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Birds of North and Middle America, part V/Family Formicariidæ

 

Family FORMICARIIDÆ.

THE ANTBIRDS.

Myiotheridæ Boie, Isis, 1826, 973. — Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 471, in text.
> Eriodoridæ Cabanis, Wiegmann'a Archiv für Naturg., 1847, pt. i, 209, 336 (includea Pteroptochidæ, Pittidæ, and Menuridæ!).
> Formicariidæ Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 202; Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 170 (includes Conopophagidæ). — Carus, Handb. Zool., 1868, 268.
< Eriodoridæ Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1860, 11 (excludes Formicariidæ, part).
X Hypocnemididæ Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1860, 1 (includes Pittidæ and Conopophagidæ; excludes Formicariidæ, part).
= Formicariidæ Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 452. — Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 477. — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., A es, ii, 1892, 193.
= Formicariinæ Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reicha, Vög., ii, 1891, 276.

Tracheophone Mesomyodian Passeres with the metasternum 2- notched, tensor patagii brevis tendon normally passerine, interorbital septum perforate, postorbital process large (sometimes joining the processus squamosi), maxillopalatines strap-shaped (crossing posterior end of the olfactory fossa and passing backward beyond the level of the median descending plate of the palatine); vomer long and broad; nares holorhinal, the anterior nares inclosed by a bony wall, leaving a wide aperture at proximal end of nasal fossa between the premaxillary and the descending process of the nasal; syrinx tracheal, one pair of tracheo-bronchial muscles arising from the trachea and attached to one or more of the bronchial semirings, or else one pair inserted on distal end of the trachea; mesorhinium normal; nostrils not conspicuously (often not at all) operculate; tarsal envelope taxaspidean or holaspidean, or fused (nonscutellate); basal phalanx of middle toe more or less united to lateral toes, usually for at least half its length to outer toe, for less than half to inner toe, in some genera also united for part of second phalanx to outer toe; outer toe decidedly shorter than middle toe and slightly longer than inner toe; hallux as long as inner toe or slightly to decidedly shorter, slightly stouter to much stouter; claws moderate in size and curvature to short and slightly curved, that of the hallux always shorter than the digit; maxilla with tip more or less conspicuously uncinate, with distinct subterminal tomial notch, the mandibular tomium also notched subterminally (this notch sometimes minute or indistinct, however). Wing moderate in size to rather large, more or less conspicuously concave beneath, always much rounded, but usually with longer primaries extending decidedly beyond secondaries; tenth (outermost) primary never more than three-fourths as long as the longest, usually about three-fifths to two-thirds as long. Tail variable as to relative length, rarely longer than wing, usually shorter (sometimes less than half as long), the rectrices (usually 12, but sometimes only 10) usually rounded, never acuminate, terminally.

The Formicariidæ comprise one of the larger groups of birds peculiar to the Neotropical region, but, like several others of the same class, wholly absent from the Antillean Subregion. The group is well represented in the whole of the extensive territory extending from Costa Rica to southern Brazil, but reaches its greatest development in number of species and genera in the great valley of the Amazon and the Guianas. Dr. Sclater[1] recognizes 250 species belonging to 33 genera — numbers considerably less than those that are actually known at the present time.[2]

Among so great a number of species and genera there is, naturally, great variation in size and form. The smallest are no larger than a Gnatcatcher (Polioptila) , while the largest are fully equal to an average-sized Jay; some resemble Shrikes, others Thrushes, Wrens, Dippers, or other oscinine groups in their general appearance. They are nearly all birds of plain plumage, none having any brilliant colors, and most of the species are terrestrial, or nearly so, feeding, as their name implies, largely upon ants, though perhaps less extensively so than has been supposed; it having been stated by competent observers that some species subsist more upon various forms of insect life which the immense armies of ants, as they march across the forest floor, startle from their hiding place among the dead leaves, etc., over which they pass.

Notwithstanding their mesomyodian larynx, many of the Formicariidæ are good songsters, some of them being conspicuous for their vocal powers.

The classification of this group is very difficult, more so probably than in the case of any other American family of birds. Indeed it may be truly said that even the most recent attempts to present an orderly and natural sequence of the genera are very far from satisfactory. My effort to bring order out of chaos can be considered as only partially successful, but it is hoped that some improvement at least has been made in that direction. Undoubtedly better results would have been reached had a better representation of the genera and species been available; but unfortunately there are very many species and several recognized genera which I have not been able to examine in this connection. As in the case of many other groups, the segregation of the species into genera has been based far too much on general resemblance, and too little attention paid to structural characters. This may be said of nearly every group of birds; but in the present instance it is difficult to understand how certain associations could have been made.

KEY TO THE GENERA OF FORMICARIIDÆ.[3]

a. Planta tarsi compressed and more or less sharply ridged behind, consisting of two parallel rows of scutella or undivided lamina, whose line of contact forms a median posterior ridge. (Formicariinæ.)

b. Second phalanx of middle toe entirely free from outer toe; acrotarsium more or less distinctly scutellate (at least on inner side).
c. Nostril oval or roundish, pierced directly into the completely ossified nasal fossæ, without trace of operculum or adjacent membrane. (Thamnophileæ.)
d. Bill more swollen and relatively shorter and broader, its depth at frontal antiæ much more than one-third the length of the commissure.
e. Tail shorter than wing; tarsus shorter than commissure; plumage narrowly barred, above and below

Cymbilaimus (p. 18).

ee. Tail much longer than wing; tarsus longer than commissure; plumage spotted above, nearly unicolored (not barred) below.

Hypœdaleus (extralimital).[4]

dd. Bill less swollen, relatively longer and narrower, or else more compressed, its depth at frontal antiæ much less than one-third the length of commissure.
e. Tail much longer than wing.
f. Bill relatively longer (exposed culmen longer than middle toe without claw), much stronger, less tapering terminally, the unguis larger and more abruptly hooked; upper parts transversely barred; very large (total length 300 mm. or more)

Batara (extralimital).[5]

ff. Bill relatively smaller (exposed culmen not longer than middle toe without claw), much weaker, more tapering terminally, the unguis smaller and weaker; upper parts spotted (not barred) or immaculate; smaller (total length not more than 250 mm.).
g. Tail one and a half times as long as wing; not crested; spotted above in both sexes

Nisius (extralimital).[6]

gg. Tail much less than one and a half times as long as wing; conspicuously crested; not spotted above (adult male wholly dusky, female barred with blackish and rusty)

Lochites (extralimital).[7]

ee. Tail little if any longer (usually much shorter) than wing.
f. Toes relatively shorter, the middle toe (without claw) not longer than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla, or else tail not more than two-thirds as long as wing, and wings and tail conspicuously spotted.
g. Tail much less than two-thirds as long as wing, truncated.

Pygiptila (extralimital).[8]

gg. Tail at least two-thirds as long as wing, much rounded or graduated.
h. Tail not more, than two-thirds as long as wing; bill relatively smaller, the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla less than length of middle toe without claw; wings, tail, and upper tail-coverts conspicuously spotted with white (adult male) or buffy (female)

Megastictus (extralimital).[9]

hh. Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing; bill relatively larger, the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla greater than length of middle toe without claw; wings, tail, and upper tail-coverts with minute white or buffy spots or none at all.
i. Plumage without spots, streaks or bars (plain brownish or olive above, yellowish olive below, the wings and tail rufescent; tail much shorter than wing

Thamnistes' (p. 21).

ii. Plumage more or less spotted or streaked (adult male black with white dots on wing-coverts and small white tip to lateral rectrices, female slate color or olive, streaked with whitish; tail nearly as long as wing)

Abalius (p. 24).

ff. Toes relatively longer, the middle toe (without claw) longer than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; (tail more than two-thirds as long as wing).
g. Bill relatively much larger and stronger (exposed culmen equal to or longer than middle toe with claw), more strongly uncinate; crest more conspicuously developed.
h. Bill more compressed, its width at frontal antiæ much less than its depth at same point, and equal to less than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; larger (total length about 200 mm.); under parts white, the adult male black, the female rufous-brown, above with more or less of white on wings.

Taraba (p. 27).

hh. Bill less compressed, its width at frontal antiæ nearly if not quite equal to its depth at same point and equal to at least half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; smaller (total length not more than 170 mm.); under parts not white (except, sometimes, in part).
i. Tail more graduated; larger (total length about 170 mm.); adult male wholly black below

Othello (extralimital).[10]

ii. Tail less graduated; smaller (total length less than 150 mm.); adult males with sides and flanks white or grayish.

Hypolophus (p. 32).

gg. Bill relatively much smaller and weaker (exposed culmen shorter than middle toe with claw), less strongly uncinate; crest less conspicuously developed.
h. Tail at least four-fifths as long as wing; larger and stronger forms.
i. Bill larger and stouter, the exposed culmen much more than half as long as tarsus.
j. Feathers of forehead much developed, the crest occupying entire pileum; male with a white throat-patch and black jugular area, the remaining under parts fulvous.

Biatas (extralimital).[11]

jj. Feathers of forehead short, semi-decomposed, the crest confined to crown and occiput; adult males with under parts barred with black and white, or else uniform gray or slate color (rarely streaked with white).
k. Bill more swollen, with tip less compressed, its width at frontal antiæ equal to its depth at same point, and equal to much more than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; adult males conspicuously barred with black and white, or gray streaked with white, beneath, females rufous above.

Thamnophilus (p. 34).

kk. Bill less swollen laterally, more compressed terminally, its width at frontal antiæ less than its depth at same point and equal to not more than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; adult males plain gray, slate color, or black below, females gray, olive, or brown above.

Erionotus (p. 47).

ii. Bill smaller and more slender, the exposed culmen not more than half as long as tarsus, its depth at frontal antiæ equal to not more than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla.

Rhopochares (extralimital).[12]

hh. Tail less than three-fourths as long as wing; smaller and weaker forms

Dysithamnus(p. 52).

cc. Nostril more or less narrow and longitudinal, more or less distinctly operculate, or if broadly oval or roundish the remainder of nasal fossæ occupied by membraneous integument.
d. Plumage softer, more lax, and semi-decomposed, especially on rump. (Formicivoræ.)
e. Planta tarsi distinctly scutellate, at least on inner side or posterior margin.
f. Tail much shorter than wing (not more than three-fourths as long, usually much less).
g. Tail little if any more than half (sometimes much less than half) as long as wing.
h. Bill small and very slender, the exposed culmen shorter than middle toe without claw

Rhopias (extralimital).[13]

hh. Bill larger and stouter, the exposed culmen longer than middle toe without claw.
i. Planta tarsi scutellate on each side; maxilla slightly decurved terminally; gonydeal angle very slight; plumage streaked; no white band across rump

Myrmotherula (p. 60.)

ii. Planta tarsi scutellate on posterior portion of outer side only; maxilla straight throughout (only the extreme tip decurved); gonydeal angle prominent; plumage spotted; a white band across rump

Dichrozona (extralimital).[14]

gg. Tail much more than half to more than two-thirds as long as wing.

Myrmopagis (p. 65).

f. Tail nearly as long as wing, sometimes longer.
g. Nostril slit-like, much narrower than the broad operculum; tarsus nearly half as long as wing. (Rectrices 10.)
h. Rictal bristles obsolete; feathers of chin and forehead without trace of terminal setæ; tarsus much less than twice as long as middle toe without claw, the plantar scutella very distinct on both sides.

Rhoporchilus (extralimital).[15]

hh. Rictal bristles obvious (though small); feathers of chin and forehead with distinct terminal setæ; tarsus twice as long as middle toe without claw, the plantar scutella indistinct (especially on inner side)

Myrmorchilus (extralimital).[16]

gg. Nostril broadly oval, much broader than the narrow (sometimes obsolete) operculum; tarsus less than half as long as wing.
h. Rectrices 12.
i. Pileum not black, or else back and rump also black; back, scapulars, and rump brownish slate, brown, rufescent, or black, concolor with pileum; adult male with at least chin, throat, chest, and part of breast black

Microrhopias (p. 75).

ii. Pileum (in adult male) black, conspicuously contrasted with bluish gray of back, scapulars, and rump; chin and throat grayish white; under parts without black, except sometimes a jugular area

Herpsilochmus (extralimital).[17]

hh. Rectrices 10

Drymophila (extralimital).[18]

ee. Planta tarsi entire (fused).
f. Bill decidedly longer than head, more than one-third as long as wing.
g. Tail four-fifths as long as wing, graduated; exposed culmen longer than tarsus, the latter much less than half as long as wing.

Ramphocænus (p. 84).

gg. Tail but little more than half as long as wing, rounded; exposed culmen much shorter than tarsus, the latter nearly half as long as wing

Microbates (p. 88).

ff. Bill not longer than head (usually shorter), less than one-third as long as wing.
g. Rictal bristles well developed.
h. Rectrices 10; bill much narrower and relatively deeper at base; tarsus longer than commissure

Cercomacra (p. 90).

hh. Rectrices 12; bill much broader and more depressed at base; tarsus shorter than commissure

Thamnomanes (extrahmital).[19]

gg. Rictal bristles indistinct (usually obsolete).
h. Loral and frontal regions very densely feathered, the feathering erect, plush-like

Pyriglena (extrahmital).[20]

hh. Loral and frontal regions normally feathered, scantily feathered, or sometimes naked.
i. Frontal and loral regions normally (densely) feathered.
j. Rictal region naked, postocular region wholly feathered; larger forms (total length about 125 mm.), with mostly plain coloration

Myrmobonis (extrahmital).[21]

jj. Rictal region feathered, postocular region partly naked smaller forms (total length about 100 mm.) with coloration much variegated

Hypocnemis (extralimital).[22]

ii. Frontal or loral regions, or both, scantily feathered (sometimes quite bare).
j. Loral and suborbital regions (sometimes forehead and crown also) bare or but scantily bristled; adult males uniform black (with white markings on wing-coverts).

Gymnocichla (p. 97).

jj. Loral and suborbital regions feathered (only the postocular and rictal regions naked); adult males not black (or else without white markings on wing-coverts).
l. Tail less than four-fifths as long as wing; bill stouter; nostrils smaller, more rounded; forehead more thinly feathered, the feathers semi-decomposed, semi-erect.

Myrmeciza (p. 103).[23]

ll. Tail more than five-sixths as long as wing (sometimes longer than wing); bill more slender; nostrils larger, more longitudinal; forehead more densely feathered, the feathers more compactly webbed, decumbent.

Myrmoderas (extralimital).[24]

dd. Plumage harder, very dense and compact, only the tail-coverts semi-decomposed or loose webbed.[25] (Formicarieæ.)
e. Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing; plumage of rump not abnormally long and dense; feathers of latero-frontal antiæ short and dense, not antrorse, not extending above nostril; bill relatively longer and less depressed basally, the exposed culmen as long as middle toe without claw; under parts neither streaked nor barred.

Formicarius (p. 115).

ee. Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing; plumage of rump very long and dense; feathers of latero-frontal antiæ longer, antrorse, extending anteriorly, above the nostril, to anterior end of nasal fossæ; bill relatively shorter and more depressed basally, the exposed culmen much shorter than middle toe without claw

Chamæza (extralimital).[26]

bb. Second phalanx of middle toe partly united to outer toe; acrotarsium fused ("booted"). (Pithyeæ.)
c. Tail not longer than combined length of tarsus and middle toe with claw.
d. Orbital region wholly feathered; outstretched feet reaching much beyond tip of tail; coloration varied.
e. Conspicuously crested and bearded; nostrils less widely separated (distance between them less than that from either to maxillary tomia); back and wings unicolored

Pithys (extralimital).[27]

ee. Neither crested nor bearded; nostrils more widely separated (distance between them greater than that from either to maxillary tomia); wings spotted or barred.
f. Bill relatively shorter (exposed culmen not more than one-fourth as long as wing) and broader (width at frontal antiæ much greater than its width at same point and equal to at least half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla); back spotted or barred, or with a concealed patch of white; tail tipped with white or cinnamon

Hylophylax (p. 126).

ff. Bill relatively longer (exposed culmen more than one-fourth as long as wing) and more compressed (width at frontal antiæ very little if any greater than depth at same point and equal to less than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla); back neither spotted nor barred, nor with concealed white patch; tail unicolored.

Sclateria (extralimital).[28]

dd. Orbital region partly nude; outstretched feet reaching to but little if any beyond tip of tail; coloration plain

Anoplops (p. 130).

cc. Tail decidedly longer than combined length of tarsus and middle toe with claw.
d. Tail about two-thirds as long as wing; loral and frontal feathers dense; malar region wholly feathered; nostril narrow, longitudinal; culmen less sharply or not at all ridged; under parts unicolored.
e. Pileum crested; upper eyelid not feathered; culmen more contracted, slightly ridged; back and wing-coverts unicolored.

Rhegmatorhina (extralimital).[29]

ee. Pileum not crested; upper eyelid feathered; culmen broadly rounded; back and wing-coverts conspicuously spotted.

Phlegopsis (extralimital).[30]

dd. Tail nearly as long as wing; loral and frontal feathering scant; nostrils rounded; culmen more sharply ridged; malar region partly nude; under parts (as well as upper) conspicuously spotted

Phænostictus (p. 134).

aa. Planta tarsi broadly rounded behind, composed of a single row or series of scutella, the inner edge of which is more or less prominent and convolute, separated (at least in part) from the inner edge of the acrotarsium by a narrow groove. (Grallariinæ.)

b. Tarsus shorter than commissure, shorter than middle toe with claw; feathering head very short, more scale-like; bill slender, with mesorhinium very broad and flattened basally. (Rhopoterpeæ)

Rhopoterpe (p. 138).

bb. Tarsus much longer than commissure, much longer than middle toe with claw; feathering of head normal; bill stouter, the mesorhinium narrow and compressed (normal) basally.
c. Exposed culmen more than one-fourth as long as wing; tip of maxilla more strongly uncinate; rictal bristles obsolete; postocular region nude. (Pittasomæ)

Pittasoma (p. 140).

cc. Exposed culmen less than one-fourth as long as wing; tip of maxilla less strongly uncinate; rictal bristles obvious (sometimes very distinct); postocular region feathered. (Grallariæ.)
d. Nasal fossæ short and broad (distance from their anterior end to base of exposed culmen equal to not more than half the distance from the former to tip of maxilla), more or less triangular, the nostrils more oblique and in contact with latero-frontal antisæ or separated from the latter by a very slight interval; rictal bristles obvious; bill stouter, triangular in lateral profile, relatively deeper at base; depth at frontal antiæ equal to three-fifths to two-thirds the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla, or else the nostrils partly concealed by latero-frontal feathers.
e. Tarsus only about one-third as long as wing; middle toe, without claw, three-fifths as long as tarsus; bill much broader basally, its width at frontal antiæ equal to about three-fifths the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; rictal bristles more than half as long as bill; very small (total length less than 100 mm.)

Grallaricula (p. 143).

ee. Tarsus much more than one-third (sometimes more than half) as long as wing; middle toe, without claw, less than three-fifths as long as tarsus; bill much narrower basally, its width at frontal antiæ equal to little if any more than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; rictal bristles much less than half as long as bill; larger forms (total length about 120-210 mm.).
f. Tarsus decidedly less than half as long as wing, less distinctly scutellate, the inner edge of the planta scarcely convolute; upper parts squamated

Grallaria (p. 146).

ff. Tarsus at least half as long as wing, more distinctly scutellate, the inner edge of the planta distinctly convolute; upper parts not squamated.
g. Tail at least half as long as wing; rictal bristles distinct.
h. Bill stouter; tarsus more than half as long as wing; coloration more varied, the pileum and hindneck rufescent in contrast with olive of back, etc., the under parts white striped laterally with brown and black or else plain gray, very different from color of upper parts

Hypsibemon (extralimital).[31]

hh. Bill more slender; tarsus not more than half as long as wing; coloration plain, the pileum and hindneck concolor with the back, etc. (plain olive or rufescent), the under parts concolored (usually tawny or ochraceous)

Oropezus (extralimital).[32]

gg. Tail decidedly less than half as long as wing; rictal bristles indistinct

Myrmothera (extralimital).[33]

dd. Nasal fossæ longer and narrower (distance from anterior end to base of exposed culmen equal to about two-thirds the distance from same point to tip of maxilla), elliptical or oblong, the nostrils more longitudinal and separated from latero-frontal antiæ by a distinct interval of naked integument; rictal bristles wanting; bill relatively longer and narrower, more terete (depth at frontal antiæ equal to not more than half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla

Hylopezus (p. 152).


  1. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum, vol. xv, 1890, pp. 177-328.
  2. In his Hand-List of the Genera and Species of Birds (vol. iii, 1901, pp. 9-45) Dr. Sharpe enumerates 347 species and 38 genera.
  3. In order to show more clearly the relationship of the various groups, a number of extralimital (South American) genera are included. My efforts have been handicapped by the lack of many species desired for comparison, among which are the types of the following generic or subgeneric names:
    Neoctantes Sclater. (Type, Xenops niger Pelzeln.)
    Myrmophila Cabanis and Heine. (Type, Formicivora brevicauda Swainson.)
    Terenura Cabanis and Heine. (Type, Myiothera maculata Maximilian.)
    Psilorhamphus Sclater. (Type, Leptorhynchus guttatus Ménétriés.)
    Microbates Sclater and Salvin. (Type, Rhamphocsenus collaris Pelzeln.)
    Myrmochanes Allen. (Type, M. hypoleucus Allen.)
    Rhopornis Richmond. (Type, Myiothera ardesiaca Maximilian.)
    Sclateria Oberholser. (Type, Sitta naevia Gmelin.) See footnote on p. 16.
    Percnostola Cabanis and Heine. (Type, Lanius funebris Lichtenstein.)
    Thamnocharis Sclater. (Type, Grallaria dignissima Sclater and Salvin.)
    Grallaria Vieillot. (Type, Formicarius varius Boddaert.)
    The genus Terenura, although represented in the geographic field covered by this work, is necessarily omitted from the "key," because I have not been able to examine a specimen of any species. (See p. 83.)
  4. Hypoedaleus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, Aug., 1859, 18. Type, Thamnophilus guttatus Vieillot. (Southeastern Brazil; monotypic.)
  5. Batara Lesson, Traité d'Orn., 1831, 347. Type, Vanga striata Quoy and Gaimard = Thamnophilus cinereus Vieillot. — Thamnarchus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 19. Type, Thamnophilus cinereus Vieillot. (Batara rejected on grounds of purism.) (Southeastern Brazil; monotypic.)
  6. Nisius Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1850, pl. 71. Type, Thamnophilus leachii Such. (Southeastern Brazil and northern Argentina; monotypic?)
  7. Lochites Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, Aug., 1859, 18. Type, Lanius severus Lichtenstein. (Southeastern Brazil; monotypic?)
  8. Pygiptila Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 220. Type, Thamnophilus maculipennis Sclater. (Upper Amazons; monotypic.) — Pygoptila (emendation) Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 15.
  9. Megastictus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxii, Apr. 17, 1909, 69. Type, Myrmeciza margaritata Sclater. (Upper Amazons; monotypic.)
  10. Othello Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1850, pl. 71. Type, Lanius luctuosus Lichtenstein. (Amazon Valley; monotypic?) [I have not been able to examine T. leuconolus Spix, T. æthiops Sclatfer, T. tschudii Pelzeln, nor T. melanochrous Sclater and Salvin, which Dr. Sclater places in the same "section" with T. luctuosus.]
  11. Biastes (not of Panzer, 1806) Reichenbach, Handb., 1853, 175. Type, Anabates nigropectus Lafresnaye. — Biatas Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, Aug., 1859, 19 (newname for Biastes Reichenbach, preoccupied). (Southeastern Brazil ; monotypic.)
  12. Rhopochares Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, Aug., 1859, 17. Type, Thamnophilus torquatus Swainson. (Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, southeastern Brazil, and Bolivia; three species).
  13. Rhopias Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 13. Type, Thamnophilus gularis Spix. (Southeastern Brazil; monotypic?) [Possibly Myrmothera guttata Vieillot (Myrmotherula guttata Sclater), of Cayenne and Guiana, may be congeneric, but I have not been able to examine that species.]
  14. Dichrozona Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, sig. 33, Aug. 6, 1888, 524, footnote. Type, D. zononota Ridgway = Cyphorinus (Microcerculus) cinctus Pelzeln.
  15. Rhoporchilus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxii, April 17, 1909, 69. Type, Formicivora speciosa Salvin. (Western Ecuador; monotypic.) The type species has been placed in both "Formicivora" (Drymophila) and Synallaxis, but is very distinct from either.
  16. Myrmorchilus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxii, April 17, 1909, 69. Type, Myiothera strigilata Maximilian. (Southeastern Brazil; monotypic.)
  17. Herpsilochmus Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., xiii, pt. i, 1847, 224. Type, Myiothera pileata Lichtenstein. — Dendroæcia Bertoni, Aves Nuevas del Paraguay, 1901, 138. Type, D. erythroptera Bertoni = Myiothera rufimarginata Temminck. (Nearly the whole of tropical South America east of the Andes; about eleven species recognized, of which, however, the present writer has examined only four.) I am not able to find any structural characters separating Herpsilochmus from Microrhopias.
  18. Formicivora (not Formicivorus Temminck, 1807) Swainson, Zool. Journ., ii, 1825, 145. Type, Myiothera squamata Lichtenstein. — Drymophila Such (ex Swainson), Zool. Journ., i, Jan., 1825, 559. Type, D. variegata Such = Myiothera ferruginea Lichtenstein. — Ellipura Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., xiii, pt. i, 1847, 228. Type, Myiothera ferruginea Lichtenstein. — Stipituropsis Bertoni, Aves Nuevas del Paraguay, 1901, 141. Type, S. arechavaletæ Bertoni = Formicivora genei De Filippi.
  19. Thamnomanes Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., xiii, pt. i, 1847, 230. Type, Lanius caesius Lichtenstein. (Colombia and Guiana to southeastern Brazil and upper Amazon Valley; two species.)
  20. Pyriglena Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., xiii, pt. i, 1847, 211. Type, Lanius domicella Lichtenstein = Turdus leucopterus Vieillot. (Ecuador and Peru to southeastern Brazil; five species recognized, of which the present writer has examined only P. leucoptera (Vieillot) and P. atra (Swainson).)
  21. Myrmoborus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, July, 1859, 9. Type, Pithys leucophrys Tschudi. Besides the type species, I would refer the following to this genus: M. myiotherinus (Spix) and M. lugubris Cabanis; probably also Hypocnemis schistacca Sclater and H. melanura Sclater and Salvin, and possibly H. melanopogon Sclater, but these three species I have not seen.
  22. Hypocnemis Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., xiii, pt. i, 1847, 212. Type, Turdus tintinnabulatus Gmelin = Formicarius cantator Boddaert. (Guiana and upper Amazon Valley; two species.)
  23. Including Myrmelastes Sclater, which I am unable to separate generically.
  24. Myrmoderas Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxii, April 17, 1909, 70. Type Myiothera loricata Lichtenstein. Besides the type, the following species (placed in Myrmeciza by Dr. Sclater) also belong here: M. cinnamomea (Gmelin), M. ruficauda (Maximilian), M. squamosa (Pelzeln), and M. atrothorax (Boddaert); probably also Myrmeciza pelzelni Sclater and M. hemimelæna Sclater, which, however, I have not seen. The group ranges from the Guianas and Amazon Valley to southeastern Brazil.
  25. I am not at all satisfied with these characters, but am unable to find better ones for separating these two exceedingly distinct genera from the rest, collectively. They doubtless possess marked anatomical differences, for they certainly stand clearly apart from all the rest of the family.
  26. Chamæza Vigors, Zool. Journ., ii, 1825, 395. Type, C. meruloides Vigors = Turdus brevicaudus Gmelin. — Chamæzosa (emendation) Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., i, 1847, 218. (Colombia to southeastern Brazil; six species.).
  27. Manikup Desmarest, Hist. Nat. des Tangaras, 1805, text to pl. 66. Type, Le Manikup de Cayenne Daubenton = Pipra albifrons Gmelin. — Pithys Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xxiv, 1818, 112 (diagnosis but no type); xxvi, 1818, 520. Type, P. leucops Vieillot = Pipra albifrons Gmelin. — Dasyptilops Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 8. Type, Pipra albifrons Gmelin. (Colombia to Guiana, Peru, and central Brazil; two or three species.) Notwithstanding its unquestioned priority, the name Manikup is so obviously both barbarous and cacophonous that it should not be employed as the generic term.
  28. Holocnemis (not of Schilling, 1829) Strickland, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xiii, 1844, 415. Type, H. flammulata Strickland = Sitta nævia Gmelin. — Heterocnemis (not of Albers, 1852) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, 146 (new name for Holocnemis Strickland, preoccupied). Type, Sitta nævia Gmelin. — Sclateria Oberholser, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., June 2, 1899, 209 (new name for Heterocnemis Sclater, preoccupied). The above diagnosis must be taken with reservation as applying to this genus, as, unfortunately, no memorandum was made of the species upon which it was based. No species of Sclateria is represented in the U. S. National Museum collection.
  29. Rhegmatorhina Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, sig. 33, Aug. 6, 1888, 525, footnote. Type, R. gymnops Ridgway. (Lower Amazon Valley; monotypic.)
  30. Phlegopsis Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1850, pl. 57. Type, Myothera nigromaculata Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny. — Phlogopsis (emendation) Sclater, Proc. Zool Soc. Lond., 1858, 276. (Amazon Valley and Guiana; five species and subspecies.)
  31. Hypsibemon Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., xiii, pt. i, 1847, 217. Type, Grallaria ruficapilla Lafresnaye. (Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; several species.) This genus includes the first three species of Dr. Sclater 's "Grallariæ flammulatæ," together with at least Grallaria ruficeps of his section "Grallariæ uniformes."
  32. Oropezus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc, Wash., xxii, April 17, 1909, 70. Type, Grallaria rufula Lafresnaye. (Mountains of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; several species.)
  33. Myrmothera Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 43. Type, "Béfroi [= Formicarius brevicauda Boddaert] et quelques autres fourmilliers de Buffon." (Guiana and lower Amazon Valley; Venezuela?; two species?)