Birds of North and Middle America, part V/Genus 18. Formicarius Boddaert

 

Genus FORMICARIUS Boddaert.

Formicarius Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl., 1783, 43. (Type, F. cayanensis Boddaert = F. colma Boddaert.)
(?) Myrmecophaga Lacépède, Tableaux Oiseaux, 1799, 6. (Type undeterminable, no species being named; nomen nudum.)
Myotthera Spix, Av. Sp. Nov. Brazil, i, 1824, 72. (Type, M. ruficeps Spix = Turdus colma Gmelin.)
Myothera D'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool., 1839 (Synopsis Avium, p. 14). (Type, M. analis D'Orbigny and Lafresnaye.)
Myrmothera, part, Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 43, 70. (Type, none specified, and no species named; includes "Befroi, et quelques autres fourmilliers de Buffon").
Myocincla Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 230. (Type, Turdus colma Gmelin = Formicarius colma Boddaert.)

Rather large Formicariidæ (length about 150-180 mm.) with very dense, compact plumage; bill much shorter than head, depressed basally; short, rounded tail (less than two-thirds as long as the short and concave, rather pointed wing); latero-frontal antiæ with feathering short and dense; scutellate tarsi, short anterior claws, and plain coloration.

Bill shorter than head (exposed culmen about as long as distance from nostril to posterior angle of eye), with straight lateral outlines, slightly depressed basally, its width at latero-frontal antiæ greater than its depth at same point and equal to half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla, or slightly less; culmen distinctly ridged, straight or nearly so for most of its length, decurved terminally, the tip of maxilla inconspicuously and rather obtusely uncinate; maxillary tomium slightly convex posteriorly, straight anteriorly, slightly notched sub terminally; mandibular tomium faintly concave posteriorly, nearly straight or very faintly convex anteriorly, very indistinctly notched subterminally; gonys decidedly to rather strongly convex basally, nearly straight and ascending terminally. Nostril exposed, broadly oval, margined above by narrow membrane, posteriorly in contact with the short and very dense feathering of latero-frontal antiæ. Rictal bristles present but small; feathers of chin, malar antiæ, etc., short, without trace of terminal setæ. Wing rather short but pointed, very concave beneath, the outer primaries rather strongly arcuate, the longer ones projecting decidedly beyond secondaries; sixth, seventh, or eighth primaries longest, the tenth (outermost) nearly three-fourths as long as the longest, the ninth decidedly longer than secondaries. Tail about three-fifths as long as wing, rounded (graduation less than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla), the rectrices (12) rather broad and firm, rounded terminally. Tarsus about two and a half times as long as bill from nostril, decidedly less than two-fifths as long as wing, distinctly scutellate, the plantar scutella quadrate, in two longitudinal series; middle toe, with claw, a little more than two-thirds as long as tarsus (longer than commissure); outer toe, without claw, reaching to about middle of subterminal phalanx of middle toe, the inner toe very slightly shorter; hallux much shorter than inner toe, slightly stouter; basal phalanx of middle toe united for more than half its length to outer toe, for less than half its length to inner toe; anterior claws very short, relatively broad, slightly curved; claw of hallux slightly curved, nearly as long as its digit. Plumage compact, dense, that of rump and flanks not elongated nor lax; feathers of pileum not elongated.

Coloration. — General color uniform brown or blackish (the head sometimes rufescent) above, dusky, grayish, or brownish below, sometimes with chest rufescent or tawny, the under tail-coverts usually rufescent and throat black (sometimes margined posteriorly with a narrow band of cinnamon or chestnut); inner webs of remiges with basal portion (abruptly) buff, ochraceous, or tawny, the under wing- coverts similar but tipped with black; sexes alike; young similar but throat usually more or less variegated with white.

Range. — Southern Mexico to western Ecuadór, Peru, Bolivia, southeastern Brazil, and Cayenne. (About fifteen species and subspecies.)

This genus is very distinct from any other, its nearest relative being the genus Chamæza Vigors,[1] of South America, which differs in longer tail (more than two-thirds as long as wing), much greater development of plumage of lower back and rump, different character of feathering of anterior portion of head, shorter and more depressed bill, variegated plumage, and other features.

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF FORMICARIUS.

a. Pileum and hindneck rufescent or tawny, conspicuously different, from color of back; outer web of exterior feather of alula light tawny or buff.

b. Forehead bright tawny or rufescent, like crown, etc. (Southeastern Brazil.)

Formicarius colma (extralimital).[2]

bb. Forehead black or dusky. (Amazon Valley to Cayenne and Colombia.)

Formicarius nigrifrons (extralimital).[3]

aa. Pileum dull brownish, not very different from color of back, or else black; outer web of exterior feather of alula grayish brown.

b. Chest black, brownish gray, or slaty.
c. Sides of neck similar in color to hindneck, not rufescent or cinnamomeous.
d. Pileum brown, like back, with only centers of feathers blackish; chest slate-gray in contrast with black of throat. (Bolivia to northeastern Peru.)

Formicarius analis (extralimital).[4]

dd. Pileum and chest black. (Costa Rica and western Panamá.)

Formicarius analis nigricapillus (p. 118).

cc. Sides of neck rufescent or cinnamomeous. (Formicarius moniliger.)
d. Under tail-coverts only partly, if at all, rusty, tawny, or cinnamomeous, the longer (posterior) ones being dusky margined with brown.
e. A distinct rusty or cinnamomeous collar across foreneck.
f. Darker, the back, etc., bright mummy brown to chestnut-brown, the chest sooty slate-gray. (Southeastern Mexico, except Yucatan, to Guatemala)

Formicarius moniliger moniliger (p. 119).

ff. Paler, the back, etc., raw-umber to light olive-brown, the chest mouse gray to drab-gray.
g. Darker, the back, etc., raw-umber brown, the chest mouse gray. (British Honduras)

Formicarius moniliger intermedius (p. 121).

gg. Paler, the back, etc., light olive-brown (or between broccoli brown and isabella color), the chest drab-gray. (Yucatan.)

Formicarius moniliger pallidus (p. 121).

ee. No rusty or cinnamomeous collar across foreneck. (Eastern Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua)

Formicarius moniliger umbrosus (p. 122).

dd. Under tail-coverts wholly, or for much the greater part, rusty, tawny, or cinnamomeous.
e. Forehead lighter and more rufescent or cinnamomeous brown than crown.
f. Larger (wing averaging 93.5 in adult male, 91 in adult female); color of under parts more slaty, the under tail-coverts darker rusty. (South-western Costa Rica and western Panamá.)

Formicarius moniliger hoffmanni (p. 123).

ff. Smaller (wing averaging 87 in adult male, 86.9 in adult female); color of under parts more brownish or more strongly suffused with olive or buffy, the under tail-coverts paler, more tawny. (Eastern Panamá.)

Formicarius moniliger panamensis (p. 124).

ee. Forehead concolor with crown (not more rufescent or cinnamomeous).
f. White loral spot small, sometimes obsolete; under parts nearly uniform deep brownish gray; under tail-coverts rufous-tawny. (Trinidád, Venezuela, and adjacent coast district of Colombia.)

Formicarius moniliger saturatus (extralimital).[5]

ff. White loral spot large, conspicuous; under parts clear brownish gray, fading into nearly white on lower abdomen; under tail-coverts clear tawny. (British Guiana.)

Formicarius moniliger crissalis (extralimital).[6]

bb. Chest chestnut or rufous-tawny.
c. Pileum rusty brown or chestnut. (Western Panamá to eastern Costa Rica; northwestern Colombia?)

Formicarius rufipectus (p. 125).

cc. Pileum black. (Eastern Ecuadór.)

Formicarius thoracicus (extralimital).[7]

FORMICARIUS ANALIS NIGRICAPILLUS (Ridgway).

BLACK-HEADED ANTTHRUSH.

Adult male. — Head, all round, and chest uniform sooty black, this gradually passing through sooty blackish slate on upper breast into brownish slate-gray on abdomen, where (in fresh plumage) the feathers are margined terminally with dull buffy whitish; sides and flanks similar in color to breast, but faintly tinged with olive; hindneck, sides of neck and general color of upper parts plain dark vandyke brown, or approaching seal brown, the upper tail-coverts seal brown or dark chocolate; tail blackish brown or brownish black; shorter under tail-coverts light rufous-chestnut or chestnut-tawny, the longer ones sooty black; under wing-coverts blackish at tip (broadly) and base, ochraceous in middle portion, the axillars similarly marked, but middle portion buff instead of ochraceous; inner webs of remiges crossed near base by a broad but not sharply defined band of dull ochraceous; bill black; legs and feet dusky horn color (in dried skins); length (skin), 168-175 (171); wing, 90.5-94 (92.3); tail, 49-51.5 (50.3); culmen, 23-24.5 (23.7); tarsus, 32; middle toe, 20.5-21 (20.7).[8]

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, and probably not always distinguishable, but usually(?) with color of under parts of body slightly tinged with olive, the sides and flanks strongly olivaceous; length (skins), 163.5-164 (163.7); wing, 90-93.5 (91.7); tail, 48.5- 49.5 (49); culmen, 24-25.5 (24.7); tarsus, 30-31.5 (30.7); middle toe, 21.[8]

Costa Rica (Tucurríqui; Carrillo; Cariblanco de Sarapiquí; Cerro de Santa Maria; Buena Vista) and western Panamá (Santiago de Verágua).

Formicarius analis (not Myothera analis Lafresnaye) Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 74, part (Tucurríqui, Costa Rica; Verágua, Panamá); 1867, 145 (Santa Fe de Verágua, Panamá; crit.). — Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1868, 110 (Costa Rica; crit.). — Frantzius, Journ. für Orn., 1869, 306 (Costa Rica). — Zeledón, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 115 (Costa Rica). — Salvin and {[sc|Godman}}, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 235, part (Tucurríqui, Costa Rica; Santiago de Verágua, Panamá).
[Formicarius] analis Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 75, part.
Formicarius nigricapillus "Cherrie" Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, no. 961, Nov. 28, 1893, 675 (Buena Vista, Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 623 (Carrillo, Cariblanco de Sarapiquí, and Cerro de Santa Maria, Costa Rica).
[Formicarius] nigricapillus Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 38, part (Costa Rica; Panamá).
Formicarius analis nigricapillus Hartert, Novit. ZooL, ix, Dec, 1902, 614 (Cariblanco de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica; crit.).

FORMICARIUS MONILIGER MONILIGER Sclater.

MEXICAN ANTTHRUSH.

Adults (sexes alike). — Pileum dull black, the feathers broadly tipped or terminally margined with prouts brown, this often the prevailing color (the black being mostly concealed); rest of upper parts plain mummy brown, more castaneous (vandyke brown) on lower rump, upper tail-coverts, and hindneck; tail darker and duller brown basally, passing into dull slate-blackish terminally; loral and suborbital regions, anterior half of auricular region, malar region, chin, and throat uniform black, the first with a small central spot of white; band across foreneck and extending thence to hindneck and supra-auricular region and terminal portion of auricular region chestnut, duller laterally; under parts plain deep sooty grayish, darkest on chest (where sometimes strongly tinged with olive), paler on abdomen (where sometimes inclining to buffy whitish), the sides and flanks olive or mixed sooty gray and olive; under tail- coverts light brown (nearly raw-umber), the longer ones mostly blackish, margined terminally with light brown; under wing-coverts buff, broadly tipped with dark sooty brown; inner webs of remiges crossed by a broad band of tawny-buff anterior to their middle portion; bill black; iris brown; legs and feet brownish (in dried skins).

Young. — Essentially like adults but black of throat, etc., replaced by dark sooty brown; chestnut band across foreneck narrow and more or less broken, and general color of under parts more sooty.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 150-181 (173); wing, 87.5-94 (90.6); tail, 50-55 (52.9); culmen, 20.5-22 (21.2); tarsus, 30.5-33 (31.7); middle toe, 19-21 (20).[9]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 155-175 (167); wing, 85.5-92.5 (89.2); tail, 51-56 (53.5); culmen, 20-21 (20.7); tarsus, 30-33 (31.3); middle toe, 20.[10]

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Córdova; Playa Vicente; Cerro de la Defensa; Atoyác; Motzorongo; Buena Vista), Oaxaca (mountains near Santo Domingo) and Tabasco (Teapa) and Guatemala (Choctúm; Chiséc; Cobán; sources of Rio de la Pasión; Kampamác; Tactíc; Nehaj, Quiché).

Formicarius moniliger Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 294 (Córdova, Vera Cruz, Mexico; coll. A. Sallé, now in coll. Brit. Mus.) ; 1858, 278, part (Vera Cruz); 1859, 383 (Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 191 (Oaxaca); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 303, part (Córdova, Vera Cruz; Oaxaca; sources Rio de la Pasión and Choctúm, Guatemala). — Salvin, Ibis, 1861, 353 (Chiséc, centr. Guatemala); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, ,75 (Mexico; Guatemala; monogr.). — Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869,556 (hot region Vera Cruz, up to 800 m.; habits; notes); La Naturaleza, v, 1881, 248 (do.). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 233, part (Córdova, Cerro de la Defensa, Atoyác, and Playa Vicenle, Vera Cruz; Vera Paz, Chiséc, Kampamác, Choctúm, and Tactíc, Guatemala). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, G83 (monogr.).
[Formicarius] moniliger Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soe. Lend., 1857, 47, in text. — Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 75, part. — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39, part (s. Mexico; Guatemala).
Myrmornis moniliger Cabanis, Journ. für Orn., 1861, 96.
[Myrmornis] moniliger Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 124 (Mexico).
Formicarius moliniger Boucard, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1878, 49 (Guatemala).

FORMICARIUS MONILIGER INTERMEDIUS Ridgway.

INTERMEDIATE ANTTHRUSH.

Much paler and less rufescent above than F. m. moniliger, darker and more rufescent than F. m. pallidus;[11] under parts pale as in F. m. pallidus, but the color decidedly clearer (less buffy) gray.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 163-180 (170); wing, 86-91 (88); tail, 51-58 (54); culmen, 19.5-22 (21); tarsus, 30-32 (31); middle toe, 19-20.5 (19.9).[12] Adult female. — Length (skin), 169.5; wing, 90; tail, 51.5; culmen, 20; tarsus, 30.5; middle toe, 19.[13]

British Honduras (forest near Manatee Lagoon; Manatee River; Toledo District; Cayo).

Formicarius moniliger"" (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 303, part (Brit. Honduras). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 233, part (Cayo, Brit. Honduras).
[Formicarius] moniliger Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39, part (Brit. Honduras).
Formicanus moniliger intermedius Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, Oct. 20, 1908, 194 (forest near Manatee Lagoon, British Honduras; coll. Carnegie Mus.).
Formicarius monileger Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 221 (Cayo, Brit. Honduras).

FORMICARIUS MONILIGER PALLIDUS (Lawrence).

YUCATAN ANTTHRUSH.

Similar to F. m. intermedius but coloration still paler, the general color of upper parts light olive-brown (between broccoli brown and isabella color, brightening into raw-umber on upper tail-coverts), the abdominal region (extensively) grayish white or very pale buffy gray.

Adult (sex not determined). — Length (skin), 173.5; wing, 93; tail, 55; culmen, 22; tarsus, 31; middle toe, 20.

Yucatan (Tizimin).

Furnarius pallidus Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., ii, no. 9, May 29, 1882, 288 (Yucatan; coll. G. N. Lawrence).
Formicarius pallidus Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., ii, no. 9, 1882 (index). — Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 450 (Tizimin, Yucatan; crit.). — Reichenow and Schalow, Journ. für Orn., 1884, 388 (reprint of orig. descr.). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 684 (monogr.).
[Formicarius] pallidus Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39.
F[ormicarius] m[oniliger] pallidus Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, Oct. 20, 1908, 194, in text.
[Myrmornis] pallidus Heine and Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 124.
Formicarius moniliger (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 303, part (Tizimin, Yucatan). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 233, part (Tizimin).

FORMICARIUS MONILIGER UMBROSUS (Ridgway).

NICARAGUAN ANTTHRUSH.

Similar to F. m. moniliger but without any chestnut across foreneck, the black of throat giving way, more or less abruptly, on chest to dull slate color or sooty gray; under tail-coverts darker, more castaneous, brown; terminal portion of auricular region, together with supra- auricular region (sides of occiput) and sides of neck, varying from chestnut to vinaceous-cinnamon.

Young. — Much like adults but malar region, chin, and throat dull whitish or buffy, transversely mottled or barred with dusky, or else uniform dull sooty blackish; whitish abdominal area transversely spotted or clouded with grayish dusky.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 158-180 (164); wing, 86-93 (90.2); tail, 49.5-57 (53.7); culmen, 19-23.5 (21.4); tarsus, 31-36 (33.5); middle toe, 18-20.5 (19.1).[14]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 146-170 (161); wing, 86-91.5 (88.3); tail, 48-55 (51.7); culmen, 19-22 (20.3); tarsus, 31.5-33.5 (32.3); middle toe, 17.5-20 (18.8).[15]

Eastern and northern Costa Rica (Talamanca; Bonilla; Jiménez; Rio Matina; Cuábro; Guácimo; Guápiles; La Vijágua; La Florída; Volcan de Miravallos; Pacuare; San Carlos) and Nicaragua (Mosquito coast; Los Sábalos; Rio Escondido; San Emilis, Lake Nicaragua).

Formicarius moniliger (not of Sclater, 1856) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 278, part (Mosquito coasl, Nicaragua).
Formicarius hoffmanni (not Myrmornis hoffmanni Cabanis) Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 62 (San Carlos, Costa Rica; habits). — Zeledón, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 108 (Costa Rica); Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1887, 115, part (Jiménez, Costa Rica). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 234, part (Los Sábalos, Nicaragua; San Carlos, Jiménez, and Pacuare, Costa Rica). — Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 502 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; habits).
Formicarius hoffmani Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 405 (Los Sábalos, Nicaragua; habits; notes).
[Formicarius] hoffmanni Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 75, part.
Formicarius umbrosus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, no. 961, Nov. 28, 1893, 681 (Talamanca, Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). — Underwood, Ibis, 1896, 441 (Volcan de Miravalles, Costa Rica; habits; notes). — Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 624 (Caribbean and northern Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica, up to 1,200 ft.; habits; descr. nest and eggs).
[Formicarius] umbrosus Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39.

FORMICARIUS MONILIGER HOFFMANNI (Cabanis.)

HOFFMANN'S ANTTHRUSH.

Similar to F. m. umbrosus, but under tail-coverts clear tawny or tawny-chestnut (as in F. m. panamensis) , and black of throat usually more sharply defined and abruptly contrasted with the dark slate color of chest. Differing from F. m. panamensis in larger size and less brownish coloration.[16]

Adult male. — Length (skins), 153-173 (163); wing, 90-98.5 (93.5); tail, 51.5-56.5 (54.1); culmen, 19.5-23 (21.2); tarsus, 31.5-34 (33.5); middle toe, 19-21.5 (20.4).[17]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 155-170 (161); wing, 88-95 (91); tail, 47-55 (51.1); culmen, 21-22.5 (21.7); tarsus, 31.5-34.5 (33.5); middle toe, 19-20.5 (19. 9).[17]

As in the young of F. m. umhrosus, the young of this form frequently have the malar region, chin, and throat white barred or transversely spotted with black.

Southwestern Costa Rica (Pozo del Rio Grande, Paso Reál, Lagarto, Boruca, and Barranca, Boruca; Buenos Aires; El Generál; Pozo del Pitál, Rio Naranjo; Pozo de Térraba; Pozo Azúl de Pirrís; Las Trojas) and western Panamá (Divala; Bugaba; Chiriquí).

Myrmornis hoffmanni Cabanis, Journ. für Orn., Mar., 1861, 95 (Costa Rica; coll. Berlin Mus.).
Formicarius hoffmanni Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1868, 110 (Costa Rica). — Frantzius, Journ. für Orn., 1869, 306 (Costa Rica). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 75, part (Costa Rica); 1870, 195 (Bugaba, Panamá). — Zeledón, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1878, 115, part (Las Trojas and Pozo Azúl de Pirrís, Costa Rica). — Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 304, part (Bugaba, Verágua, and Chiriquí, Panamá). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 234, part (Las Trojas, Costa Rica; Chiriquí and Bugaba, Panamá). — Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 623 (s. w. Costa Rica, up to 1,500 ft.; crit.; habits).
[Formicarius] hoffmanni Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 75, part (Costa Rica). — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39, part (s. "w. Costa Rica).
Formicarius hoffmanni hoffmanni Bangs, Auk, xxiv, July, 1907, 298 (Boruca, Paso Reál, Pozo del Rio Grande, Lagarto, and Barranca, s. w. Costa Rica; crit.).
F[ormicarius] moniliger hoffmanni Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, Oct. 20, 1908, 195, in text.
Formicarius umbrosus (not of Ridgway) Bangs, Auk, xviii, 1901, 366 (Divala, Panamá).

FORMICARIUS MONILIGER PANAMENSIS Ridgway.

PANAMA ANTTHRUSH.

Similar to F. m. hoffmanni but averaging smaller, and coloration much lighter, the under parts more strongly suffused with olive and buffy, and color of under tail-coverts lighter, more tawny; black gular area more frequently (?) bordered posteriorly with a more or less distinct collar of deep vinaceous-cinnamon or dull cinnamon- rufous, or indication of one.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 153-172 (162); wing, 86-88 (87); tail, 50-55 (52.4); culmen, 20.5-21.5 (20.7); tarsus, 30-32 (30.9); middle toe, 18-19.5 (18.9).[18]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 144-161 (154); wing, 84-88.5 (86.9); tail, 48-51.5 (49.7); culmen, 18.5-20.5 (19.9); tarsus, 30-32 (31); middle toe, 17-20 (18).[18]

Eastern Panamá (Lion Hill, Obispo, and Paraiso stations, Panamá railway; Chepo; Laguna del Pita; Cascajál, Coclé); Colombia (Remédios, Antioquía)?

Formicarius analis (not Myothera analis Lafresnaye) Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., vii, 1862, 326 (Lion Hill station, Panamá).
Formicarius hoffmanni (not Myrmornis hoffmanni Cabanis) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 857 (Lion Hill, Panamá);(?) 1879, 526 (Remédios, Antioquía, Colombia). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 75, part (Panamá; monogr.). — Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 304, part (Panamá and Cliepo, Panamá). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 234, part (Lion Hill, Obispo, and Paraiso stations, and Chepo, Panamá; Colombia?).— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., xvi, 1893, 679, part (monogr.). — Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xiv, 1899, no. 339, 7 (Laguna del Pita, Panamá). — Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, 1900, lM (Loma del Leon, Panamá).
[Formicarius] hoffmanni Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 75, part (Panamá). — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39, part (Panamá; Colombia?).
Formicarius moniliger panamensis Ridgway, Proc. Biol., Soc. Wash., xxi, Oct. 20, 1908, 195 (Lion Hill station, Panamá; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).

FORMICARIUS RUFIPECTUS Salvin.

RUFOUS-BREASTED ANTTHRUSH.

Adult male.[19] — Pileum and hindneck dark chestnut, the feathers dull black beneath the surface (partly exposed on crown); rest of upper parts dark olive or olive-sepia, passing into deep reddish chestnut or bay on upper tail-coverts; tail dull black, the rectrices edged (especially toward base) with olive-brown; remiges, primary coverts, and alula dark sooty brown; loral, orbital, auricular, suborbital and malar regions, chin, and throat uniform black; whole chest uniform chestnut, passing into tawny-chestnut on breast, this into tawny on abdomen, the chestnut of chest extended laterally as a narrow band behind auricular region to merge into the dark chestnut of hindneck; sides and flanks olive, indistinctly streaked on inner portion with dull tawny or tawny-chestnut; under tail-coverts bright chestnut; bill black; iris brown; legs and feet dark horn color; length (skin), 182; wing, 90; tail, 56; culmen, 21; tarsus, 38.5; middle toe, 23.[20]

Adult female.[21] — Similar to the adult male, as described above, but color of back, etc., less olivaceous (more slaty) sides and flanks dull slate color or dark mouse gray instead of olive, and chestnut of chest lighter (tawny-chestnut), passing through tawny or tawny-olivaceous on lower breast into deep buff or clay color on abdomen; under tail-coverts also lighter chestnut; length (skin), 163.5; wing, 88.5; tan, 56.5; culmen, 23.5; tarsus, 38; middle toe, 23.

Western Panamá (Santiago de Verágua); Costa Rica (Juan Viñas);

northwestern Colombia (San Antonio)?
Formicarius rufipectus[22] Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 73, pi. 8 (Santiago de Verágua, Panamá; coll. Salvin and Godman); 1867, 145 (Santiago de Verágua; habits). — Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 306, part (Verágua, Panamá). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 235, part (Santiago de Verágua). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 685 part (Santiago de Verágua; monogr.). — Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, 1908, 157 ([San Antonio], n. w. Colombia). — Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 625 (Juan Viňas, e. Costa Rica; crit.).
F[ormicarius] rufipectus Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 74.
[Formicarius] rufipectus Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 75. — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 39, part (Panamá).
Formicarius castaneiceps Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., iv, April 1, 1908, 301 (Juan Viňas, Costa Rica; coll. Carnegie Mus.).


  1. See page 15.
  2. Formicarius colma Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl., 1783, 44 (=young; based on Le Colma. de Cayenne Daubenton, Pl. Enl., pl. 703, fig. 1); Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XV. 1890, 302. — [Turdus] colma Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, 827. — Myrmothera colma Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., 1822, 681, 683. — Myiothera colma Cabanis, in Schomburgk's Reis. Brit. Guiana, iii, 1848, 686. — Formicarius cayanensis Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl., 1783, 50 (= adult; based on Le Tetéma, de Cayenne Daubenton, Pl. Enl., pl. 821); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 670 (monogr.). — M[yrmornis] cayanensis Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 7. — Myiothera tetema Burmeister, Syst. Ueb. Th. Bras., iii, 1856, 46. — Myioturdus tetema Maximilian, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., iii, 1831, 1030. — Myrmothera fuscicapilla Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat., xii, 1817, 112. — Myothera ruficeps Spix, Av. Bras., i, 1825, 72, pl. 72, fig. 1 (locality not given; coll. Munich Mus.). — Formicarius ruficeps Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., ii Abth., 1869, 90, part. — Formicanus ruficeps rnficeps Hellmayr, Orn. Monats., x, March, 1902, 35 (geog. range).
  3. Formicarius nigrifrons Gould, Ann. and Mag. N. H., ser. 2, xv. May, 1855, 344 Chamicuros, e. Peru; coll. J. Gould); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855 (pub. May 16),) 68; Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 303; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 672 (monogr.). — Formicarius colma nigrifrons Snethlege, Journ. für Orn., Jan., 1908, 17 (Rio Purús, w. Brazil). — (?) Formicarius nigrifrons glaucopectus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, no. 961, Nov. 28, 1893, 673, in text (British Guiana; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).
  4. M[yothera] analis D'Orbigny and Latresnaye, Synop. Av., in Mag. de Zool., 1837, 14; cl. ii, pls. 77-79 (Yuracares and Chiquitos, Bolivia); D'Orbigny, Voy. Amér. Mérid., Ois., 1839, pl. 6 bis, fig. 1. — Formicanus analis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 46; Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 304, part; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 673 (monogr.). — Formicarius analis analis Hartert, Novit. Zool., ix, Dec, 1902, 613 (Bolivia to e. Peru; diagnosis). — M[yrmornis] analis Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, 1859, 7.
  5. Formicarius saturatus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, no. 961, Nov. 28, 1893, 677 (Princestown, Trinidád; coll. Am. Mus. N. H.). — Formicarius analis saturatus Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., vi, Feb. 16, 1894, 53 (Trinidad). — Formicarius hoffmanni saturatus Hellmayr, Novit. Zool., xiii, 1906, 33 (Trinidád; crit.).
  6. Myrmornis crissalis Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., Mar., 1861, 96, in text (Roraima, Brit. Guiana). — Formicarius crissalis Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 576 (Pará); Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 676 (monogr.). — F[ormicarius] a[nalis] crissalis Hellmayr, Novit. Zool., xiv, Nov., 1907, 392 (geog. range).
  7. Formicarius thoracicus Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, 101 (Machay, o. Ecuadór; coll. Branicki Mus.); Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 301, footnote; Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 685 (monogr.).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Two specimens, from Costa Rica.
  9. Nine specimens.
  10. Three specimens.
    Locality. Wing. Tall. Culmen. Tarsus. Middle
    toe.
    males.
    Eight adult males from southeastern Mexico 90.8 53.2 21.3 31.9 20
    One adult male from Guatemala 89 50 21 30.5 19.5
    females.
    Two adult females from southeastern Mexico 87.5 52.3 20.7 30 20
    One adult female from Guatemala 92.5 56 20 33 20
  11. In F. m. moniliger the color of the back varies from bright mummy brown to chestnut-brown; in F. m. intermedius it is deep raw-umber, while in F. m. pallidus it is light olive-brown or between broccoli brown and isabella color. In F. m. pallidus the color of the chest is drab-gray, in F. m. intermedius mouse gray.
  12. Four specimens.
  13. One specimen.
  14. Fourteen specimens.
  15. Twelve specimens.
    Locality. Wing. Tall. Culmen. Tarsus. Middle
    toe.
    males.
    Ten adult males from eastern Costa Rica 90.6 54.4 20.9 33.9 19.2
    Four ad nit males from Nicaragua 89 52.1 22.5 32.6 18.9
    females.
    Ten adult females from eastern Costa Rica 88 51.4 20.1 29 18.7
    Two adult females from Nicaragua 89.7 53 21.3 32.3 19.3
  16. As in F. m. panamensis, there is in this form sometimes a more or less distinct indication of a chestnut or russet collar across the lower throat. Such specimens may be easily distinguished from F. m. moniliger by the very different color of the under tail-coverts (clear tawny or tawny-chestnut instead of light olive-brown and dusky), and much lighter, as well as more extended, color (deep vinaceous-cinnamon to cinnamon-rufous, instead of dull chestnut) of sides of neck and occiput and terminal portion of auricular region.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ten specimens, from Costa Rica.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Four specimens.
  19. Description from no. 28,203, Carnegie Museum; Juan Viñas, Costa Rica (Atlantic slope), May 7, 1907; M. A. Carriker, jr. (Type of Formicarius castaneiceps Carriker.)
  20. One specimen (type of F. castaneiceps Carriker).
  21. north-western Colombia; Nov. 8, 1907; Mervyn G. Palmer. (Possibly representing a distinct subspecies).
  22. The following citations of F. rufipectus refer to a different form:

    Formicarius rufipectus// (not of Salvin) Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 306, part(Baisa, w. Ecuadór). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 235 (Baisa, w. Ecuadór). — Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xv, 1899, no. 362, 33 (Gualea, w. Ecuadór). — Menegaux and Hellmayr, Bull. Soc. Philom., 1906, 52 (Esmeraldas, Pachijál, and Oyacachi, w. Ecuadór; crit.).