Lecky, W. E. H., History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, 2 vols. (originally published in 1865). White, A. D., A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, 2 vols., 1896. Robertson, J. M., A Short History of Free-thought, Ancient and Modern, 2 vols., 1906. [Comprehensive, but the notices of the leading freethinkers are necessarily brief, as the field covered is so large. The judgments are always independent.] Benn, A. W., The History of English Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols., 1906. [Very full and valuable.]
Gomperz, Th., Greek Thinkers (English translation), 4 vols. (1901–12).
Stephen, Leslie, History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, vol. i, 1881.
French Freethinkers of Eighteenth Century
Morley, J., Voltaire; Diderot and the Encyclopædists; Rousseau (see above, Chapter VI).
Rationalistic Criticism of the Bible
Articles in Encyclopædia Biblica, 4 vols. Duff, A., History of Old Testament Criticism, 1910. Conybeare, F. C., History of New Testament Criticism, 1910.
Persecution and Inquisition
Lea, H., A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, 3 vols., 1888; A History of the Inquisition of Spain, 4 vols., 1906. Haynes, E. S. P., Religious Persecution, 1904. For the case of Ferrer see Archer, W., The Life, Trial and Death of Francisco Ferrer, 1911, and McCabe, J., The Martyrdom of Ferrer, 1909.
Ruffini, F., Religious Liberty (English translation), 1912. The essays of L. Luzzatti. Liberty of Conscience and Science (Italian), are suggestive.