A grammar of the Teloogoo language/Chapter 5

CHAPTER FIFTH.


VERBS.

Teloogoo verbs are of four kinds; neuter, active, passive, and causal.

These verbs are divided into two parts, the affirmative, and the negative; and each of these two parts has an indicative mood, an imperative mood, participles, and a verbal noun. The affirmative verb has an infinitive, but the negative verb has none.

INDICATIVE.

The indicative mood, in the affirmative verb, has, properly, only four 304 tenses ; the present, the past, the future, and the aorist. In the negative verb, the aorist is the only tense. Each of these tenses has two numbers, the singular and the plural ; and in each number there are three persons; but there is no distinction of gender, except in the third person. In the singular number of most of the tenses, the third person masculine is distinguished from the third person feminine and neuter, both of which are the same. In the plural, the third person masculine and feminine are one ; and the neuter is, in general, different from both. In a few cases, however, the third person is the same for all genders. C3 ^

IMPERATIVE.

The imperative has two numbers ; the singular and the plural. This mood, in the affirmative verb, has two persons ; the 2d in the singular, and the 1st and 2<1 in the plural. In the negative verb, it has the 2d person only in each number.

PARTICIPLES.

The participles are of two distinct kirtds : the one we shall denominate verbal, and the othei 1 rekitive, participles. The affirmative verb hag two verbil participles ; the present and (lie past, 307 The negative verb has one only, indefinite as to time. These verbal participles require the addition of some personal termination, or of some tense of another verb, in order to distinguish number and person. They can never be used as adjectives, or substantives, like the English participles, in such phrases as, the sounding shore, by promising, in speaking, &c. &c. they must almost invariably be followed by a personal termination, or be governed by some tense of a verb; as in the phrases, frowning she speaks, pleased he departed, wondering he stands. The words frowning, pleased, and wondering, represent the Teloogoo verbal participle; and the words speaks, departed, and stands, the Teloogoo governing verb.

308

In the affirmative verb, there are three relative participles; the present, the past, and the indefinite; in the negative verb the indefinite only. They admit of no personal teminations, they can precede no verb, and are termed relative participles, because the power of the English relative pronoun who, which, that, is inherent in them: they therefore always refer to some noun or pronoun with which they agree, as adjectives: thus, a tree which grows, a horse that leaps, would be expressed in Teloogoo by the relative participles; viz. (Telugu characters) a growing tree, (Telugu characters) a leaping horse. In order that the reader may recollect that our relative pronouns are inherent in this part of the Teloogoo verb, the relative that (selected, as agreeing promiscuously with all genders) will be prefixed to it in English; thus, that leaps, that grows, &c.

VERBAL NOUNS.

309

The verbal nouns are declinable substantives, expressing the action itself which is signified by the verb. Those terminating in (Telugu characters) follow the rules for the second declension; and those ending in any other syllable, are declined like nouns of the third declension.




310

The origin of every part of the Teloogoo verb may be traced to that crude form of it termed the (Telugu characters) root; which is sometimes also an abstract noun, and, in the common dialect, is often the 2d person singular of the affirmative imperative. It always ends in (Telugu characters); thus,

OK VERBS. to near > to ^ s toprevent, to oppose. o* console, to comfort. to oppose. 80 &... ............................................ fo/>0wr. ............................ to venture, to dare. to bless. to lie down. . .................... to think. GC-J& .................................................... to induce, to excite. to fly. ... ....................................... to be twisted* . ............................ to shine. to make a noise, to bark. . .......................... to make- i .......... to write. 38cS58o .......... , .............................................. to rain. to ask. . ...................................... to thunder. , ....................... to fly. to clean, to wash. to study, to read. to icandeT) to turn back. to grow. .... .............. , ................................... to spin.

It is necessary to remark that, although the Teloogoo root has been translated with to* the sign of the English infinitive, it is never used in an infinitive signification. 94 TELOOGOO GRAMMAR.

312 From the root thus terminating in *0 , are formed the verbal participles, and the infinitive of the affirmative verb ; and from these three principal parts of the verb, viz. the root, the verbal participles, and the infinitive of the affir- mative verb, spring all the rest of it's parts, both affirmative, and negative, as shewn in the following table. OP VERBS. 95

THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB.

From the root in ^, the present verbal participle is formed, by adding & 313 in the superior, and & in the inferior dialect ; thus, $~ k* 3 , to beat, makes S^kg *$> or ^^>^),beatinff> The participle &c&^ from the root &o2Sb to be, may be added,, as an auxiliary, to each of these participles, which, by the rules for Sund.hi, make -vSa-^)^ and *&><&>. respectively ; hence i $ rn ^^^^. and rt ^'S3^>^ beating.

The past verbal participle is formed by changing ^ of the root into ; in her words, as expressed in the table, by adding 9 to the root in ^> the final > being dropped: thus, from ^? to beat, comes >~&, having beaten.

The infinitive is formed by merely dropping the final ^ of the root ; thus, 315 from the root ^^> comes &*$>, to beat.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

The present tense is derived from the present verbal participles ; the past tense from the past verbal participle ; the future and the affirmative aorist from the root, and the negative aorist from the infinitive, by the addition of the affixes shewn in the table, which consist partly of certain terminations defin- ing the several persons singular and plural, partly of particles interposed between these personal terminations, and the principal parts of the verb, whence the tenses are derived.

PERSONAL TERMINATIONS.

The personal terminations of the verb are derived from the substantive pronouns.

The personal terminations of the first and second persons are, 318 For all the tenses, except the first form p thejirstform of the pa , t tmse . of the past tense ..... . ............. f Singular ...... 1 > .......................................... ..... .................... > 2sf ...} ^J"' !. .1... .!. ..I.. ........... ...... Plural ......... 1 sSbo ................................................................ ^ . 2 & ......... ,,,,,,, Mt.t... in* .................. ................. 9 96 TELOOGOO GRAMMAR.

319 Except the first form of the past tense, which merely converts the final o to * , the first person singular of all the tenses ends io &>, the termination of the pronoun ~^^> /; the second person singular, in .the same manner, terminates iu q), the final syllable of &^) thou ; the first person plural ends in &, the termination of "&>* we and the second person plural ends iu &>, the termination of xr 5o, you.

320 The personal terminations of the third person are not so regular : ihey stand thus. Pruent. Past. Future. Aorist. Negative Aorist. 1st form. 24 iorui. 1st form. 2d forict. ^ *w Singular. ' F*. <% A f ^ ... ... fv ^' .."" '"- 5o 8. 5o So ?> &>. <&

  • <y *<r o ff fls iS f&

"H

321 In the present tense, in the second form of the past, and in the negative aorist, the ,*,hird person singular ends, in the masculine, with C<J&, the final syllable of the pronouns oJC^b or "S^cSfc, he; in the feminine and neuter gender of the two first mentioned tenses, it terminates with 3, the final syllable of the pronouns ^S or &&, she or it ; but in the feminine and neuter of the last mentioned tense, it ends with &>. The first form of the past tense, and the affirmative aorist, have ?&, and the two forms of the future $, for all genders in the third person singular-

322 Except the first form of the perfect tense, which merely converts -o into 9 9 the third person plural of all the tenses in the masculine and feminine gendres ends in ?&, the final syllable of the pronouns *>&> or "ST"?^), they, in the neuter of the preset 1 1 tense, and of the second form of the past tense, it ends in S3, the final syllable of the neuter pronouns 2?> or >, they; but the other tenses have the neuter plural the same as in the weurex singular, except the negative aorist, which terminates in > OF VERBS. 97

INTERMEDIATE PARTICLES,

Before affixing the personal terminations above stated to the principal parts 323 of the verb, from which the tenses are derived ; the affirmative tenses assume certain intermediate particles, which are the same for the first and second persons both singular and plural, but are liable to variation in the third person, as shewn below. 1st and 2d persons 3d person singular. 3d person plural, singular and plural* Present o A?. /*. to & M - $ F- N. p fist form. ..8 c*- < ' _2d form. ..-jjj-o. ...... . . -*& -~ ~& * Future < , f c V Aorist... , &>

In the present tense, long * (><&> -x>) is prefixed to all the personal terminations, except the third person feminine or neuter in the singular, and the third person neuter in the plural, which prefix P^.

In the first form of the past tense, 9 is prefixed to all the personal terminations, except to those of the third person, which take ~* before them in the singular, and in the neuter plural : in the masculine and feminine plural, there is no prefix. In the second form of the past tense, ~*F* is prefixed to all the personal terminations, except the third person feminine and neuter in the singular, and the third person neuter in the plural, which prefix #".

The first form of the future prefixes ~^& to all the personal terminations, except to those of the third person singular and the neuter of the third person plural, which prefix -* &. The second form prefixes ~* to all the personal terminations ; but in the third person singular, and in the neuter of the third person plural, it may at pleasure be changed into . t

The affirmative aorist prefixes &> to all the personal terminations, except to 327 those of the third person singular, and of the neuter third person pkral, which take no prefix, 98 TELOOGOO GRAMMAR.

328 The negative aorist does not assume any prefix before the personal terminations*

PRESENT TENSE.

329 The personal terminations, connected with the intermediate particles for the present tense, are exhibited in the table ; thus, ~~ r> efo-~~ q)-~~' D c 8fc-S>^a. &c. ' When these affixes are added to the present verbal participle, in order to form the present tense, the final *^> of the participle is dropped, and the present verbal participle, in all verbs, having four forms, viz. *&- &- T&r&v^- and &o&>^, the present tense, which is formed from the participles, has also four forms, viz. T^rfo . !?"*&> - Ji>'sr" < ^> - ^"Sr^rfo & c . thus, the present verbal participles rkx>a& - T'&x>&) -^^-i^^^and S^^S&^^L. beating, respectively, make ^bg^&> &c. ~k13-*& & c . rfc-ifcT3^ifr &c. or ~^&> iy r& &c. / Sfc. beat ; but it will be seen, from the table, that the third person feminine or neuter in the singular, and the third person neuter in the plural, are not added to the participles in -v&r&^or e&Sx^, but only to those in *&> or e> : they have, therefore, only two forms ; viz. T&O^& or &bS$g&- -Sx>?5^jD or Sfc3frSS respectively ; for the conversion in the singular of <^ to o, in the common dialect, can hardly be reckoned a new form ; thus, ro tgj j &> tf^a or S^ko&^a she or it beats, {T^-tfctf^ja or r|&>S>^g> they beat. The participles in &> and -J^f5^ are both strictly grammatical, but those in e> and ^^^ are generally used in the common dialect. Of the four forms of the present tense derived from these participles, that only which is derived from the participle in ^f^. viz. -SfcTo^fc & c . j s strictly grammatical, the form derived from the grammatical participle in -&>, viz. "^rfo, i s vulgar, and it's use is confined chiefly to the religious bramins of the Northern districts : but the forms derived from the participles in &b and ^boO;^ , viz. U'cS) an d &>72P^$) &c. are in common use, and should always be selected in preference to the other forms, when we speak the language.

PAST TENSE.

330 There is not any variation in the past verbal participle, from which the two forms of the past tense are derived; their formation, as shewn in, the table, is OF VERBS. 99

therefore very simple ; &*& having beaten makes in the first form r &&> / have beaten, S^^BSS thou hast leaten c. The third person of the first form is Tlb?& he, she, or it has beaten, the 9 of ^|3 being dropped when the termination "^ &>, beginning with a vowel, is added to it. In the second form, ^""3 Lhaving beaten, makes S^lS^jfo & c . I have beaten Sfc. Both of these forms are strictly grammatical, and both are equally in common use.

FUTURE.

All the terminations added to the root, to compose the two forms of this tense, commence with vowels ; the final o of the root is therefore dropped, when they are added to it ; thus, the root ^^ makes ^~^>25^ or ^"to^), / will beat. The second form of this tense is used by the vulgar only. The first person singular of the second form of this tense must not be confounded with the third person singular in the first form of the past tense. ^ "l^^ I will beat is entirely distinct, in meaning, from ^~^ji^ he, she, or it has beaten ; but the only difference in writing or pronouncing them, is, that the ~* before r& j s long in the former, and short in the latter. It is of much importance to the reader to understand, that the two forms of the future tense are soldom used ; the present or the aorist being commonly substituted for them.

AORIST.

The formation of the affirmative aorist from the root, and of the negative aorist from the infinitive, by the addition of the affixes shewn in the table, is so simple, as scarcely to require explanation : the root ^^ makes it's affirmative aorist r k x >&>f&, 7 do beat, have beaten, or will beat ; and from the infi- GO riitive ^^ comes s^^^X), I do not beat, have not beaten, or will not beat.

IMPERATIVE, PARTICIPLES, AND VERBAL NOUNS- AFFIRMATIVE VERBS.

The afiTirmative imperative is formed by a'dding to the root&>or Sxr* for the 2d person singular ; &&x>, or in the common dialect "^55oo, for thelst person plural ; and c agb or cd for the 2d person plural : the last mentioned termination, in the common dialect, is added to the infinitive, instead of the root ; thus, from 100 TELOOGOO GBAMMAB. come ^<^M or ^ar beat thou; ^sSo, or in the GO GO CO GO common dialect ^"^^M, let us beat, ^^C^o or i^cs O r in the

  • X/ GO GO

common dialect ^^^, &ea ye; the reader, however, will bear in mind that, by rule 310, the root itself, in the common dialect, is often used as the 2d person singular of the affirmative imperative; instead of ^^>J5bo or GO -- D , therefore, we constantly say => ^ beat thou.

334 The formation of the verbal participles, in the affirmative verb, has already been explained; see rules 313 and 314: it only remains, therefore, to shew the manner in which the relative participles are formed : the present relative participle is formed from the present verbal participles in r&r^ , by changing f&>^ into <^ : there are two verbal participles in <&^ viz. the grammatical participle in "*&w^, and the common participle in *&f&^; the relative participle, therefore, has also two corresponding forms, -J&fS^and ^>f^; thus, from r 4W&3&^ L an( j ro &>o?&)&)^ beating, come ^t^ 3 "^^. and, in the common dialect, ^^^^^ that beats. The past relative participle is formed by adding the syllable ^ to the past verbal participle; thus, from g^ & having beaten, comes s &$ that has beaten; the indefinite relative partici- ple is formed by adding to the root -= &b or *"= & in the superior, and ~* or e* &3 in the common dialect, and as all these terminations commence with a vowel, the ^ final of the root must be dropped when they are added : thus, the root ^^ makes its indefinite relative participle S^^o^o or ^ l^s in the superior dialect, and in the common dialect, ^~ or ^ "fr 1 ^ that beats, has beaten, or will beat. The root itself is somtimes, in books, used as the indefinite relative participle.

335 The affirmative verbal noun is formed by adding & to the root, or in the common dialect, by adding S^sSw to the infinitive; thus, from ^^ come *"oo&o, or in the common dialect &&>x> the beating.

NEGATIVE VERB

336 The negative imperative is formed by adding to the infinitive os5bo or o&rt>, or in the common dialect ^, for the 2d person singular; and oc2& or ocd,or in the common dialect ^o<^, for the 2d person plural; thus, from ^^ to beat OF VERBS. 101 come ^k&3bo or JT>eoloj)on> O r ^^Z* beat not t/iou, and c or 60 60 O 60 or s k>$ QCS beat not ye. By adding tc the infinitive s , we form the negative verbal participle ; by adding to it $, we form the negative relative participle ; and by adding to it S5o, we form the negative verbal noun ; thus, from "~k> to beat come %~^ without beating or having beaten ; "~<^<0 that eo *-3 eo doe s not, has not, or will not beat ; and S~to*K> the not beating.

Neuter and active verbs are conjugated in the same manner : we shall, 337 therefore,treat of them conjointly ; merely distinguishing the iS^fc 3$w from the ee^3&S&o verbs : we shall afterwards submit an example of the passive verb, and shall conclude this chapter with a few remarks on the causal verb.

OF "3#3Sw VERBS.

Roots in &> or d&o undergo certain changes to which other verbs are not 338 liable : we shall, therefore, divide the verbs in to three conjugations ; the first, including all verbs the root of which terminates in 'any other syllable than <3&> or -i& ; the second, all those that have the root in cCco ; and the third, all those of which the root terminates in *&> ; and, in giving an example of each conjugation, we shall place first the correct grammatical form, the common forms following in order, as they more or less approach to it.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

All the roots ( that terminate in any other syllable than ctfw or -^ belong 339 to this conjugation ; and merely require the addition of the different termina- tions mentioned in the foregoing table.

The root ^ to beat, is selected as an example of this conjugation. 340 Hoot..,.. ....... ,...^ r ^^ common. , common.

Present verbal } g-^ ^^ ..-^^^^^^..^30 beating. participle ...... j eo ck eo eo <*' "y Past... do .......... 1 ........................ . .......... . ............... liming beaten. Infinitive .......... "? ...... ...*., ........ . ..... . ............. . ........... to beat. , , eo Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/168 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/169 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/170 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/171 TELOOGOO GRAMMAR. to say. to see, to bring forth, to buy, to take. to hear. to eat.

343 For instance, s^^b to buy, in order to form the present affirmative verbal participle, adds *&, and makes g^ok-Sb or s^rfo^ or i^o-Efc buying ; and in the affirmative aorist ^ &>&>(& or ^r&^x) or S^O&D^O. J n the second and third persons plural of the affirmative aorist, instead of i^oS&Sb, we may, by a rule applicable to these verbs only, change the a of &>, or the &> itself, into <* ; thus, ^ocSc5b or s^o.&o^, yow or they buy, did buy, or will buy; thus also S^ffo followed by ^^v^, makes ^o^f6o^ buying; and, in the perfect tense, i""*^ followed by w&, makes s^o&SiO I have bought.

344 The foregoing verbs, together with to go corrupted ......... .to fall. .<o place, to keep to laugh or smile. to suit, to Jit. to break. .to descend. may at option change -=> , at the commencement of any of the terminations mentioned in the table, into " c&>; thus, *^13?& or i^^^or^o he has bought y "~^^^ or ^^^0^^ I shall buy.

345 All the roots mentioned above as exceptions, instead of forming the past relative participle of the affirmative verb in the regular manner, may, at plea- sure, form it by changing the final *o of the root into *" and doubling the preceding consonant; thus, we say either "^ or ^^. that bought, &^<5 or e$X thatjitted.

346 The roots in r& specified in rule 342, together with the three roots in &o mentioned in rule 344, contract the second form of the past tense, in a manner peculiar to themselves ; by doubling the consonant of the second syllable, which coalesces with the vowel of the third syllable, and rejecting both the Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/173 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/174 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/175 110 TELOOOOO GRAMMAR IMPERATIVE MOOD. common. "?5r ...... buynotthou, common. VERBAL PARTICIPLE. t... without buying, or without having bought. RELATIVE PARTICIPLE. that does not, did not, or will not buy. VERBAL NOUN. the not buying. SECOND CONJUGATION IN

349 All verbs having the root in cOw-form the affirmative aorist and imperative, either in the manner explained in the table rule 312, or by changing cX&>&> of the affirmative aorist into >, and cCfotS of the affirmative imperative into & ; and, in these cases, if the vowel preceding cfcco be 9 , it must be changed into O ; thus, from "^cOw to do comes ' : ScX&>&>;& O r ^^jfo I do, did, or shall do. q or "^>efs&o let us do; but the root tf&c&d, which has 9 preceding , makes &<ScX5oo2&>?& or C2&e&>;$>, and tfcld&>SS& or ^S^cS'sSM, never and ^^ifsSM.

350 In the common dialect, roots in cs&o f orm the second person of the affirmative imperative by changing the cs&> into ox> ; thus, "^cSSoo to do makes "Sooo do thou.

351 Roots in csfio, when they affix 9 ^= or -=*, or terminations beginning with these vowels, as shewn in the table, rule 312, invariably change the final syllable ctf into & or <& ; thus, the root "3ctf / ^ when ifc addg 9 tQ form the past verbal participle, makes "^ or ^ A C y^ done, and when it adds ~~&&> to forra the future, it makes "^"^2S^3 or ^"?S^> 5 & c . never -3>^& &c. when followed by & to form the verbal noun, and by ?5b i n the third person singular of the affirmative aorist, such roots change the cOoo ] n t o Joo at option

N. B. The verb S^^ has two irregular forms in imperative, viz. ^or ^^ Jw ^ ^ OM ^o3& or Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/177 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/178 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/179 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/180 OF VERBS. 115 Root. Present verbal participle. Past verbal > Infinitive. participle. (a pour. x ....... look) ......... oMcOo ....... fa graze. ____ to bear a burden- S^cOo ...... to feel disgust. .Is.cxxx) ...... 13 cfcooi&^x);^ ...... . S.^> ........ y~s^cCb ..... fo castf, to throw. SfOdBoo ...... rDcSS&o-i^^ ...... JfO^b ........ r)o5o ...... to mix. 08 ci&o ...... ^QcKS&o-ESb,^^ ...... 3oQ^> ........ o9d5o^. . ..^ ra<Vt. 22<Sci5bo ...... ^^cBoo^J^^ ...... K&& ....... i2.cCo ..... to tremble tcith fear, to [fear.

Roots in cOoo of two syllables, of which the first ends in a long vowel, often shorten that vowel ; and, in this case, double the ctfb; thus, the root ~d&> ma} 7 become 13cC&>C, the infinitive wcOo, &cJ5o &c. &c.

THIRD CONJUGATION IN -Efc.

All verbs having the root in &>, form the aorist and imperative, either in the manner explained in the foregoing table, rule 312, or by changing &&> in the affirmative aorist into $>, and -&>> in the affirmative imperative into Cf. If the root has a double ^^, the & and & are also doubled, into & and _& ; thus &>o-c$oo&> or ^^o^i^> - >>o-i&&>o or &S)o^55oo } "So^^D^j or "So e^o?^, "3a-l^> s6o or ~So__^^.

In the common dialect, the terminations-^w and SXr, in the second person singular of the affirmative imperative, are often dropped in this conjugation.

The undermentioned verbs terminating in &, likewise deviate from the 35 i) rules given in the foregoing table, (312) by forming the infinitive in *>, instead of itf, and taking ) instead of & before the terminations for the affirmative; imperative. . Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/182 OF VERBS.|117 which the following roots in (Telugu characters) admit, are those mentioned in the two first rules for this conjugation (357 & 358.) (Telugu characters)...to reckon, to think. (Telugu characters)...to attend. (Telugu characters)..to share, to divide. (Telugu characters)...to lurk, to lie in wait secretly. (Telugu characters)...to surpass, to go beyond. (Telugu characters)...to harass, to torment. (Telugu characters)...to scrape, to scratch. (Telugu characters)to take, to receive. (Telugu characters)to imagine, to think. (Telugu characters)to rob. (Telugu characters)to perform a ceremony in which a string is consecrated to a particular deity, and then tied round the arm or wrist ; it is generally performed by females. (Telugu characters)...to weigh. (Telugu characters)...to rub. (Telugu characters)......to owe. (Telugu characters)...to move a piece, as in a game of chess, 6cc. (Telugu characters)...to love, to desire. (Telugu characters)...to claw. (Telugu characters)....to string (pearls, &c.} (Telugu characters)...to dig. (Telugu characters)...to churn' (Telugu characters)...to trust, to confide. (Telugu characters)...to send, to command, to rot. (Telugu characters)...to prefer, to approve. (Telugu characters)...to break in pieces. (Telugu characters)...to say (Telugu characters)...to increase.

All other roots in (Telugu characters) have the infinitive optionally either in (Telugu characters) or in (Telugu characters), and, when followed by (Telugu characters) to form the present verbal participle, by (Telugu characters) to form certain parts of the affirmative aorist, or by the terminations for the affirmative imperative, they may, at pleasure, convert (Telugu characters) into (Telugu characters); thus, (Telugu characters), to bless, makes in the infinitive (Telugu characters) or (Telugu characters), in the present verbal participle (Telugu characters)

or (Telugu characters) in the aorist (Telugu characters), and in the imperative (Telugu characters). 

The verbs of the class last mentioned being more numerous than any others, in &, one of them has been selected as an example of this conjugation.

Root (Telugu characters) Present verbal participle (Telugu characters) (Telugu characters) common. common.

(Telugu characters) ... (Telugu characters) blessing.

Past ............ ...do ......... ....... (Telugu characters) having blessed Infinite ............................. blessing. to bless. Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/184 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/185 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/186 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/187 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/188 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/189 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/190 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/191 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/192 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/193 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/194 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/195 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/196 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/197 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/198 assume either the termination 9 o-&> or ex> ; in the former case, they are conjugated like &S)o-t& and other regular 1#S$ verbs in "^ of the 3d conjugation ; in the latter case, like &~^?, or any other verb of the 1st con- jugation. With this general rule, it will be sufficient to shew how the Teloo- goo reot is formed from the Sanscrit root.

Sanscrit roots are adopted into Teloogoo in five different ways. 370

1st, by changing the final syllable of the Sanscrit verbal noun into ? Q-C& ; for instance, the Sanscrit root ^)<^ to protect, makes it's verbal noun in Sans- crit 23* &, thj s by changing the final syllable into 9 o-J& makes the Teloogoo root Sy^axo-^ which is conjugated precisely in the same manner as &S)o-i&.

A few other examples are subjoined. 371 Sanscrit Root. Sanscrit verbal noun. Teloogoo Root. to praise. to contemplate, to meditate. Job ............. (QQ .............. ,. cv>o9o-t& ..... ............ to praise. -tobe anqry. .XSo-c& to pass, to go. .^o^oOTSb to tremble, to shake, Sfc. $4? J^ o2 f JwO$)ow to stand without motion.

2dly, by changing final 9 or ^ of Sanscrit roots into ^o^o-cfo, final o or , into ^SDo^ and final ^ or ^~ into "'So-vfc. 2 &OX3O-J& to conquer. A ^xox>o-c$3 to fie exhausted. to damp. to bear. ..to take.. to think, to rejlect, , to bear. .55"9ov&>.,,,,,, to select. Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/200 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/201 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/202 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/203 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/204 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/205 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/206 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/207 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/208 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/209 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/210 Page:A grammar of the Teloogoo language.djvu/211 146 TELOOGOO GRAMMAR. VERBAL PARTICIPLE. 3^% Q Z>$,.*... without causing to beat. RELATIVE PARTICIPLE. ."|~oSo<0 that does not, did not, or will not came to beat, VERBAL NOUN. the not causing to beat.