire. He tells us that, 'besides the regular studies, he learned singing, the clavier, and the violin from good masters.' The 'regular studies' included religion, a little Latin, writing, and ciphering. His singing-masters are said to have been Gegenbauer and Finsterbusch; the former, sub-cantor and violinist at St. Stephen's, probably taught him the violin as well; the latter was a tenor in the court chapel. No instruction seems to have been given in harmony and composition at the Cantorei; but this did not trouble Von Reutter (ennobled in 1740). Haydn could only remember having had two lessons from him all the time he was there. But the instinct for composition made him cover every blank sheet of music-paper on which he could lay his hands—'it must be all right if the paper was nice and full.' Reutter surprised him once sketching a 'Salve Regina' for 12 voices, and told him sharply he had better try it first in two parts—how, he did not take the pains to show—and further advised him to write variations on the motets and vespers he heard in church. In this way he was thrown back upon himself. 'I certainly had the gift,' he says, 'and by dint of hard work I managed to get on.' An anecdote of this time shows that as a boy he was not behind his comrades in fun and mischief. The choristers were frequently required to sing with the imperial chapel—which explains Haydn's statement that he had sung with great success both at court and in St. Stephen's. This generally happened when the court was at Schönbrunn. The palace had only just been completed, and the scaffolding was still standing—an irresistible temptation to boys. The Empress Maria Theresa had caught them climbing it many a time, but her threats and prohibitions had no effect. One day when Haydn was balancing himself aloft, far above his schoolfellows, the Empress saw him from the windows, and requested her Hofcompositor to take care that 'that fair-haired blockhead' (blonder Dickkopf), the ringleader of them all, got 'einen recenten Schilling' (slang for a 'good hiding'). When he was Capellmeister to Prince Esterhazy, 'the fair-haired blockhead' had an opportunity, at Esterház, of thanking the Empress for this mark of imperial favour.

In the autumn of 1745 Haydn had the pleasure of welcoming his brother Michael as a fellow-chorister at the Cantorei, and of helping him in his work. Michael made rapid progress, but a cloud came over poor Joseph's prospects. His voice began to break, and the Empress, who had before taken particular pleasure in his singing, remarked jocosely to her Vice-Capellmeister[1], that young Haydn's singing was more like the crowing of a cock than anything else. Reutter took the hint, and on the festival of St. Leopold (Nov. 15), 1748, celebrated at the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna, gave the 'Salve Regina' to Michael, who sang it so beautifully as to charm both Emperor and Empress, from whom he received 24 ducats in gold.

Joseph was thus completely supplanted by his brother. His voice had lost all its power, and he was oppressed with grief and anxiety. In the midst of his trouble Reutter suggested a means by which his voice might be preserved, and even improved; and referred him to the court chapel, which contained at least a dozen 'castrati.' Haydn's father however, having probably heard of the proposal, came in all haste to Vienna, and saved his son.

His days at the Cantorei were now numbered. He was of no use as a singer, and it does not seem to have occurred to any one that he might be employed as a violinist. Reutter did not consider himself in the least bound to look after his future, and was only waiting for an opportunity to get rid of him. This occurred soon enough, and Haydn himself furnished the pretext. Always full of fun, and inclined to practical jokes, he one day tried a new pair of scissors on the pigtail of a schoolfellow. The pigtail fell, but the culprit was condemned to a caning on the hand. In vain he begged to be let off, declaring he would rather leave than submit to the indignity. That he might do, Reutter said, but he must first be caned and then dismissed.

Haydn was thus thrown upon the world, with an empty purse, a keen appetite, and no friends. The first person to help him was Spangler, a chorister of St. Michael's. He offered him shelter; a few pupils presented themselves, and a good Viennese lent him 150 florins, which enabled him to rent an attic in the old Michaelerhaus, attached to the college of St. Barnabas, in the Kohlmarkt. Here he abandoned himself to the study of composition, and made acquaintance with the master who more than any other became his model—Emmanuel Bach. Having acquired his first 6 Clavier-Sonatas, he pored over them at his little worm-eaten clavier—and how thoroughly he mastered their style his compositions show. Indeed Bach afterwards sent him word, that he alone fully understood his writings, and knew how to use them. Besides the clavier, he diligently practised the violin, so that 'although,' as he said, 'no conjurer on any instrument, he was able to play a concerto.' About this time (1751–52, not 1742 as is always said) he composed his first Mass, in F (No. 11 in Novello's edition). It bears unmistakable evidences of undeveloped and unaided talent. Haydn had forgotten its very existence when, to his great delight, he discovered it in his old age, and inserted additional wind parts.

Having accidentally become acquainted with Felix Kurz, a favourite comic actor at the Stadttheater, Haydn was asked to set his comic opera, 'Der neue krumme Teufel,' a kind of magic farce, interspersed with songs and a few instrumental pieces; and received for it a considerable sum. It was produced at the Stadttheater in the spring of 1752, and frequently repeated in Vienna, Prague, Berlin, Saxony, and the Breisgau. The libretto has been preserved, but the music is lost. Metastasio was then living in the same house with Haydn. He shared the apartments of a Spanish family to whom he was much attached, and superintended the education of the two daughters. The musical training of the elder, Marianne de Martines, was confided to Haydn, who in this way became acquainted with Porpora, then teaching singing to the mistress of Correr, the Venetian ambassador. Porpora proposed that Haydn should act as his accompanyist, thus giving him an opportunity of learning his method. He took him to the baths of Mannersdorf, on the confines of Hungary, where they remained for some months, and, in return indeed for various menial offices, gave him instruction in composition. At Mannersdorf, at the soirées of Prince Hildburghausen, Haydn met Bonno, Wagenseil, Gluck, and Dittersdorf, to the last of whom he became much attached. Gluck advised his going to Italy. Burney heard his quartets finely played at Gluck's house in 1772. One by one he procured all the known theoretical works, and thoroughly mastered their contents, especially Fux's 'Gradus,' which he afterwards used as the foundation of his own teaching. He had had, as we have seen, no regular musical training; but by industry, careful observation, and reiterated attempts, he gradually attained that independence which gave the impress of originality to all his works.

Haydn now made the important acquaintance of Karl Joseph Edlen von Fürnberg, a wealthy proprietor and enthusiastic amateur, who passed the greater part of the year at Weinzirl, near the monastery of Melk. Here he had constant performances of string trios and quartets; he invited Haydn to stay with him, and encouraged him to compose his first quartet (1755, hitherto misdated 1750)—

{ \time 6/8 \key bes \major \partial 8 \tempo "Presto" \relative b { bes8\f | bes4 d8 d4 f8 | f4 bes8 bes4 f8\p | f'( bes) g-. f4 r8 } }

which was soon followed by others, to the number of 18 in all (1755–56; Trautwein, Nos. 58–75). Fürnberg was thus the first to direct Haydn's attention to a branch of composition in which alone he did enough to immortalise his name.

His pecuniary condition now began to amend; he sang and played in several churches, and raised his terms for lessons from 2 florins a month to 5. Among his pupils at this period was the Countess Thun (a name we also encounter in connection with Mozart, Gluck, and Beethoven), who first heard of him through one of his clavier sonatas, then circulated in MS. This highly-cultivated lady took both harpsichord and singing lessons from him, and paid him well for his compositions. In 1759 he had the good fortune to be appointed Musikdirector and Kammercompositor to the Bohemian Count Ferdinand Maximilian Morzin, who had a small well-chosen orchestra at his country house at Lukavec, near Pilsen. Fürnberg had recommended him for the post, and it was thus again through him that Haydn entered upon the second most important part of his career. Here, in 1759, he wrote his first Symphony:—

{ \time 4/4 \key d \major \tempo "Presto" \relative d' { d4.\p d16 e fis4 fis | fis4. fis16 g a4 a | b16^\cresc a\! b c b4 cis2 } }

It is a small work, in three movements, for 2 violins, viola, bass, 2 oboes, and 2 horns; and in its cheerful unpretending character gives decided indications of what the composer was destined to become. His salary now amounted to 200 florins (say £20), with board and lodging. Small as this was, it induced him to think of taking a companion for life, although the Count never kept a married man in his employ. His choice fell on the daughter of Keller, a wigmaker, to whose house he had been introduced by her brother, who was violinist at St. Stephen's when Haydn was a chorister. He gave music-lessons to the two daughters, and fell in love with the youngest. She however took the veil, and the father, anxious to keep him in the family, persuaded him to marry the other, Maria Anna, 3 years his senior. The wedding took place at St. Stephen's, Nov. 26, 1760—a bad day for Haydn, and the foundation of unutterable domestic misery. His wife was a regular Xantippe—heartless, unsociable, quarrelsome, extravagant and bigoted, who, as her husband said, cared not a straw whether he was an artist or a shoemaker. They had no children, and it can scarcely be wondered at if in time Haydn sought elsewhere the consolations which were denied him at home, or even showed himself susceptible to the attractions of other women. His wife spent the last years of her life at Baden, near Vienna, and died March 20, 1800.

Soon after the marriage, Count Morzin was compelled to dismiss his band and its director; but Haydn was not long unemployed. Paul Anton Esterhazy, the then reigning Prince, who had heard his symphonies when visiting Morzin, hastened to secure the young composer as his second Capellmeister, under Werner, who was growing old. He was appointed May 1, 1761, and immediately set out for Eisenstadt, in Hungary, the country seat of the new master in whose service he was destined to remain to the end of his life. The Esterhazy family had been musical amateurs and performers since the days of Paul, first Prince of the name (1635–1713), who established a private chapel, small at first but gradually increasing. The orchestra, chorus, and solo singers took part both in the church service and in concerts, and in time even performed operas. When Haydn entered upon his duties there were only 16 members in all, but the excellence of their playing acted as a powerful stimulus to his invention. His arrival gave a great impulse to the concerts, Werner, a first-rate master of counterpoint, having concentrated all his energies on the Church service. [See Werner.] [App. p.670 omits this reference] To a man with Werner's notions of music Haydn must have been a constant vexation; and he always spoke of him as 'a mere fop,' and a 'scribbler of songs.' Haydn, on the contrary, had a high respect for Werner, as he proved late in life by arranging six of his fugues as string-quartets, and publishing them, through Artaria, 'out of sincere esteem for that celebrated master.'

Prince Paul Anton died March 18, 1762, and was succeeded by his brother Nicolaus, who was passionately fond of art and science, generous, and truly kind-hearted. The love of pomp and display, of which his well-known diamond-covered uniform was an example, earned him the soubriquet of 'der Prächtige,' or the Magnificent. He loved music, and played well on the baryton, or viola di bardone, for which instrument Haydn was constantly required to furnish him with new pieces. In the hope of pleasing his master Haydn himself learned the instrument; but on making his début was disappointed to find that the Prince did not approve of such rivalry; on which he at once relinquished it for ever. The relations between the Prince and his new Capellmeister, who found his time fully occupied, were genial and hearty. Haydn's salary was raised from 400 florins a year to 600, and then to 782 (£78), new musicians were engaged, and rehearsals—orchestral, chamber, and dramatic—took place every day. The principal members of the chapel at the time were, Luigi Tomasini (violin); Joseph Weigl (cello); two excellent French horn-players, Thaddaus Steinmuller and Karl Franz (the latter also playing the baryton); Anna Maria Scheffstos (soprano), who afterwards married Weigl; and Karl Friberth (tenor). The wind music, formerly played by the band of the regiment, was now given to good players (including the two just named) regularly appointed. On March 5, 1766, Werner died, and Haydn became sole Capellmeister. His compositions were already known far outside of Austria; in Leipzig, Paris, Amsterdam and London his symphonies and cassations, trios, and quartets, were to be had in print or MS. Even the official gazette, the 'Wiener Diarium,' for 1766, speaks of him as 'our national favourite' (der Liebling unserer Nation), and draws a parallel between him and the poet Gellert, at that time the highest possible compliment.

His works composed up to this time at Eisenstadt comprise about 30 symphonies (including 'Le Matin,'[2] 'Le Midi,' and 'Le Soir,' 1761) and cassations; a few divertimenti in 5 parts; six string-trios; a piece for 4 violins and 2 celli, called 'Echo'; a concerto for the French horn (1762); 12 minuets for orchestra; concertos, trios, sonatas, and variations for clavier. In vocal music—a Salve Regina for soprano and alto, 2 violins, and organ; a Te Deum (1764); 4 Italian Operettas (1762); a pastoral, 'Acide e Galatea' (the action identical with that of Handel's cantata), performed Jan. 11, 1763, on the marriage of Count Anton, eldest son of Prince Nicolaus; and a grand cantata, in honour of the Prince's return from the coronation of the Archduke Joseph as King of the Romans (1764).

Soon after Werner's death an event took place, which greatly affected the music, viz. the establishment of a new palace near Süttör, at the southern end of the Neusiedler-See, where the Prince rebuilt an old hunting-place, turned it into a splendid summer residence, and gave it the name of Esterház. Here the chapel (except a small portion left to carry on the church service at Eisenstadt) were located for the greater part of the year, during which they were expected to redouble their exertions.

Esterház—described by a French traveller as 'having no place but Versailles to compare to it for magnificence'—stands in the middle of an unhealthy marsh, quite out of the world. The erection of such a building in such a neighbourhood, at a cost amounting it is said to 11,000,000 gulden, was one of the caprices of Prince Nicolaus. The canals and dykes he constructed were, however, substantial improvements to the neighbourhood. The dense wood behind the castle was turned into a delightful grove, containing a deer-park, flower-gardens and hot-houses, elaborately furnished summer-houses, grottoes, hermitages, and temples. Near the castle stood an elegant theatre, for operas, dramas, and comedies; also a second theatre, brilliantly ornamented, and furnished with large artistic marionettes, excellent scenery and appliances. The orchestra of the opera was formed of members of the chapel, under Haydn's direction; the singers were Italian for the most part, engaged for one, two, or more years, and the books of the words were printed. Numerous strolling companies were engaged for shorter terms; travelling virtuosi often played with the members of the band; special days and hours were fixed for chamber-music and for orchestral works; and in the intervals the singers, musicians, and actors met at the café, and formed, so to speak, one family. The castle itself was fitted up in exquisite taste, and stored with numerous and costly collections of works of art. Royal and noble personages, home and foreign, formed a constant stream of guests; at whose disposal the Prince placed his beautiful carriages, and to whom he proved the most attentive and charming of hosts. He became so much attached to this place of his own creation, as often to stay there till quite the end of autumn, and return with the first days of spring. Eisenstadt he visited very rarely, and Vienna he disliked more and more, often cutting short his visits in the most abrupt manner. Hence his singers and musicians were increasingly tied to this one spot—a fate all the harder, since very few were allowed to bring their wives and families. Here Haydn composed nearly all his operas, most of his arias and songs, the music for the marionette theatre—of which he was particularly fond—and the greater part of his orchestral and chamber works. He was satisfied with his position, and though he sometimes complained of the disadvantages of such a seclusion, and often expressed his wish to visit Italy, he also acknowledged its compensating advantages. In his own words: 'My Prince was always satisfied with my works; I not only had the encouragement of constant approval, but as conductor of an orchestra I could make experiments, observe what produced an effect and what weakened it, and was thus in a position to improve, alter, make additions or omissions, and be as bold as I pleased; I was cut off from the world, there was no one to confuse or torment me, and I was forced to become original.'

With the band and singers Haydn was on the best of terms. They vied with each other in carrying out his intentions, simply to show their gratitude and affection for him. He was constantly endeavouring to improve their lot, was invariably a warm advocate with the Prince on their behalf, and they all loved him like a father. The Prince gave unusually high salaries, and several of the musicians played two instruments—generally the violin and a wind instrument. A good many of them afterwards entered the Imperial chapel.

The principal and best-paid members of the chapel during the period spoken of (1767–90) were: female singers, Weigl, Cellini, Jermoli, Rippamonti, [3]Valdesturla, Tavecchia, Maria and Matilda Bolognia, Raimondi, Nencini, Benvenuti; male singers—Friberth, Bianchi, Gherardi, Jermoli, Moratti, Morelli, Totti (2), Peschi; violins—Tomasini, Rosetti, Rippamonti, Mentrino, Mraw; cellists—Weigl, Küffel, Marteau, Kraft; flute—Hirsch; clarinets—Griesbacher (2); oboi—Columbazzo (2), Poschwa, Czerwenka; bassoons—Schiringer, Peczival; horns—Steinmüller, Karl Franz (also played thebaryton) Stamitz, Oliva, Pauer, Lendway. Besides Franz there was another performer on the prince's own instrument, the baryton—Andreas Lidl (1769–74) who played in London soon after leaving the band. J. B. Krumpholtz the harpist was engaged from 1773–76.

In March, 1769, the whole musical establishment visited Vienna for the first time; and, under Haydn's direction, gave a performance of his opera, 'Lo Speziale' (comp. 1768), at the house of Freiherr von Sommerau; and a repetition in the form of a concert. On their second visit, in the summer of 1777, they performed at Schönbrunn an opera and a marionetteopera of Haydn's, and also played during the Empress's dinner. The Prince would often take them to Presburg during the sitting of the Hungarian diet, or for the festival of Count Grassalcovich, and in 1772 Haydn conducted the Count's own orchestra even at a ball.

In 1771 Haydn composed a 'Stabat Mater' and a 'Salve Regina.' In 1775 followed his first oratorio, 'Il Ritorno di Tobia,' which was performed in Vienna by the Tonkünstler Societät, with solo-singers from Esterház, and repeated in 1784 with two additional choruses.[4] To this period belong 4 Masses (2 small ones of an early late have been lost)—in G (1772); in C, 'Cäciliemnesse'; in E♭, with organ obbligato; and in B♭, with organ solo (Nos. 7, 5, 12, and 8 in Novello's edition). The last is a small but particularly charming work, and, like the first, isstill often heard; but that in E♭ is old-fashioned. The 'Cäcilienmesse' has many fugues, and is seldom performed on account of its length. (Novello's edition is taken from Breitkopf's curtailed score.)

In 1773 the Empress Maria Theresa visited Esterház from Sept. 1 to 3, and was entertained with performances of a new symphony of Haydn's—now known by her name (p. 721 b)—his opera 'L'Infedeltá delusa,' and 'Philemon und Baucis,' a marionette piece, which especially pleased her. One song and the overture,—or 'symphony'—in 2 movements, have survived. Similar festivities took place on various occasions—a visit from one of the Imperial family, or an event in the Prince's own circle. Even Eisenstadt gave a glimpse of its old splendour when the Prince de Rohan, French Ambassador, stayed there in 1772.

In 1776 Haydn composed 'La vera Costanza,' for the court-theatre of Vienna. The intrigues against it were however too strong, and eventually Anfossi's opera of the same name was preferred. Haydn withdrew his score, and produced it at Esterház. It was revived in 1790 at the theatre then in the Landstrasse suburb of Vienna, and Artaria engraved six of the airs and a duet. In 1778 the Tonkünstler Societät offered Haydn a strange affront. He wished to join the society, and had already paid his deposit, when he was asked to sign an agreement binding him to furnish compositions of importance whenever so required. He naturally declined, and withdrew his money. No reparation was made for this indignity till after his return from London in 1797, when he was introduced at a special meeting by Counts Kufstein and Johann Esterhazy, and, amid general acclamation, appointed 'Assessor senior' for life. This compliment he acknowledged by presenting the society with the 'Creation' and the 'Seasons,' to which gifts its prosperity is mainly owing. 'L'Isola disabitata,' one of his best operas, composed in 1779 to a libretto by Metastasio, procured Haydn's nomination as a member of the Accademia Filarmonica at Modena. He sent the score to the King of Spain, and received in return a gold snuff-box et in brilliants. The opera was performed at the court-theatre in Vienna, at a concert given by Willmann the cellist in 1785.

On Nov. 18, 1779, the theatre at Esterház was burnt down, and during the rebuilding the Prince went to Paris. This interval will enable us to mention the origin of the famous 'Farewell Symphony.' It has been often asserted that Haydn intended it as an appeal to the Prince against the dismissal of the chapel, but this is incorrect; the real object was to persuade him to shorten his stay at Esterház, and so enable the musicians to rejoin their wives and families. As one after another stopped playing and left the orchestra, until only two violins were left (Tomasini, the Prince's favourite, being one), the hint was unmistakable. 'If all go,' said the Prince, 'we may as well go too'; and Haydn knew that his object was attained.[5]

This seems also the place to speak of a subject closely affecting Haydn's private life. In 1779 a couple named Polzelli were admitted into the chapel—the husband, Anton, being an indifferent violinist, and the wife, Luigia, by birth a Roman of tho name of Moreschi, a second-rate singer. For the latter Haydn conceived a violent affection, which she returned by shamefully abusing his kindness and continually importuning him for money, and even extracting from him a written promise that if his wife died he would marry no one but her. This paper he afterwards repudiated, but he left her a small annuity in his will. Before his death she had been married a second time, to an Italian singer, and died at Kaschau in 1832.[6] Mme. Polzelli had two sons, of whom the elder died in 1796, while the younger entered the chapel, and eventually became its music-director. He was a pupil of Haydn's, and was popularly supposed to be his son, but the fact is doubtful. Haydn was certainly very fond of him; but he left him only a small sum in his first will, and revoked it in the second.[7]

On Oct. 15, 1780, the beautiful new theatre at Esterház was opened with 'La Fedeltá premlata.' This opera was twice represented in Vienna in 1784, once in the presence of the Emperor Joseph, Haydn himself conducting. From 1780 dates his acquaintance with Artaria—the commencement of a business connexion of many years' duration. Tho first works which Artaria published for him were 6 Clavier sonatas (op. 30), his first 12 Lieder, 6 Quartets ('die Russischen'), 6 Divertissements in 8 parts (op. 31), and 6 Symphonies (op. 51 and 52): In 1781–82 the Emperor Joseph received two visits from the Grand Duke Paul and his wife. Great entertainments were given in their honour, consisting chiefly of musical performances, for which the Grand Duchess had a great taste.[8] Gluck's operas were given at the theatre, and some of Haydn's quartets played at her own house, so much to her satisfaction, that she gave htm a diamond snuff-box, and took lessons from him. Haydn seems to have retained a pleasant recollection of her, for 20 years later—in 1802, when she was Dowager-Empress—he sent her his fine part-songs for 3 and 4 voices. He also dedicated the 6 'Russian' quartets just mentioned to the Grand Duke. The Duke and Duchess had intended accompanying the Emperor to Eisenstadt, and Haydn was hastily composing an opera, but their departure was hurried, and the visit did not take place.

About this time Haydn entered into correspondence with William Forster, the well-known violin-maker in London, to whom he sold the English copyright of a series of compositions. From first to last (the first receipt is dated Aug. 22, 1781) Forster and Son published 129 of his works, including 82 symphonies. Almost simultaneously he received a letter from Le Gros, conductor of the 'Concerts Spirituals,' saying that his 'Stabat Mater' had been performed four times with the greatest success, and, in the name of the members, asking permission to print it. They also invited him to come to Paris, and proposed to have all his future compositions engraved there for his own benefit. Cherubini's veneration for Haydn is said to have dated from his hearing one of the six symphonies (op. 51 and 52) which he composed for the 'Concerts de la Loge Olympique.' Besides the, publishers already named, he had satisfactory dealings with Nadermann, Willmann, Imbault, Le Duc, and especially with Sieber.

The opera which he composed for the expected visit of the Grand Duke and Duchess was 'Orlando Paladino' (given at Esterház in the autumn of 1782), which in its German form as 'Ritter Roland' has been more frequently performed than any of his other operas. It was followed by 'Armida' (composed in 1783, performed in 1784, and again in 1797 at Schickaneder's theatre in Vienna), the autograph[9] score of which he sent to London, in compensation for the non-completion of 'Orfeo.' In judging of his operas we may be guided by an expression of his own when refusing an invitation to produce one in Prague: 'My operas are calculated exclusively for our own company, and would not produce their effect elsewhere.' The overtures to six of them were published by Artaria as 'symphonies,' though under protest from Haydn. To 1782 also belongs the well-known 'Mariazeller-Messe' (in C, Novello, No. 15), so called from the place of that name in Styria. It was bespoken by a certain Herr Liebe de Kreutzner, and Haydn is said to have taken particular pleasure in its composition, not impossibly because it reminded him of a visit to M ariazell when a young man without experience, friends, or means of any kind. This was his eighth Mass, and he wrote no more till 1796, between which year and 1802 his best and most important works of the kind were composed.

Between 1780 and 1790 he met a number of artists in Vienna whom he was destined to meet again in London, such as Mara, Banti, Storace, and her brother Stephen, Attwood, Janiewicz, and Jarnowick. In 1784 he met Paisiello, Sarti, and Signora Strinasacchi, the violinist, at Michael Kelly's lodgings; the latter paid him a visit at Esterház with Brida, an enthusiastic amateur.[10]

The chief event of 1785 was the composition of the ' Seven Words of onr Saviour on the Cross' for the cathedral of Cadiz, in compliance with a request from the chapter for appropriate instrumental music for Good Friday. The work was published simultaneously by Artaria and Forster, and in this form Haydn produced it as 'Passions instrumentale' in[11] London. He afterwards added choruses and solos, and divided it into two parts by the introduction of a Largo for wind instruments. In this new form it was produced for the first time at Eisenstadt in Oct. 1797 and published by Breitkopf & Härtel (1801), with a preface by the composer. It may seem surprising that the chapter of Cadiz should hav applied to Haydn; but in fact he was well known in Spain to others besides the king, who had been in communication with him long before, as we have seen. Thus Boccherini wrote to him from Madrid expressing the pleasure he received from his works, and Yriarte celebrated him with enthusiasm in his poem of 'La Musica' (Madrid, 1779). In Jan. 1785 Haydn acquired two interesting pupils—Fritz and Edmund von Weber. They were brought to him by their father Franz Anton, who had just remarried ia Vienna. His desire to see one of his children develop into a great musician, afterwards so gloriously fulfilled in the composer of the 'Freischütz,' was, to a certain extent, granted in Edmund. In the same year Mozart dedicated the well-known six quartets to Haydn, in terms of almost filial affection. It was after listening to a performance of one of these that Haydn said to Mozart's father, in his open-hearted way, 'I declare to you on my honour that I consider your son the greatest composer I have ever heard; he has taste, and possesses the most consummate knowledge of the art of composition.' He spoke of him still more warmly in a letter to Prague in 1787. The relation in which these two great men stood to each other does credit to them both, and leads us to form a high estimate of their characters. It would be difficult to find a parallel instance.

In 1787 Haydn received a pressing invitation to London, from W. Cramer, the violinist, who wrote offering to engage him at any cost for the Professional Concerts. Gallini also wrota asking his terms for an opera. Nothing came of either at the time, but Salomon determined to try what personal influence would do, and despatched Bland, the music-publisher, to Vienna, where he arrived in November, and finding Haydn still at Esterház, followed him there. He did not attain his main object, but Haydn gave him the copyright of several of his compositions, among others 'Ariadne,' a cantata for a single voice (composed in 1782). An anecdote of Bland's visit is often told. When he was admitted, Haydn was in the act of shaving, and grumbling over the bluntness of his razor. Bland caught the exclamation, 'I would give my best quartet for a good razor,' and, rushing off to his lodging, fetched his own pair, which he presented to Haydn, and received in exchange his newest quartet, which is often called the 'Rasirmesser' (razor) quartet (Trautwein, No. 2).

On Sept. 28, 1790, Prince Nicolaus died—a great loss for Haydn, who really loved him. He left his Capellmeister, on condition of his retaining the title, an annual pension of 1000 florins, as a mark of esteem and affection. To this sum his successor, Prince Anton, added another 400 florins, but deprived Haydn of his occupation by dismissing the whole chapel, except the few members necessary to keep up the services in church. Haydn now fixed his abode in Vienna, but had hardly done so before Salomon appeared on the scene. He had heard of the Prince's death at Cologne, on his way to England, and immediately returned, hoping, now that Haydn was free, to persuade him to visit London. Haydn could no longer plead the old excuse of unwillingness to leave his master, so he gave way, and began to make preparations for the journey. While thus occupied he was informed that Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, then in Vienna for the marriage of his two daughters, wished to see him. Haydn had thought of visiting Naples in 1787, and the King was well acquainted with his music. He had even commissioned him to compose several concerted pieces for his favourite instrument, the lyre. Nevertheless the audience was put off several times, and when it did take place, and Haydn presented his compositions, the King said: 'The day after to-morrow we will try them.' Haydn replied that he was to start for England on that day. 'What!' exclaimed the King, 'and you promised to come to Naples!' He then indignantly left the room, but returned in an hour, and, having recovered his temper, made Haydn promise to visit Naples on his return from London, gave him a letter of recommendation to his ambassador, Prince Castelcicala, and sent after him a valuable tabatière. And thus Haydn got over a great turning-point in his life. Among those of whom he took leave was his old and dear friend Madame Genzinger. [See Karajan.] His last hours in Vienna were enlivened by the company of Mozart, who had come to see him off. He too had been invited to London in 1786, and had only declined in deference to his father's wishes. His father was now dead, and Salomon promised him a speedy opportunity of making up for lost time. Too late again—in less than a year Mozart's eyes were closed in death.

To the compositions of the period 1767–90, already mentioned, must be added the following:—

Instrumental music:—about 80 symphonies, including 'Il Distratto' (for a play), 'La Chasse,' 'The Schoolmaster,' 'Laudon,' the Toy-symphony, and [12]the 'Oxford'; 'Feld-partien' for wind instruments; minuets and allemands for full orchestra, and for 2 violins and bass; string-quartets, 6 composed 1769; 6 ditto comp. 1771; 6 ditto comp. 1774; 6 ditto comp. 1781, dedicated to the Grand Duke of Russia; 6 ditto comp. 1786, dedicated to the King of Prussia; 6 ditto comp. 1789, and 6 ditto comp. 1790, ded. to Mr. Tost (Nos. 19–42; 44–49; 57–68, in Heckel's score-edition and in Peter's Edition of the Parts; string-trios of various kinds, adapted from the baryton pieces: 6 duets for violin and [13]viola; pieces for flute, harp, and lute; 175 compositions for the baryton. viz. 6 duets for 2 barytons, 12 sonatas for baryton and cello, 12 divertimenti for 2 barytons and bass, 125 divertimenti for baryton, viola, and bass, 17 cassations, and 3 concertos for baryton, 2 violins, and bass; concertos for strings and wind instruments, viz. violin 9, cello 6,[14] double bass 1, lyre 5, flute 2, horn 4.

Clavier music in chronological sequence, edition Breitkopf & Härtel:—trios with violin and cello, Nos. 25, 26 (really by Michael Haydn), 27, 28, 23, 21, 22, 9, 17, 8, 10, 11, 24, 29, 30, 31, the three last for flute and cello; sonatas Nos. 11, 12, 19, 29, 30, 31, 23–28, 20, 2, 32, 5–8, 18, 13–15, 4, 9, 10, 17, 3, 16; duets for clavier and violin, Nos. 2–5 being original, the rest arrangements; smaller pieces: variations Nos. 5, 4, Capriccio, No. 3; Fantasia, No. 2; 'Differentes petites piéces' (Artaria, op. 46); 'Il Maestro e lo Scolare,' variations for 4 hands, his only composition of the kind, except some early attempts. Of his many clavier-concertos and divertimenti 4 only are included in Haydn's own catalogue, the best, in D (Artaria 1782), not being among the number.[15]

Vocal composition—12 Lieder, 12 ditto (Artaria), several single Lieder: airs for various operas; operas 'La Canterina,' opera buffa (1766); 'Lo Speziale.' dramma giocosa (1768); 'Le Pescatrici,' ditto (1770); 'L'Infedelta delusa,' burletta (1773); 'L'Incontro improviso,' dramma giocosa (1775); 'Il Monda della luna,' ditto (1777); 'La vera Costanza,' ditto (comp. 1777, perf. 1779); 'L'Isola disabitata,' arione teatrale (1779); 'La Fedeltà premiata,' dramma giocosa (1780): 'L'Infedeltà fedele' (1780?); 'Orlando Paladino,' dramma eroicomica (1782); 'Armida,' dramma eroica (1784); Incidental music to the following plays, 'Der Zerstreute,' 'Die Feuersbrunst,' 'Hamlet,' 'Götz von Berlichingen.' 'König Lear,' 'Das ahgebrannte Haus.' Lastly, marionette operas—'Der Götterrath' (prelude to 'Philemon und Baucis'), 'Der Hexenschabbas,' 'Genoverfa,' part 4, Dido, etc.

Leaving Vienna on Wednesday, Dec. 15, 1790, Haydn and Salomon travelled by Munich, Bonn, and Brussels to Calais, crossed the Channel in nine hours on New Year's Day, 1791, and from Dover proceeded straight to London. Haydn first put up at the house of Bland, the music-seller, 45 Holborn, but soon removed to rooms prepared for him at Salomon's, 18 Great Pulteney Street. Here he found himself the object of every species of attention; ambassadors and noblemen called on him, invitations poured in from all quarters, and he was surrounded by a circle of the most distinguished artists, conspicuous among whom were his young countryman Gyrowetz, and Dr. Burney, who had been for some time in correspondence with him, and now welcomed him with a poetical effusion[16]. The Anacreontic Society, the Ladies' Concerts, the New Musical Fund, the Professional Concerts, and all the other musical societies eagerly desired his presence at their meetings. His quartets and symphonies were performed, Pacchierotti sang his cantata 'Ariadne a Naxos,' and he was enthusiastically noticed in all the newspapers. Before leaving Vienna Salomon had announced his subscription concerts in the Morning Chronicle, for which Haydn was engaged to compose six symphonies, and conduct them at the pianoforte. The first of the series took place on March 11, 1791, in the Hanover Square Rooms. The orchestra, led by Salomon, consisted of 35 or 40 performers, and was placed at the end opposite to that which it occupied latterly. The Symphony (Salomon, No. 2) was the first piece in the second part, the position stipulated for by Haydn, and the Adagio was encored—'a very rare occurrence.' The Morning Chronicle gives an animated description of the concert, the success of which was most brilliant, and ensured that of the whole series. Haydn's benefit was on May 16; £200 was guaranteed, but the receipts amounted to £350. Meantime Gallini, manager of the King's Theatre, was trying in vain to obtain a licence for the performance of operas. Two parties were at issue on the question. The Prince of Wales espoused the cause of the King's Theatre, while the King publicly declared his adhesion to the Pantheon, and pronounced two Italian opera-houses undesirable. At length Gallini was clever enough to obtain a license for 'Entertainments of Music and Dancing,' with which he opened the theatre on March 26, with David as tenor, Vestris as ballet-master, Haydn as composer, Federici as composer and conductor, and Salomon as leader—and with these he performed various works of Haydn's, including symphonies and quartets, his Chorus 'The Storm' (the words by Peter Pindar, 'Hark the wild uproar of the waves'), an Italian catch for 7 voices, and a cantata composed for David. His opera 'Orfeo ed Euridice,' though paid for and nearly completed, was not performed, owing to the failure of the undertaking. During the time he was composing it, Haydn lived in Lisson Grove—then absolutely in the country—where one of his most frequent visitors was J. B. Cramer, then 20 years old. His second benefit was on May 30, at the request of some amateurs of high position. Haydn gave a concert at the Hanover Square Rooms, where he conducted two of his symphonies, and, for the first time, the 'Seven Words' (La Passione instrumentale), afterwards repeated at the concert of Clement, the boy-violinist, and elsewhere. About this time he was invited to the annual dinner of the Royal Society of Musicians, and composed for the occasion a march for orchestra, the autograph of which is still preserved by the society. He also attended the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey. He had a good place near the King's box, and never having heard any performance on so grand a scale, was immensely impressed. When the Hallelujah Chorus rang through the nave, and the whole audience rose to their feet, he wept like a child, exclaiming, 'He is the master of us all.'

In the first week of July he went to the Oxford Commemoration, for the honorary degree of Doctor of Music, conferred at Dr. Burney's suggestion. Three grand concerts formed an important feature of the entertainments; at the second of these the 'Oxford' symphony[17] was performed, Haydn giving the tempi at the organ; and at the third he appeared in his Doctor's gown, amid enthusiastic applause. The 'Catalogue of all Graduates' contains the entry, 'Haydn, Joseph, Composer to His Serene Highness the Prince of Esterhazy, cr. Doctor of Music, July 8, 1791.' He sent the University as his 'exercise' the following composition'—afterwards used for the first of the 'Ten Commandments,' the whole of which he set to canons during his stay in London[18].

Canon cancrizans, a tre.

{ \time 2/2 \clef soprano << \relative e'' { e1 | d2 e | f e4( d) | c1 | d2 e2 | d1 } \addlyrics { Thy voice, O Har -- mo -- ny, is di -- vine. }
\new Staff { \clef soprano \relative c'' { c1 | b2 c | d c4( b) | a1 | b2 c | b1 } }
\new Staff { \clef soprano \relative c' { c1 | g'2 f4( e) | d2 e | f1 | e4( d) c( e) | g1 } } >> }

On his return he made several excursions in the neighbourhood of London, and stayed five weeks with Mr. Brassey (of 71 Lombard Street)[19] at his country house 12 miles from town, where he gave lessons to Miss Brassey, and enjoyed the repose of country life in the midst of a family circle all cordially attached to him. Meantime a new contract was entered into with Salomon, which prevented his obeying a pressing summons from Prince Esterhazy to a great fête for the Emperor. In November he was a guest at two Guildhall banquets—that of the outgoing Lord Mayor (Sir John Boydell) on the 5th, and that of the new one (John Hopkins) on the 9th. Of these entertainments he left a curious account in his diary.[20] In the same month he visited the marionnettes at the Fantoccini theatre in Savile Row, in which he took a great interest from old associations with Esterház. On the 25th, on an invitation from the Prince of Wales, he went to Oatlands, to visit the Duke of York, who had married the Princess of Prussia two days before. 'Die liebe kleine'—she was but 17—quite won Haydn's heart; she sang, played the piano, sat by his side during his symphony (one she had often heard at home), and hummed all the airs as it went on. The Prince of Wales played the violoncello, and all the music was of Haydn's composition. They even made him sing his own songs. During the visit, which lasted three days, Hoppner painted his portrait, by the Prince's command; it was engraved in 1807 by Facius, and is now at Hampton Court (Ante-room, No. 920). Engravings were also published in London by Schiavonetti and Bartolozzi from portraits by Guttenbrunn and Ott, and by Hardy from his own oil-painting. Haydn next went to Cambridge to see the University, thence to Sir Patrick Blake's at Langham, and afterwards to the house of a Mr. Shaw, where he was received with every possible mark of respect and attention, he says in his diary, 'Mrs. Shaw is the most beautiful woman I ever saw'; and when quite an old man still preserved a ribbon which she had worn during his visit, and on which his name was embroidered in gold.

The directors of the Professional Concerts had been for some time endeavouring to make Haydn break his engagements with Salomon and Gallini. Not succeeding, they invited his pupil Ignaz Pleyel, from Strassburg. to conduct their concerts; but far from showing any symptoms of rivalry or hostility, master and pupil continued the best of friends, and took every opportunity of displaying their attachment. The Professionals were first in the field, as their opening concert took place on Feb. 15, 1792, while Salomon's series did not begin till the 17th. Gyrowetz was associated with Haydn as composer for the year, and his works were as much approbated here as in Paris. At these concerts Haydn produced symphonies, divertimenti for concerted instruments, a notturno for the same, string quartets, a clavier trio, airs, a cantata, and the 'Storm' chorus already mentioned.[21] He was also in great request at concerts, and conducted those of Barthelemon (with whom he formed a close friendship), Haesler the pianist, Mme. Mara (who sang at his benefit), and many others. Besides his own annual benefit Salomon gave 'by desire' an extra concert on June 6. when he played several violin solos, and when Haydn's favourite compositions were 'received with an extasy of admiration.' 'Thus,' to quote the Morning Chronicle, 'Salomon finished his season on Wednesday night with the greatest éclat.' The concerts over, he made excursions to Windsor Castle, Ascot Races, and Slough, where he stayed with Herschel, of whose domestic life he gives a particular description in his diary. The only son, afterwards Sir John Herschel, was then a few months old. He went also to the meeting of the Charity Children in St. Paul's Cathedral, and was deeply moved by the singing. 'I was more touched,' says he in his diary, 'by this innocent and reverent music than by any I ever beard in my life.' The somewhat commonplace double chant by Jones the organist, is quoted in his diary. [See Jones.]

Amongst Haydn's intimate associates in this year were Bartolozzi the engraver, to whose wife he dedicated 3 Clavier trios and a sonata[22] in C, and John Hunter the surgeon (who begged in vain to be allowed to remove a polypus in the nose which he had inherited from his mother), and whose wife wrote the words for most of his 12 English canzonets—the first set dedicated to her; the second to Lady Charlotte Bertie. But the dearest of all his friends was Mrs. Schroeter, a lady of good birth, and widow of the Queen's music-master, John Samuel Schroeter, who died Nov. 1, 1788. She took lessons from him on the pianoforte, and a warm feeling of esteem and respect sprang up between them, which on her side ripened into a passionate attachment. Haydn's affections must also have been involved, for in his old age he said once, pointing to a packet of her letters, 'Those are from an English widow who fell in love with me. She was a very attractive woman and still handsome, though over sixty; and had I been free I should certainly have married her.' Haydn dedicated to Mrs. Schroeter three Clavier-Trios (Breitkopf & Härtel, Nos. 1, 2, 6). In the 2nd (F♯ minor) he adapted the Adagio from the Salomon-symphony, No. 9 (B♭), probably a favourite of the lady's. A second of his London admirers deserves mention. Among his papers is a short piece with a note saying that it was 'by Mrs. Hodges, the loveliest woman I ever saw, and a great pianoforte player. Both words and music are hers,' and then follows a P.S. in the trembling hand of his latest life, 'Requiescat in pace! J. Haydn.'[23]

During his absence his wife had had the offer of a small house and garden in the suburbs of Vienna (Windmühle, 73 kleine Steingasse, now 19 Haydngasse, then a retired spot in the 4th district of the Mariahilf suburb), and she wrote asking him to send her the money for it, as it would be just the house for her when she became a widow. He did not send the money, but on his return to Vienna bought it, added a storey, and lived there from Jan. 1797 till his death.

Haydn left London towards the end of June 1792, and travelling by way of Bonn—where Beethoven asked his opinion of a cantata, and Frankfort—where he met Prince Anton at the coronation of the Emperor Francis II, reached Vienna at the end of July. His reception was enthusiastic, and all were eager to hear his London symphonies. In Dec. 1792 Beethoven came to him for instruction, and continued to take lessons until Haydn's second journey to England. The relations of these two great men have been much misrepresented. That Haydn had not in any way forfeited Beethoven's respect is evident, as he spoke highly of him whenever opportunity offered, usually chose one of Haydn's themes when improvising in public, scored one of his [24]quartets for his own use, and carefully preserved the autograph of one of the English symphonies.[25] But whatever Beethoven's early feeling may have been, all doubts as to his latest sentiments are set at rest by his exclamation on his death-bed on seeing a view of Haydn's birthplace, sent to him by Diabelli 'To think that so great a man should have been born in a common peasant's cottage!' [See Beethoven, p. 199b.]

Again invited by Salomon, under special stipulation, to compose 6 new symphonies, Haydn started on his second journey on Jan. 19, 1794. Prince Anton took a reluctant leave of him, and died three days after he left. This time Haydn went down the Rhine, accompanied by his faithful copyist and servant, Johann Elssler[26] and arrived in London on Feb. 4. He took lodgings at No. 1 Bury Street, St. James's, probably to be near Mrs. Schroeter, who lived in James Street, Buckingham Gate. Nothing is known of their relations at this time; Elssler could have given information on this and many other points, but unlike Handel's Smith he was a mere copyist, and none of Haydn's biographers seem to have thought of applying to him for particulars about his master, though he lived till 1843.—Haydn's engagement with Salomon bound him to compose and conduct six fresh symphonies; and besides these, the former set, including the 'Surprise,' was repeated. Some new quartets are also mentioned, and a quintet in C (known as op. 88), which however was his brother Michael's. The first concert was on Feb. 10, and the last on May 12. At one of the rehearsals Haydn surprised the orchestra by showing young Smart (afterwards Sir George) the proper way to play the drums. At Haydn's benefit (May 2) the 'Military' Symphony was produced for the first time, and Dussek and Viotti played concertos. The latter was also leader at Salomon's benefit—a proof of the good understanding between the two violinists.

During his second visit Haydn had ample opportunities of becoming acquainted with Handel's music. Regular performances of his oratorios took place in Lent both at Covent Garden and Drury Lane; and in 1795 concerts of sacred music, interspersed with some of Haydn's symphonies, were given at the King's Theatre. Haydn also conducted performances of his symphonies at the New Musical Fund concerts. Among his new acquaintances we find Dragonetti, who had accompanied Banti to London in 1794, and a lasting friendship sprang up between Haydn and that good-natured artist. For Banti Haydn composed an air 'Non partir,' in E (the recitative begins, 'Berenice'), which she sang at his benefit.

Among the numerous violinists then in London—Jarnowick, Janiewicz, Cramer, Viotti, Clement, Bridgetower, etc.—we must not omit Giardini. Though nearly 80 years of age he produced an oratorio, 'Ruth,' at Ranelagh, and even played a concerto. His temper was frightful, and he showed a particular spite against Haydn, even remarking within his hearing, when urged to call upon him, 'I don't want to see the German dog.' Haydn retorted by writing in his diary, after hearing him play, 'Giardini played like a pig.' After the exertions of the season Haydn sought refreshment in the country, first staying at Sir Charles Rich's house near Waverley Abbey, in Surrey. In September he went with Dr. Burney to see Rauzzini at Bath, where he passed three pleasant days, and wrote a canon to the inscription which Rauzzini had put on a monument in his garden to 'his best friend'—'Turk was a faithful dog, and not a man.' He also went to Taplow with Shield, and with Lord Abingdon visited Lord Aston at Preston. An anecdote of this tune shows the humour which was so native to Haydn, and so often pervades his compositions. He composed an apparently easy sonata for pianoforte and violin, called it 'Jacob's Dream,' and sent it anonymously to an amateur who professed himself addicted to the extreme upper notes of the violin. The unfortunate performer was delighted with the opening; here was a composer who thoroughly understood the instrument! but as he found himself compelled to mount the ladder higher and higher without any chance of coming down again, the perspiration burst out upon his forehead, and he exclaimed, 'What sort of composition do you call this? the man knows nothing whatever of the violin.'

In 1795 Salomon announced his concerts under a new name and place, the 'National School of Music,' in the King's Concert-room, recently added to the King's Theatre. Haydn was again engaged as composer and conductor of his own symphonies, and Salomon had collected an unprecedented assemblage of talent. The music was chiefly operatic, but one or even two of Haydn's symphonies were given regularly, the 'Surprise' being a special favourite. With regard to this symphony Haydn confessed to Gyrowetz, who happened to call when he was composing the Andante, that he intended to startle the audience. 'There all the women will scream,' he said with a laugh, pointing to the well-known explosion of the drums. The first concert was on Feb. 2, and two extra ones were given on May 21 and June 1, the latter being Haydn's last appearance before an English audience.[27] His last benefit was on May 4, when the programme consisted entirely of his works, except the concertos of Viotti and of Ferlendis the oboist. Banti sang his aria for the first time, but according to his diary 'she sang very scanty.' He was greatly pleased with the success of this concert; the audience was a distinguished one, and the net receipts amounted to £400. 'It is only in England that one can make such sums,' he remarked. J. B. Cramer and Mme. Dussek gave concerts soon after, at which Haydn conducted his own symphonies.

During the latter months of his stay in London Haydn was much distinguished by the Court. At a concert at York House the programme consisted entirely of his compositions, he presided at the pianoforte, and Salomon was leader. The King and Queen, the Princesses, the Prince of Wales, and the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester were present, and the Prince of Wales presented Haydn to the King, who, in spite of his almost exclusive preference for Handel, expressed great interest in the music, and presented the composer to the Queen, who begged him to sing some of his own songs. He was also repeatedly invited to the Queen's concerts at Buckingham House; and both King and Queen expressed a wish that he should remain in England, and spend the summer at Windsor. Haydn replied that he felt bound not to desert Prince Esterhazy, and was not inclined entirely to forsake his own country. As a particular mark of esteem the Queen presented him with a copy of the score of Handel's Passion-music to Brockes's words. He was frequently at Carlton House, where the Prince of Wales (a pupil of Crosdill's on the cello, and fond of taking the bass in catches and glees), had a regular concert-room, and often played his part in the orchestra with the Dukes of Cumberland (viola) and Gloucester (violin). In 1795 he gave many musical parties, and at one which took place soon after his marriage (April 8) the Princess of Wales played the pianoforte and sang with Haydn, who not only conducted but sang some of his own songs. He attended at Carlton House 26 times in all, but like other musicians found much difficulty in getting paid. After waiting long in vain he sent in a bill for 100 guineas from Vienna, which was immediately discharged by Parliament. It must be admitted that the demand was moderate.

Encouraged by the success of the 'Storm,' Haydn undertook to compose a larger work to English words. Lord Abingdon suggested Needham's 'Invocation of Neptune,' an adaptation of some poor verses prefixed to Selden s 'Mare Clausum,' but he made little progress, probably finding his acquaintance with English too limited. The only finished numbers are, a bass solo, 'Nor can I think my suit is vain,' and a chorus, 'Thy great endeavours to increase.' The autograph is in the British Museum. Haydn received parting gifts from Clementi, Tattersall, and many others, one being a talking parrot, which realised 1400 florins after his death. In 1804 he received from Gardiner of Leicester six pairs of cotton stockings, into which were worked favourite themes from his music.—His return was now inevitable, as Prince Esterhazy had written some time before that he wished his chapel reconstituted, with Haydn again an its conductor.

The second visit to London was a brilliant success. He returned from it with increased powers, unlimited fame, and a competence for life. By concerts, lessons, and symphonies, not counting his other compositions, he had again—as before—made £1200, enough to relieve him from all anxiety for the future. He often said afterwards that it was not till he had been in England that he became famous in Germany, by which he meant that though his reputation was high at home, the English were the first to give him public homage and liberal remuneration. His diary contains a list of the works com jxmed in London. To those already mentioned we must add—

4 hymns for Tattersall's 'Parochial Psalmody': songs for Gallini and others: 8 Lieder—one with orchestral accompaniment: arias David, Signora Banti, and Miss Poole, and another with orchestral accompaniment; 'O tuneful voice,' song, composed for a distinguished lady; 'Lines from the Battle of the Nile,' words by Mrs. Knight, a grand air; 'The spirit's song', (Shakespeare's words) [App. p.670 "omit the words (Shakespeare's words)"], the Ten Commandments set to canons: one canon in an album; 6 English songs; 12 Canzonets (1st set: Mermaid's song; La memoria; Pastorale; Despair; Pleasing pain; Fidelity. 2nd set: Sailor's song; The Wanderer; Sympathy; She never told her love; Piercing eyes; Content); 'Dr. Harrington's Compliment,' song with piano accompaniment, in reply to verses and music addressed to Haydn by Dr. Harington: 12 ballads for Lord Abingdon; harmonies and accompaniments to 154 Scotch songs for Napier the publisher: a symphonie-concertante in B♭; a notturno; 2 divertimenti; an overture for Salomon's 'Windsor Castle' (Covent Garden); 4 marches; 34 minuets and allemands: 6 contredanses; 6 quartets (finished in Vienna in 1798, known as op. 73 and 74, dedicated to Count Apponyi, London and Paris editions. Nos 69–74); and 10 pianoforte sonatas for Broderip, Preston, Miss Janson, etc. In the Interval between Haydn's first and second visits to London he composed the Andante in F minor with variations, one of his finest works, dedicated to Mlle. Ployer, 12 Redouten Minuets and 12 Teutsche Tänze for the benefit of the Artists' Widows' Fund. The Salomon symphony in E♭ (No. 10) was written in Vienna in 1798.

Haydn left London August 15, 1795, and travelled by way of Hamburg, Berlin, and Dresden. Soon after his return a pleasant surprise awaited him. He was taken by Count Harrach and a genial party of noblemen and gentleman, first to a small peninsula formed by the Leitha in a park near Rohrau, where he found a monument and bust of himself, and next to his birthplace. Overcome by his feelings, on entering the humble abode, Haydn stooped down and kissed the threshold, and then pointing to the stove, told the company that it was on that very spot that his career as a musician began. On the 18th December he gave a concert in the small Redoutensaal, at which three of his London symphonies were performed, and Beethoven played either his first or second clavier-concerto. At this time he lived in the Neumarkt (now No. 2) which he left in Jan. 1797 for his own house in the suburbs. He now only went to Eisenstadt for the summer and autumn. Down to 1802 he always had a new mass ready for Princess Esterhazy's name-day, in September. (Novello, Nos. 2, 1, 3, 16, 4, 6.)[28] To these years belomg several other compositions—A cantata, 'Die Erwählung eines Kapellmeisters,' composed for a club meeting regularly in the evenings at the tavern 'zum Schwanen,' in the Neumarkt.[29] Incidental music for 'Alfred,' a tragedy adapted from the English of Cowmeadow, and performed once in 1795 at Schickaneder's Theatre in [30]Vienna; a fine chorus in the old Italian style, 'Non nobis [31] Domine,' perhaps suggested by Byrd's canon which he heard so often in London; a grand 'Te [32] Deum,' composed 1800; and the 'Seven Words,' rewritten for voices, and first performed at Eisenstadt, Oct. 1797. Instrumental music—Clavier-trios, Breitkopf & Härtel, Nos. 18, 19, 20, dedicated to Princess Marie Esterhazy; 1, 2, 6, to Mrs. Schroeter; 3, 4[33], 5, to Bartolozzi; 12, 15[34] to Mlle. Madelaine de Kurzbeck: when requested by Prince Esterhazy in 1803 to compose a sonata for the wife of Maréchal Moreau, Haydn arranged this trio as a duet for clavier and violin; and in that form it was published years after as his 'dernière Sonate.' Clavier sonata (Breitk. & Härtel, No. 1 ), dedicated to Mlle. Kurzbeck; 6 string-quartets, known as op. 75 and 76, dedicated to Count Erdödy; and 2 ditto, op. 77, dedicated to Prince Lobkowitz.

During his visits Haydn had often envied the English their 'God save the King,' and the war with France having quickened his desire to provide the people with an adequate expression of their fidelity to the throne, he determined to compose a national anthem for Austria. Hence arose 'Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser,' the most popular of all his Lieder. Haydn's friend, Freiherr van Swieten, suggested the idea to the Prime Minister, Graf von Saurau, and the poet Hauschka was commissioned to write the words, which Haydn set in January 1797. On the Emperor's birthday, Feb. 12, the air was sung simultaneously at the national theatre in Vienna, and at all the principal theatres in the provinces. [See Emperor's Hymn.] This strain, almost sublime in its simplicity, and so devotional in its character that it is used as a hymn-tune, faithfully reflects Haydn's feelings towards his sovereign. It was his favourite work, and towards the close of his life he often consoled himself by playing it with great expression. He also introduced a set of masterly variations on it into the so-called 'Kaiserquartett ' (No. 77).

High as his reputation already was, it had not reached its culminating point. This was attained by two works of his old age, the 'Creation' and the 'Seasons.' Shortly before his departure from London, Salomon offered him a poem for music, which had been compiled by Lidley from Milton's 'Paradise Lost' before the death of Handel, but not used. Haydn took it to Vienna, and when Freiherr van Swieten suggested his composing an oratorio, he handed him the poem. Van Swieten translated it with considerable alterations, and a sum of 500 ducats was guaranteed by twelve of the principal nobility. Haydn set to work with the greatest ardour. 'Never was I so pious,' he says, 'as when composing the Creation. I knelt down every day and prayed God to strengthen me for my work.' It was first given in private at the Schwarzenberg palace, on the 29th and 30th of April, 1798; and in public on Haydn's name-day, March 19, 1799, at the National Theatre. The noblemen previously mentioned paid the expenses, and handed over to Haydn the entire proceeds, amounting to 4,000 florins (£320). The impression it produced was extraordinary; the whole audience was deeply moved, and Haydn confessed that he could not describe his sensations. 'One moment,' he said, 'I was as cold as ice, the next I seemed on fire. More than once I was afraid I should have a stroke.' The next performance was given by the Tonkünstler Societät, Haydn conducting. Once only he conducted it outside Vienna—March 9, 1800, at a grand performance in the palace at Ofen before the Archduke Palatine Joseph of Hungary. No sooner was the score engraved (1800), than the 'Creation' was performed everywhere. Choral societies were founded for the express purpose, and its popularity was for long equalled only by that of the 'Messiah.' In London Ashley and Salomon gave rival performances, the former on March 28, 1800, at Covent Garden, the latter on April 21, in the concert-room of the King's Theatre, with Mara and Dussek in the principal parts, and a concerto on the organ by Samuel Wesley. In the English provinces it was first performed by the Three Choirs—at Worcester in 1800, Hereford in 1801, and Gloucester in 1802.—In 1799 Haydn entered into relations with Breitkopf & Härtel, and edited the 12 vols. in red covers which formed for long the only collection of his works for clavier and for voice.

As soon as the 'Creation' was finished, Van Swieten persuaded Haydn to begin another oratorio, which he had adapted from Thomson's Seasons. He consented to the proposition with reluctance, on the ground that his powers were failing; but he began, and in spite of his objections to certain passages as unsuited to music (a point over which he and Van Swieten nearly quarrelled), the work as a whole interested him much, and was speedily completed. The first performances took place April 24 and 27, and May 1, at the Schwarzenberg palace. On May 29 he conducted it for his own benefit in the large Redoutensaal, and in December handed over the score, as he had that of the 'Creation,' to the Tonkünstler Societät, which has derived a permanent income from both works. Opinions are now divided as to the respective value of the two, but at the time the success of the 'Seasons' fully equalled that of the 'Creation,' and even now the youthful freshness which characterises it is very striking. The strain however was too great; as he often said afterwards, 'The Seasons gave me the finishing stroke.' On Dec. 26, 1803, he conducted the 'Seven Words' for the hospital fund at the Redoutensaal, but it was his last public exertion. In the following year he was asked to conduct the 'Creation' at Eisenstadt, but declined on the score of weakness; and indeed he was failing rapidly. His works composed after the 'Seasons' are very few, the chief being some vocal quartets, on which he set a high value. In these his devotional feeling comes out strongly, in 'Herr der du mir das Leben,' 'Du bist's dem Ruhm und Ehre gebühret,' and 'Der Greis'—'Hin ist alle meine Kraft.' In 1802 and 3 he harmonised and wrote accompaniments for a number of Scotch songs, for which he received 500 florins from Whyte of Edinburgh. This pleased him so much that he is said to have expressed his pride in the work as one which would long preserve his memory in Scotland. He also arranged Welsh airs (Preston; 41 Nos. in 3 vols.) and Irish airs, but the latter he did not complete, and they were undertaken by Beethoven. One of his last string-quartets (Trautwein 83) has two movements complete, the 'Andante' and the 'Minuet'; in despair of finishing it, in 1806, he added the first few bars of 'Der Greis' as a conclusion.[35] He had these same bars printed as a card in answer to friends who enquired after him.[36]

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Joseph Haydn.

Haydn's last years were passed in a continual struggle with the infirmities of age, relieved by occasional gleams of sunshine. When in a happy mood he would unlock his cabinet, and exhibit to his intimate friends the souvenirs, diplomas, and valuables of all kinds which it contained. This often led him to speak of the events of his life, and in this way Griesinger, Dies, Bertuch, Carpani, and Neukomm, became acquainted with many details. Haydn also received other visitors who cannot have failed to give him pleasure; such were Cherubini, the Abbé Vogler, the Weber family, Baillot, Mme. Bigot the pianist, Pleyel, Bierey, Gänsbacher, Hummel, Nisle, Tomaschek, Reichardt, Iffland; his faithful friends Mmes. Aurnhammer, Kurzbeck, and Spielmann, the Princess Esterhazy with her son Paul—who all came to render homage to the old man. Mozart's widow did not forget her husband's best friend, and her son Wolfgang, then 14, begged his blessing at his first public concert, in the Theatre an-der-Wien, on April 8, 1805, for which he had composed a cantata, in honour of Haydn's 73rd birthday.

After a long seclusion Haydn appeared in public for the last time at a remarkable performance of the 'Creation' at the University on March 27, 1808. He was carried in his arm-chair to a place among the first ladies of the land, and received with the warmest demonstrations of welcome. Salieri conducted. At the words 'And there was light,' Haydn was quite overcome, and pointing upwards exclaimed, 'It came from thence.' As the performance went on his agitation became extreme, and it was thought better to take him home after the first part. As he was carried out people of the highest rank thronged to take leave of him, and Beethoven fervently kissed his hand and forehead. At the door he paused, and turning round lifted up his hands as if in the act of blessing.

In 1797 Prince Nicolaua had augmented his salary by 300 florins, and in 1806 added another 600—making his whole emolument 2,300 florins (£200)—besides paying his doctor's bill. This increase in income was a great satisfaction to Haydn, as he had long earnestly desired to help his many poor relations during his life, and to leave them something after his death.

To one who loved his country so deeply, it was a sore trial to see Vienna twice occupied by the enemy—in 1805 and 1809. The second time the city was bombarded, and the first shot fell not far from his residence. In his infirm condition this alarmed him greatly, but he called out to his servants, 'Children, don't be frightened; no harm can happen to you while Haydn is by.' The last visit he received on his death-bed (the city being then in the occupation of the French) was from a French officer, who sang 'In native worth' with a depth of expression doubtless inspired by the occasion. Haydn was much moved, and embraced him warmly at parting. On May 26, 1809, he called his servants round him for the last time, and having been carried to the piano solemnly played the Emperor's Hymn three times over. Five days afterwards, at one o'clock in the morning of the gist, he expired.

On June 15 Mozart's Requiem was performed in his honour at the Schottenkirche. Amongst the mourners were many French officers of high rank; and the guard of honour round the catafalque was composed of French soldiers, and a detachment of the Bürgerwehr. He was buried in the Hundsthurm churchyard, outside the lines, close to the suburb in which he lived, but his remains were exhumed by command of Prince Esterhazy, and solemnly re-interred in the upper parish church at Eisenstadt on Nov. 7, 1820. A simple stone with a Latin inscription is inserted in the wall over the vault to inform the passer-by that a great man rests below.

It is a well-known fact that when the coffin was opened for identification before the removal, the skull was missing: it had been stolen two days after the funeral. The one which was afterwards sent to the Prince anonymously as Haydn's, was buried with the other remains; but the real one was retained and is at present in the possession of the family of a celebrated physician. [App. p.670 "the composer's skull has lately come into the possession of the Austrian Museum at Vienna."] The grave at Vienna remained absolutely undistinguished for 5 years after Haydn's death, till 1814, when his pupil Neukomm erected a stone bearing the following inscription, which contains a 5-part Canon for solution.





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D. D. D.

Discip. Eius Neukom Vindob. Redux.


This stone was renewed by Graf von Stockhammer in 1842.

As soon as Haydn's death was known, funeral services were held in all the principal cities of Europe. In Paris was performed a sacred cantata for three voices[37] and orchestra (Breitkopf & Härtel) composed by Cherubini on a false report of his death in 1805. It was also given elsewhere.

During his latter years Haydn was made an honorary member of many institutions—the Academy of Arts and Sciences, Stockholm (1798); the Philharmonic Society at Laybach (1800); the Academy of Arts, Amsterdam (1801); the Institut (1802), the 'Conservatoire de Musique' (1805), and the 'Société académique des enfans d'Apollon' of Paris (1807). He also received gold medals from the musicians who performed the Creation at the opera in Paris, Dec. 24, 1800, and from the Institut (1802); the 'Zwölffache Bürgermedaille,' Vienna (1803); from the professors of the 'Concert des Amateurs' (1803), the Conservatoire (1805), the 'Enfans d'Apollon' (1807), all of Paris; and the Philharmonic Society of St. Petersburg (1808). He was also nominated honorary citizen of Vienna (1804).

Poems without end were written in his praise; and equally numerous were the portraits, in chalk or oils, engraved, and modelled in wax. Of the many busts the best is that by his friend Grassy. The silhouette here engraved for the first time hung for long at the head of Haydn's bed, and was authenticated by Elssler as strikingly like.

Among his pupils we may mention—Robert Kimmerling and Abund Mykisch, both priests, who learnt from him as early as 1753; Countess Thun; the Erdödy family; Ignaz Pleyel; Niemecz, a monk; Krumpholz, Ant. Kraft, and Rosetti, members of the Esterhazy Chapel; Distler, violinist; Fernandi, organist; Démar, composer; Hoffmann of Livonia; Kranz of Stuttgart; Franz Tomisch; Ed. von Weber; Ant. Wranitzky; Haigh, Graeff, and Callcott, of London; Nisle; Franz de Paula Roser; the Polzellis; J. G. Fuchs, afterwards vice-Capellmeister of the chapel, and Haydn's successor; Struck; Bartsch; Lessel; Neukomm; Hänsel; Seyfried, and Destouches. Haydn used to call Pleyel, Neukomm, and Lessel his favourite and most grateful pupils. Most of those named dedicated to him their first published work—generally a piece of chamber music.

A few remarks on Haydn's personal and mental characteristics, and on his position in the history of art, will conclude our task. We learn from his contemporaries that he was below the middle height, with legs disproportionately short; his build substantial, but deficient in muscle. His features were tolerably regular; his expression, slightly stern in repose, invariably softened in conversation. His aquiline nose was latterly much disfigured by a polypus; and his face deeply pitted by small-pox. His complexion was very dark. His dark gray eyes beamed with benevolence; and he used to say himself, 'Any one can see by the look of me that I am a good-natured sort of fellow.' The impression given by his countenance and bearing was that of an earnest dignified man, perhaps a little over-precise. Though fond of a joke, he never indulged in immoderate laughter. His broad and well-formed forehead was partly concealed by a wig with side curls and a pigtail, which he wore to the end of his days. A prominent and slightly coarse under-lip, with a massive jaw, completed this singular union of so much that was attractive and repelling, intellectual and vulgar.[38] He always considered himself an ugly man, and could not understand how so many handsome women fell in love with him; 'At any rate,' he used to say, 'they were not tempted by my beauty,' though he admitted that he liked looking at a pretty woman, and was never at a loss for a compliment. He habitually spoke in the broad Austrian dialect, but could express himself fluently in Italian, and with some difficulty in French. He studied English when in London, and in the country would often take his grammar into the woods. He was also fond of introducing English phrases into his diary. He knew enough Latin to read Fux's 'Gradus,' and to set the Church services. Though he lived so long in Hungary he never learned the vernacular, which was only used by the servants among themselves, the Esterhazy family always speaking German. His love of fun sometimes carried him away; as he remarked to Dies, 'A mischievous fit comes over one sometimes that is perfectly beyond control.' At the same time he was sensitive, and when provoked by a bad return for his kindness could be very sarcastic. With all his modesty he was aware of his own merits, and liked to be appreciated, but flattery he never permitted. Like a true man of genius he enjoyed honour and fame, but carefully avoided ambition. He has often been reproached with cringing to his superiors, but it should not be forgotten that a man who was in daily intercourse with people of the highest rank would have no difficulty in drawing the line between respect and subservience. That he was quite capable of defending his dignity as an artist is proved by the following occurrence. Prince Nicolaus (the second of the name) being present at a rehearsal, and expressing disapprobation, Haydn at once interposed—'Your Highness, all that is my business.' He was very fond of children, and they in return loved 'Papa Haydn' with all their hearts. He never forgot a benefit, though his kindness to his many needy relations often met with a poor return. The 'chapel' looked up to him as a father, and when occasion arose he was an unwearied intercessor on their behalf with the Prince. Young men of talent found in him a generous friend, always ready to aid them with advice and substantial help. To this fact Eybler, A. Romberg, Seyfried, Weigl, and others have borne ample testimony. His intercourse with Mozart was a striking example of his readiness to acknowledge the merits of others. Throughout life he was distinguished by industry and method; he maintained a strict daily routine, and never sat down to work or received a visit until he was fully dressed. This custom he kept up long after he was too old to leave the house. His uniform, which the Prince was continually changing both in colour and style, he never wore unless actually at his post.

One of his most marked characteristics was his constant aim at perfection in his art. He once said regretfully to Kalkbrenner, 'I have only just learned in my old age how to use the wind-instruments, and now that I do understand them I must leave the world.' And to Griesinger he said that he had by no means come to the end of his powers; that ideas were often floating in his mind, by which he could have carried the art far beyond anything it had yet attained, had his physical powers been equal to the task.

He was a devout Christian, and attended, strictly to his religious duties; but he saw no inconsistency in becoming a Freemason—probably at the instigation of Leopold Mozart, when in Vienna in 1785. His genius he looked on as a gift from above, for which he was bound to be thankful. This feeling dictated the inscriptions on all his scores large and small; 'In nomine Domini,' at the beginning, and 'Laus Deo' at the end; with the occasional addition of 'et

B. V. Mæ. et oms Sis.' [App. p.670 "Mã et om̃ Stis"] (Beatae Virgini Mariae et omnibus Sanctis). His writing is extremely neat and uniform, with remarkably few corrections: 'Because,' said he, 'I never put anything down till I have quite made up my mind about it." When intending to write something superior he liked to wear the ring given him by the King of Prussia.

The immense quantity of his compositions would lead to the belief that he worked with unusual rapidity, but this was by no means the case. 'I never was a quick writer,' he assures us himself, 'and always composed with care and deliberation; that alone is the way to compose works that will last, and a real connoisseur can see at a glance whether a score has been written in undue haste or not.' He sketched all his compositions at the piano—a dangerous proceeding, often leading to fragmentariness of style. The condition of the instrument had its effect upon him, for we find him writing to Artaria in 1788, 'I was obliged to buy a new fortepiano, that I might compose your Clavier-sonatas particularly well.' When an idea struck him he sketched it out in a few notes and figures: this would be his morning's work; in the afternoon he would enlarge this sketch, elaborating it according to rule, but taking pains to preserve the unity of the idea. 'That is where so many young composers fail,' he says; 'they string together a number of fragments; they break off almost as soon as they have begun; and so at the end the listener carries away no definite impression.' He also objected to composers not learning to sing, 'Singing is almost one of the forgotten arts, and that is why the instruments are allowed to overpower the voices.' The subject of melody he regarded very seriously. 'It is the air which is the charm of music,' he said to Michael Kelly,[39] 'and it is that which is most difficult to produce. The invention of a fine melody is a work of genius.'

Like many other creative artists, Haydn disliked æstheticism, and all mere talk about Art. He had always a bad word for the critics with their 'sharp-pointed pens' ('spitzigen und witzigen Federn'), especially those of Berlin, who used him very badly in early life. His words to Breitkopf, when sending him the Creation, are very touching, as coming from a man of his estatablished reputation, 'My one hope and prayer is, and I think at my age it may well be granted, that the critics will not be too hard on my Creation, and thus do it real harm.' He had of course plenty of detractors, among others Kozehich and Kreibig, who represented him to the Emperor Joseph II. as a mere mountebank. Even after he had met with due recognition abroad, he was accused of trying to found a new school, though his compositions were at the same time condemned as for the most part hasty, trivial, and extravagant. He sums up his own opinion of his works in these words, 'Sunt mala mixta bonis; some of my children are well-bred, some ill-bred, and here and there there is a changeling among them.' He was perfectly aware of how much he had done for the progress of art; 'I know,' he said, 'that God has bestowed a talent upon me, and I thank Him for it; I think I have done my duty, and been of use in my generation by my works; let others do the same.'

He was no pedant with regard to rules, and would acknowledge no restrictions on genius. 'If Mozart wrote thus, he must have had a good reason for it,' was his answer when his attention was drawn to an unusual passage in one of Mozart's quartets. With regard to Albrechtsberger's condemnation of consecutive fourths in strict composition he remarked, 'What is the good of such rules? Art is free, and should be fettered by no such mechanical regulations. The educated ear is the sole authority on all these questions, and I think I have as much right to lay down the law as any one. Such trifling is absurd; I wish instead that some one would try to compose a really new [40]minuet.' And again to Dies, 'Supposing an idea struck me as good, and thoroughly satisfactory both to the ear and the heart, I would far rather pass over some slight grammatical error, than sacrifice what seemed to me beautiful to any mere pedantic trifling.' Even during Haydn's lifetime his compositions became the subject of a real worship. Many distinguished men, such as Exner of Zittau, Von Mastiaux of Bonn, Gerber, Bossier, Count Fuchs, Baron du Baine, and Kees the Court Secretary of Vienna, corresponded with him with a view to procuring as many of his works as possible for their libraries. There is great significance in the sobriquet of 'Papa Haydn,' which is still in general use, as if musicians of all countries claimed descent from him. One writer declares that after listening to Haydn's compositions he always felt impelled to do some good work; and Zelter said they had a similar effect upon him.

Haydn's position in the history of music is of the first importance. When we consider the poor condition in which he found certain important departments of music, and, on the other hand, the vast fields which he opened to his successors, it is impossible to over-rate his creative powers. Justly called the father of instrumental music, there is scarcely a department throughout its whole range in which he did not make his influence felt. Starting from Emmanuel Bach, he seems, if we may use the expression, forced in between Mozart and Beethoven. All his works are characterised by lucidity, perfect finish, studied moderation, avoidance of meaningless phrases, firmness of design, and richness of development. The subjects principal and secondary, down to the smallest episodes, are thoroughly connected, and the whole conveys the impression of being cast in one mould. We admire his inexhaustible invention as shown in the originality of his themes and melodies; the life and spontaneity of the ideas; the clearness which makes his compositions as interesting to the amateur as to the artist; the child-like cheerfulness and drollery which charm away trouble and care.

Of the Symphony he may be said with truth to have enlarged its sphere, stereotyped its form, enriched and developed its capacities with the versatility of true genius. Like those which Mozart wrote after studying the orchestras of Munich, Mannheim, and Paris, Haydn's later symphonies are the most copious in ideas, the most animated, and the most delicate in construction. They have in fact completely banished those of his predecessors.

The Quartet he also brought to its greatest perfection. 'It is not often,' says Otto Jahn, 'that a composer hits so exactly upon the form suited to his conceptions; the quartet was Haydn's natural mode of expressing his feelings.' The life and freshness, the cheerfulness and geniality which give the peculiar stamp to these compositions at once secured their universal acceptance. It is true that scientific musicians at first regarded this new element in music with suspicion and even contempt, but they gradually came to the conclusion that it was compatible not only with artistic treatment, but with earnestness and sentiment. 'It was from Haydn,' said Mozart, 'that I first learned the true way to compose quartets.' His symphonies encouraged the formation of numerous amateur orchestras; while his quartets became an unfailing source of elevated pleasure in family circles, and thus raised the general standard of musical cultivation.

Encouraged partly by the progress made by Emmanuel Bach on the original foundation of Kuhnau and Domenico Scarlatti, Haydn also left his mark on the Sonata. His compositions of this kind exhibit the same vitality, and the same individual treatment; indeed in some of them he seems to step beyond Mozart into the Beethoven period. His clavier-trios also, though no longer valuable from a technical point of view, are still models of composition. On the other hand, his accompanied divertimenti, and his concertos, with a single exception, were far surpassed by those of Mozart, and have long since disappeared.

His first collections of Songs were written to trivial words, and can only be used for social amusement; but the later series, especially the canzonets, rank far higher, and many of them have survived, and are still heard with delight, in spite of the progress in this particular branch of composition since his day. The airs and duets composed for insertion in various operas were essentially ephemeral productions. His canons—some serious and dignified, others overflowing with fun—strikingly exhibit his power of combination. His three-part and four-part songs—like the canons, especial favourites with the composer—are excellent compositions, and still retain their power of arousing either devotional feeling or mirth.

His larger Masses are a series of masterpieces, admirable for freshness of invention, breadth of design, and richness of development, both in the voice-parts and the intruments. The cheerfulness which pervades them does not arise from frivolity, but rather from the joy of a heart devoted to God, and trusting all things to a Father's care. He told Carpani that 'at the thought of God, his heart leaped for joy, and he could not help his music doing the same.' And to this day, difficult as it may seem to reconcile the fact with the true dignity of church music, Haydn's masses and offertories are executed more frequently than any others in the Catholic churches of Germany.

Frequent performances of his celebrated Oratorios have familiarised every one with the charm and freshness of his melody, and his expressive treatment of the voices, which are invariably supported without being overpowered by refined and brilliant orchestration. In these points none of his predecessors approached him. With regard to his operas composed for Esterház, we have already quoted his own opinion; they attained their end. Had his project of visiting Italy been fulfilled, and his faculties been stimulated in this direction by fresh scenes and a larger sphere, we might have gained some fine operas, but we should certainly have lost the Haydn we all so dearly love.

When we consider what Haydn did for music, and what his feelings with regard to it were—the willing service he rendered to art, and his delight in ministering to the happiness of others—we can but express our love and veneration, and exclaim with gratitude, 'Heaven endowed him with genius—he is one of the immortals.'

The Haydn literature contains the following books and pamphlets:

Biographical Sketches, by himself (1776), made use of by De Luca in Das gelehrte Oesterreich'(1778), also in Forkel's 'Musikalischer Almanach for Deutschland' (1783), the 'European Magazine' (London 1784); Burney's 'History of Music,' vol. iv. (1789); Gerber's Lexicon' (1790), with additional particulars in the 2nd edition (1812); 'Musik-Correspondenz der teutschen Filarm. Gesellschaft' for 1792, Nos. 17 and 18 by Gerber; 'Journal des Luxus und der Moden' (Weimar 1806), article by Bertuch; Mayer's 'Brevi notizie istoriche; delta vita … di G. Haydn' (Bergamo 1809); Kinker's 'Der Nagedachtenis van J. Haydn' (Amsterdam 1810); Griesinger's 'Biographische Notizen' (Leipzig 1810): Dies' 'Biographische Nachrichten' (Vienna 1810); obituary in the 'Vaterland. Blätter für den öst. Kaiserstaat' (Vienna 1809); Arnold's 'Joseph Haydn.' etc. (Erfurt 1810, 2nd edition 1825), and 'Mozart und Haydn' (Erfurt 1810); Framery's 'Notice sur J. Haydn,' etc. (Paris 1810); Le Breton's 'Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de Haydn' (Paris 1810)—first appeared in the 'Moniteur,' then as a pamphlet reprinted in the 'Bibliographie musicale' (Paris 1822), translated into Portuguese with additions by Silva-Lisboa (Rio Janeiro 1820); 'Essai historique sur la vie de J. Haydn' (Strassbourg 1812); Carpaul's 'Le Haydine,' etc. (Milan 1812, 2nd edition enlarged, Padua 1823); 'Lettres écrites de Vienne en Autriche, etc.' L. A. C. Bombet (Paris 1814), republished as 'Vie de Haydn, Mozart, et Metastase,' par Stendhal[41] (Paris 1817); Grosser's 'Biogr. Notizen' (Hirschberg 1836); Ersch und Gruber's 'Allg. Encyclopadie der Wissenschaften und Künste 2nd section, 3rd part' (Leipzig 1808), with a biographical sketch by Fröhlich; the article in Fétis' 'Biographie univ. des Musiciens'; 'Allg. Wiener Musikzeitung' (1843); 'J. Haydn in London 1791 and 1792.' von Karajan (Vienna 1861); 'Joseph Haydn und sein Bruder Michael.' Wurzbach (Vienna 1811); Ludwig's 'Joseph Haydn' (Nordhausen 1867); C. F. Pohl's 'Mozart und Haydn in London' (Vienna 1867); C. F. Pohl's 'Joseph Haydn' (from the archives at Eisenstadt and Forchtenstein, and other new and authentic sources), vol. i. B. & H. 1875.-Critiques:—by Triest in the 'Leipziger allg. mus. Zeitung' 1801; 8chubart's 'Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst' (Vienna 1806); Reichardt's 'Vertraute Briefe' (Amsterdam 1810); Nägell's 'Vorlesungen über Musik' (Stuttgart and Tübingen 1826); Musik. Briefe … von einem Wohlbekannten (Lobe) (Leipzig (1852), Letter 28; Riehl's 'Musikal. Charakterköpfe' (Stuttgart 1862); 'Joseph Haydn und seine fürstlichen Mäcene,' by Dr. Lorenz, in the 'Deutsche Musikzeitung' for 1862; 'Brief Haydn's an die Tonkünstler-Societät' (Signale 1865); 'Musikerbriefe,' by by Nohl (Leipzig 1867); annals of the 'Wiener Diarium' (afterwards the 'Wiener Zeitung').

The following is a list of Haydn's compositions—printed, copied, and autograph—with others mentioned in various catalogues.

I. Instrumental. [42]Symphonies, including overtures to operas and plays, 125; 'The Seven Words from the [43]Cross'; various compositions for wind and strings, separately and combined, 66, including divertimenti, concerted pieces, etc., 7 notturnos for the lyre, serenades, 7 marches, 6 scherzandos, 1 sestet, several quintets, 1 'Echo' for 4 violins and 2 cellos, 'Feldpartien' for wind instruments, and arrangements from baryton pieces; 12 collections of minuets and allemandes; 31 concertos—9 violin, 6 cello, 1 double bass, 5 lyre, 3 baryton, 2 flute, 3 horn, 1 for 2 horns, 1 clarino (1796). Baryton [44]pieces, 175. 1 duet for 2 lutes; 2 trios for lute, violin and cello; 1 sonata for harp, with flute and bass; several pieces for a musical clock; a solo for harmonica. Duets—6 for violin solo with viola accompaniment.[45] Trios, 30: 20 are for 2 violins and bass; 1 for violin solo, viola concertante, and bass; 2 for flute, violin, and bass; 3 for 3 flutes; 1 for corno di caccia, violin, and cello. Quartets for 2 violins, viola, and cello, 77; the first 18 were published in 3 series, the next is in MS. then one printed separately, 54 in 9 series of 6 Nos. each, 2 more, and the last.[46] Clavier—20 [47]concertos and divertimenti; 38 [48]trios—35 with violin and cello, 3 with flute and cello; 53 sonatas[49] and divertimenti; 4 sonatas[50] for clavier and violin; 9 smaller pieces, including 5 Nos. of variations, a capriccio, a fantasia, 2 adagios, and 'Différentes petites pièces'; 1 duet (variations).

II. Vocal. Church music—14 Masses; 1 Stabat Mater; 2 Te Deums; 13 [51]offertoires, and 4 motets; 1 Tantum ergo; 4 Salve Reginas; 1 Regina cœli; 2 Ave Reginas; Responsoria de Venerabili; 1 Cantilena pro Adventu (German words); 6 sacred arias; 2 duets. Oratorios and cantatas—'The Creation'; 'The Seasons'; 'Il Ritorno di Tobia'; 'The Seven Words'; 'Invocation of Neptune'; 'Applausus musicus' (for the festival of a prelate, 1768); cantata for the birthday of Prince Nicolaus, (1763): 'Die Erwählung eines Kapellmeisters,' a cantata. Operas—1 German, or more correctly, Singspiel; 4 Italian comedies; 14 ditto, buffe; 5 marionette operas; music for 'Alfred,' a tragedy, and various other plays; 22 airs, mostly inserted in operas; 'Ariana a Naxos,[52] cantata for single voice and P.F.; Deutschland's Klage auf den Tod Friedrichs des Grossen,' cantata for a single voice with baryton accompaniment. Songs—12 German Lieder, 1782; 12 ditto, 1784; 12 single ones (5 unpublished); 6 'Original canzonets,' London 1796; 6 ditto; 'The Spirit Song,' Shakspeare, F minor; 'O tuneful Voice,' E♭, composed for an English lady of position, both published; 3 English songs in MS.; 2 duets; 3 3-part and 10 4-part songs; 3 choruses, MS.; 1 ditto from 'Alfred' (Breitkopf & Härtel); the Austrian national anthem, for single voice and in 4 parts; 42 canons in 2 and more parts; 2 ditto; 'The Ten Commandments,' set to canons; the same, with different words, under the title 'Die zehn Gesetze der Kunst'; 'A Selection of original Scots songs in 3 parts, the harmony by Dr. J. Haydn,' with violin and bass accompaniments and symphonies;[53] 'A select Collection of Original Welsh Airs in 3 parts.'[54]

Supposititious and doubtful works. Instrumental—Several symphonies and concerted pieces; the 'Kunstquartet,' with different movements, by André, entitled 'Poissons d'Avril"; the [55]'Ochsenmenuett'; 'Sei quartetti, Opera xxi' (Paris, Durieu); 'Sei quintetti, Opera xxii' (Paris, Le Chevardière). 1 string quintet in C, published as op. 88 (by Michael Haydn); 1 Clavier-trio in C (M. Haydn); Sonata, op. 93, No. 2 (by Cambini); 'Sonates à quatre mains,' op. 77, 81, 86, merely arrangements from symphonies. Vocal—2 Requiems; 4 Masses (Novello 9, 10, 13, 14); 'Schulmeistermesse'; several MS. Masses; Te Deum in C, 3-4 tempo (by M. Haydn); Miserere in G minor; 2 Liberas; MS. Oratorio, 'Abramo ed Isacco' (by Misliweczek); 2 'Passions-Oratorien,' MS.; 1 'Applausus musicus,' 1763, and 'Aria de St. Joanne de Nepomuk,' 1763 (both MS., by Albrechtsberger). Cantatas—'An die Freude,' found recently; 'Das Erndtefest'; Des Dichters Geburtsfest'; 'Hier liegt Constantia.' Operas—'Alessandro il Grande,' 1780, pasticcio from Haydn and other composers; 'Laurette,' opéra comique (Paris 1791), a pasticcio; 'La caffetiera bizarra,' (by Weigl); Die Hochzelt auf der Alm (M. Haydn); 'Der Apfeldieb,' Singspiel (by Tast, also set by Bierrey); 'Der Freybrief,' partially adapted from Haydn's 'La Fedelta premiata,' by Fridolin Weber (C. M. von Weber afterwards added [56]two numbers); 'Die Bauchfangkehrer,' by Salieri; 'La Fée Urgéle' (by Pleyel) also set by Amans and Schulz. Terzet for men's voices, 'Lieber, holder, kleiner Engel,' (by Schickaneder); comic canon 'Venerabili barbara capucinorum,' (by Gassmann); canon, 'Meine Herren, lasst uns jetzt eine Sinfonie aufführen'; proverbs for 4 voices, by André; 'Die Theilung der Erde.' a bass song by Roser (Diabelli).

In the impossibility of giving a complete thematic list of Haydn's 125 Symphonies, some particulars regarding a few of them may be useful.

I. The 12 Symphonies which he composed for Salomon's concerts, numbered in the order of their occurrence in the Catalogue of the Philharmonic Society of London.

N.B.—The dates given in inverted commas as 'Londini, 1791'—are those on the autograph scores. Those in brackets, [1792], are conjectural.

The numbers in brackets, [8], are those of Breitkopf & Härtel's edition.

The titles in inverted commas are those usual in England; those in brackets are accepted in Germany.

No. 1. [7.]
{ \time 3/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative c'' { <c e g c>4\ff r r | a4.\p \appoggiatura { b16[ a gis] } a8( b c) | g4. a16( g) g( f e d) | c4 } }

No. 2. [5.]
'Londini, 1791.'
{ \time 3/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \key d \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d' { d2\fermata\ff r8. d16 d2\fermata r4 fis'4( d a) | g8( g16. a32 b8) r8 r4 } }

'The Surprise.' [Mit dem Paukenschlag.]

No. 3. [6.]
{ \time 3/4 \key g \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d'' { <d b>4\p( <g e> <e c>) | <d b>8.( <e c>32 <c a> <b g>8) r r g | fis g c b a g | d4. } }

No. 4. [8.]
{ \time 4/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \key bes \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio } \relative b { bes2\ff des\sf f2.\sf \stemUp bes4-! ges-! bes-! ees,-! ges-! a, r8. <f' a c f>16_\markup { \dynamic ffz } <f a c f>4 r\fermata } }

No. 5. [9.]
{ \time 4/4 \key c \minor \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro Moderato." } \relative c''' { c2\ff g4-. aes-. fis-. g-. r2 r r8. g,,16\p( c8. ees16) << { ees4 d c } \\ { b2 c4 } >> } }

No. 6. [14.]
{ \time 3/4 \key d \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d'' { d2(\ff a4 fis) r8 d\p([ fis a)] d[ \grace { e16[ d cis] } d16. e32] fis8[ \grace { g16[ fis e] } fis16. g32] a8.[ d16] d4( cis8) } }

No. 7.[57] [2.]
'Londini, 1795.'
{ \time 4/4 \key f \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d'' { d4\ff d8.. d32 a'2\fermata | d,4 d8.. d32 a2\fermata | << { r2 r8 d16. c32 c8-.( c-.) } \\ { d,4\p d8.. e32 e2 } >> } }

[Mit dem Paukenwirbel.]

No. 8. [1.]
{ \time 3/4 \clef bass \key ees \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative e, { \repeat tremolo 12 { ees32[ ees']\fermata\espressivo } ees4\p( d ees) c( aes' f) d( bes' aes) g } }

No. 9. [12.]
'Sinfonia in B fa. 1795.'
{ \time 4/4 \key bes \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Largo. } \relative b { bes1\ff\fermata| f''4\p( bes a g) | f2. f4 f( ees8 r16 d c-.( bes-. a-. bes-.) } }

No.10.[58] [3.]
{ \time 4/4 \key ees \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative e' { <ees g,>2\ff g'4\p( f8.) d16-. ees4( bes8) r16 c32( bes) aes8-. g-. f-. ees-.) f'2\f aes4(\p g8.) ees16 f4( bes,8) } }

'The [59]Clock.'

No. ll. [4]
{ \time 3/4 \key d \minor \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d'' << { d2. ~ d2 s4 <e d b e,>2. <cis a e>\fermata } \\ { d,4\p( e f) g( a\< bes) gis,2.\ff a\p } >> }

'The Military.'

No. 12. [11.]
{ \time 4/4 \key g \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d'' { d4\p( g8) r16 d c8-. r b-. r | a2->( b8) r g4\p | a b8. e16 d4 c8.\trill b32 c | b4 \bar "||" } }

II. Symphonies which are known by titles.

The letters ('Letter A,' etc.) are those in the Philharmonic catalogue, by which these Symphonies are designated in the Society's programmes.

Symphonies marked with a * are published by Simrock, in parts, engraved from the original scores.

'Letter A.'

{ \time 4/4 \key bes \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative b { bes4\f c8. a16 d8\sf bes r8. bes'16\p | bes8.( a32 bes) c8.( bes32 c) d8-! bes-! r4 \bar "||" } }

'Letter B.' 'The Farewell Symphony.'

{ \time 3/4 \key a \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro assai." } \relative f'' { fis4-.\f cis-. a-. fis-. cis-. a-. b( d) d-. d2. } }

'Letter H.'

{ \time 3/4 \key d \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d' { \grace cis16\p d8-! r \grace cis16 d8-! r \grace cis16 d8-! r | <a' a'>4\f( cis'8 r r4 } }

'Letter I.' [Trauer.]

{ \time 4/4 \key e \minor \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro con brio." } \relative e' { e2\f b' | e4-! dis-! r b\p | c( b) r ais } }

'Letter L.'

{ \time 4/4 \key g \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Allegro } \relative g { <g d' b' g'>4\f << { r4 r2 r4 b( c) e8. d16 c4 } \\ { g'8. g16 g4 g g } >> } }

'Letter Q.' 'The Oxford.'

{ \time 3/4 \key g \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d'' { d8 r d r d r d2. ~ d4 c8( b a e') g4( fis8) } }

'Letter R.'

{ \time 3/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \partial 16 \relative c' { c16\ff c2.\fermata | e'8-!\p r d-! r r4 c8-! r b-! r r4 | <f c' a'>8\ff r <e c' g'> } }

'Letter T.'

[1787, for Paris.]
{ \time 3/4 \key ees \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Largo. } \relative e' { <ees g,>4\f r <f bes,>-! <g bes,>-! r r <aes c,> r <f aes,>-! <ees g,>-! } }

'Letter V.'

[1787. for Paris.]
{ \time 3/4 \key g \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \partial 16 \relative g' { <g g,>16\f <g g,>8 r <b d, g,> r r8. <b d,>16 <c d,>8 r <a' c, d,> r r8. c,16 } }

'Letter W.'

{ \time 4/4 \key f \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Vivace. } \relative f'' { <f a,>4\f r <a c, f,> r <c c, f,> <a c, f,> <f a,> r c2\p( a4 f) } }

'La Reine de France.'

[1786. for Paris.]
{ \time 4/4 \key bes \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio.} \partial 16 \relative b' { <bes bes'>16\ff <bes bes'>4 r8. a,16-! bes8.-! cis16-! d8.-! fis16-! g2^"ten." r4 r8. g'16 g4 } }

'La Chasse.'

{ \time 3/4 \key d \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Larghetto. } \relative a' { <a fis>2.:8\p d8-. r a-. r fis-. r a' r fis r d r } }

(Overture to 'Il Mondo della luna.')

{ \time 3/4 \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Allegro. } \relative c'' { c2. e2 c4 g'2( e8. c16) a'4-! f-! d-! } }

'La Poule.'

[1786. for Paris.]
{ \time 4/4 \key g \minor \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro spiritoso." } \relative g'' { g2\ff bes cis\sf d4 d8. d16 d4 a8. a16 a4 d,8. d16 d4 } }


{ \time 3/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Vivace assai." } \relative c'' { c4:16\f e: g: c: e8 r r4 g,4: c8 r r4 e,4: g8 r r4 } }

'Maria Theresa.'

{ \time 4/4 \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Allegro. } \relative c''' { c8\f c, c c c4 \acciaccatura e8 d8 c16 d c8 e e f g4 r } }


{ \time 4/4 \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Vivace. } \relative c'' { <c e g c>4\f c8\p c c4 c c2 \acciaccatura e8 d4( c8 d) <e c>4.( <f d>8 <g e>4) <f d> <f d>( <e c>) <d b g>2 } }

'The Schoolmaster.'

{ \time 3/4 \key ees \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro di molto." } \relative g { <g ees' ees'>4\f <g ees'> <g ees'> <g ees'> r <g' ees>\p <g ees>2( <aes f>4) <g ees>4( <f d>) <g ees> } }

'Le Matin.'

{ \time 4/4 \key d \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative d' { d8.\pp e32( cis) d8. e32( cis) d8.( cis16) d16. cis32 d16. e32 fis8. g32( e) fis8. g32( e) fis8.( e16) fis16. e32 fis16. g32 } }

'Le Midi.'

{ \time 4/4 \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative c'' { <c e, g,>4\f r8 g-.\p a-. b-. c-. d-. | <e c g c,>4\f r8 g-.\p f-. e-. d-. f-. | <e c g c,>4\f r8 a-.\p f-. e-. d-. c-. } }

'Le Soir.'

{ \time 3/8 \key g \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro molto." } \relative d'' { d8-. d-. d-. b-. c-. d-. d-. e-. c-. b4 r8 d-. d-. d-. b-. c-. d-. } }

'Il Distrato.'
(Overture to 'Der Zerstreute.')

{ \time 2/4 \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative g { <g e' c'>4\f c8. c16 c4 c16( d32 e f g a b) c8-. r e-. r g-. r } }


{ \time 4/4 \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Allegro. } \relative c'' { c4\f e8 d c4 g'8 f e4 a8 g f4 e d8 f16 d c8 b c4 e8 d } }


{ \time 3/4 \key ees \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Allegro. } \relative g { <g ees' ees'>4\f ees'\p ees ees2 \acciaccatura g8 f8( ees) ees4 c' c8( bes) bes4 r r } }

'Der Philosoph.'

{ \time 4/4 \key ees \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative e' { ees8-.\p bes-. g-. bes-. ees-. bes-. g-. ees'-. d c bes aes g ees' g ees f ees c d ees f g c } }

'La Passione.'

{ \time 3/4 \key f \minor \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Adagio. } \relative c' { c4\p( des) bes c( f) aes g( bes) e, f aes2 } }

(Probably Overture to 'Die Feuersbrunst.')

{ \time 4/4 \key a \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Presto. } \partial 8 \relative a'' { a8\f << { a,2:8 a: a: a:16 a: a:8 } \\ { a,4 r8 fis'-. e-. d-. cis-. b-. cis-. d-. e-. fis-. g4 r fis r gis! r } >> } }


'London, 1792.'
{ \time 4/4 \key bes \major \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic Allegro. } \relative f' { f2.\p d'8( bes) | ees4.( c8) a4 r8 f bes[ \grace { c16[ bes a] } bes8] d[ bes] g[ \grace { a16[ g fis] } bes8] bes[ g] f4. ees } }


{ \time 4/4 \key d \minor \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro assai con spirito." } \relative d' { d8\p d4 d d d8 ~ d f4 e d a8 bes bes4 bes bes bes8 ~ bes g'4 f e a,8 } }

  1. Von Reutter was advanced to the post in 1746.
  2. See the themes, p. 721, 722.
  3. Afterwards married to Schicht, Cantor of the Thomas-schule at Leipzig.
  4. 'Tobia' was rearranged by Neukomm in 1808. and performed at the Tonkünstler Societät concerts.
  5. The Symphony was published in parts by Sieber (No. 14); a new edition by Simrock (37); in score by Le Duc (9); and for 4 hands Trautwein (28). André's edition is the Finale only, transposed into E minor.
  6. Fétis says that her death, 1790, induced Haydn particularly to go to London!
  7. Polzelli's two daughters are still living at Pesth.
  8. She was present at the well-known competition between Clementi and Mozart.
  9. In the possession of the Sacred Harmonic Society of London, catalogue No. 185.
  10. Kelly, Reminiscences, i. 221, calls it Eisenstadt by mistake.
  11. Though often included among his quartets, it has nothing to do with them. It was first published alone by Artaria, but was afterwards omitted from his authorised series of Haydn's quartets.
  12. In G; known in the Library of the Philharmonic Society as 'Letter Q,' recently published in score and parts by Rieter-Biedermann.
  13. First circulated in MS. in 1776, afterwards printed by Artaria, now reprinted by André.
  14. André has lately republished a fine one in D, 1781.
  15. It has been reprinted by André for solo, and with orchestra, and recently arranged for 4 hands by Rieter-Biedermann.
  16. 'Verses on the arrival of the Great Musician Haydn in England.'
  17. He had taken a new Symphony with him, but that in G (Letter Q, 1787 or 8) was substituted, owing to the time being too short for rehearsals.
  18. The autograph, the gift of Griesinger, is preserved in the Museum of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna.
  19. An ancestor of the present Thomas Brassey, Esq., M. P.
  20. See Pohl's 'Haydn in London' p. 157.
  21. This his first composition to English words, became very popular as an Offertorium in churches. Scores and parts, Breitkopf, Simrock, etc.
  22. This sonata, published by H. Caulfield, has never been printed in Germany. Haydn's remark on it was, 'Not yet to be printed.' The Adagio only, in F, is often reprinted separately by Holle, Peters, etc. It is given entire by Sterndale Bennett in his 'Classical Practice.'
  23. See Pohl's 'Haydn in London.' 218–233.
  24. Trautwein, score No. 20; Beethoven's MS. is in the possession of Artaria. See the Sale Catalogue, No. 112, given in Thayer, 'Chronologisches Verzeichniss,' p. 177.
  25. No. 4. B♭, sold among Beethoven's remains—Sale Catalogue, No. 189.
  26. This name is closely associated with that of Haydn from 1766, the date of Joseph Elssler's marriage at Eisenstadt, at which Haydn assisted. Joseph was a native of Silesia, and music copyist to Prince Esterhazy. His children mere taken into the 'chapel' on Haydn's recommendation, and the second son, Johannes (born at Eisenstadt 1769), lived the whole of his life with him, first as copyist and then as general servant and factotum. He accompanied Haydn on his second journey to London, and tended him in his last years with the greatest care. Despite the proverb that 'no man is a hero to his valet,' Haydn was to Elssler a constant subject of veneration, which he carried so far that when he thought himself unobserved he would stop with the censer before his master's portrait, as if it were the altar.
    Elssler copied a large amount of Haydn's music, partly in score, partly in separate parts, much of which is now treasured as the autograph of Haydn, though the handwriting of the two are essentially different. He survived his master 34 years and died at Vienna June 12, 1843, in the enjoyment of 6000 florins which Haydn bequeathed to him as a 'true and honest servant.' His elder brother Joseph, oboe at Esterhaz, died at Vienna, also in 1843. Johann married Therese Prinster, whose brothers Anton and Michael were horn-players, and the pride of the Esterhazy orchestra. From this union came (1) Johann, born 1802, died (as chorus-master at the Berlin Theatre Royal) 1872; (2) Therese, born April 5, 1808, and (3) Franziska, born June 23, 1810—all natives of Vienna. Both daughters were danseuses. Therese was made Frau von Barnim by the King of Prussia, married Prince Adalbert, and died at Heran, Nov. 20,1878; while Franziska, better known as Fanny Elssler, was one of the greatest dancers of her time. She is still living in complete seclusion at Vienna (1879).
  27. Till 1799, when the undertaking failed, Salomon continued to perform Haydn's symphonies, with his permission, at these open concerts.
  28. No. 2 was composed 1796 'In tempore bellí,' and called the 'Paukenmesse,' because in the Agnus the drums are introduced. No. 3 was composed 1797: known in England as the Imperial Mass, but in Germany as 'Die Nelsonmesse,' because it is said to have been performed during Nelson's visit to Eisenstadt in 1800; he asked Haydn for his pen, and gave him his own gold watch in exchange.
  29. Much frequented in later years by Beethoven (see his letters to Zmeskall). It was the scene of the adventure with the waiter (Ries, p. 121).
  30. The music was re-composed in 1796 but never used, and the 'Chor der Däuen,' for men's voices, is the only number published (Breitkopf, 1810).
  31. Score and parts in Rieter-Biedermann's new edition.
  32. First published in score by Breitkopf & Härtel.
  33. See Mendelssohn's letter to Rebecca Dirichlet (Feb. 1838). 'First we played Haydn's trio in C, and set everybody wondering that anything so fine was In existence; and yet Breitkopf & Härtel printed it long ago!'
  34. First published by Traeg.
  35. Dedicated to Count Maurice de Fries. Haydn gave it to Griesinger saying. 'It is my last child, and not unlike me.'
  36. 'Fled for ever is my strength;
    Old and weak am I!'

    Abbé Stadler made a canon out of these lines by adding two more—

    'Doch was Sie erschaf bleibt stets,
    Ewig ist dein Ruhm.'
    'But what thou hast achieved stands fast;
    Lasting is thy fame.'

  37. No. 133 in Cherubini's own Catalouge
  38. Lavater made one of his most characteristic remarks on receiving a sillhouette of Haydn.
  39. 'Reminiscences,' London 1826, i. 190.
  40. Was this before or after the appearance of Bethoven's Symphony No. 1?
  41. Bombet and Stendhal are pseudonyms of Henri Beyle, who stole freely from Carpani. The first of three pamphlets was translated into English (by Gardiner). 'The Life of Haydn in a series of letters.' etc. (London, John Murray, 1817. Boston 1829). Mondo's French translation of Carpani's larger work appeared in Paris 1837.
  42. 94 are published in parts, 40 in score; 29 remain in MS. P.F. arrangements for 2 hands about 40, for 4 about 60, for 8 about 10.
  43. Originally for orchestra; arranged first for 2 violins, viola, and bass, then for soli, chorus, and orchestra.
  44. Arrangements were published of several of those in 3 parts, with violin (for which the flute is occasionally substituted), viola, or cello as principal.
  45. The numerous printed duets or 2 violins are only arrangements from his other works.
  46. The arrangement of the 'Seven Words' is wrongly included in the collections.
  47. One concerto is with principal violin; two only, G and D. have been printed; the last alone survives.
  48. Only 31 are printed.
  49. Only 35 are printed; the one in C, containing the Adagio in F, included in all the collections of smaller pieces, only in London.
  50. 8 are published, but 4 of these are arrangements.
  51. 10 of the 13 are taken from other compositions, with Latin text added.
  52. Published by Simrock with orchestral accompaniment by Schneider (?), and with clavier accompaniment, and Italian, German, and French words.
  53. London: printed for W. Napier. Dedicated by permission to H.R.H. the Duchess of York. Vol. I. contains 100, Vol. II. 100 Vol. III. 47. Haydn's own catalogue mentions 364, some of which were published by Thomson & Whyte of Edinburgh.
  54. Printed by Preston, vol. I. 20, vol. II. 17, vol. III. 4.
  55. The Ox's minuet-the title of a Singspiel founded on the well-known anecdote, set to a pasticcio from Haydn's compositions, and long popular.
  56. See, Jähns's Catalogue, Nos. 78, 79.
  57. Haydn has headed the MS. 'Sinfonia in D, the 12th which I have composed in England.'
  58. Composed in Vienna.
  59. Referring to the Andante.
  60. The Adagio contains the Ecclesiastical Melody for Passion Week.