Birds of North and Middle America, part V/Genus 26. Hylopezus Ridgway

 

Genus HYLOPEZUS Ridgway.

Hylopezus[1] Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxii, Apr. 17, 1909, 71. (Type, Grallaria perspicillata Lawrence.)

Medium-sized terrestrial Formicariidæ (length about 120-125 mm.) with very long, slender, booted (nonscutellate) tarsi (more than two-fifths as long as wing), very short tail (one-third to about two-fifths as long as wing), slender bill, no rictal bristles, and under parts partly white, with chest more or less streaked with black. Bill shorter than head, slender, rather broad and depressed basally, its width at loral antiæ greater than its depth at same point and equal to half or more the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; culmen distinctly but not sharply ridged, straight basally, then gradually decurved, the tip of maxilla slightly uncinate; tomia nearly straight, that of maxilla distinctly notched subterminally, the mandibular notch very indistinct or obsolete; gonys convex and prominent basally, nearly straight and ascending terminally. Nostril exposed, horizontally oval, posteriorly nearly in contact with loral feathering, margined above by a narrow extension of the membranous integument of the nasal fossæ, an internal tubercle or septum showing within the upper posterior portion. Rictal bristles obsolete, but feathers of malar and loral regions with bristly shafts. Wing moderate, with longest primaries projecting decidedly beyond secondaries; sixth and seventh, fifth, sixth, and seventh, or fifth and sixth, primaries longest, the tenth (outermost) a little less than three-fifths to slightly more than two-thirds as long as the longest, the ninth much shorter than secondaries (H. dives)[2] or longer than secondaries (other species). Tail one-third (H. perspicillatus) to about two-fifths (H. macularius) as long as wing, very slightly rounded, the rectrices (12) rather broad, rounded terminally. Tarsus slightly more than two-fifths to nearly half as long as wing, slender, booted (nonsciitellate) or with scutella of acrotarsium faintly defined; middle toe, with claw, slightly more than three-fifths as long as tarsus (as long as or slightly longer than whole culmen); outer toe, without claw, reaching to or slightly beyond subterminal articulation of middle toe, the inner toe slightly shorter; hallux shorter than inner toe, considerably but not conspicuously stouter; basal phalanx of middle toe united for about half its length to outer toe, for loss than half to inner toe; claws rather short, slightly curved, that of hallux decidedly shorter than the digit. Plumage full, soft, and blended, that of rump and flanks (especially the former) more elongated and lax, that of pileum short, with feathers distinctly outlined; a very small naked postocular space.

Coloration. — Above olive (more grayish or dusky, on pileum) the back sometimes streaked with buff, the wings sometimes varied with buff or tawny; a buff orbital ring (indistinct or obsolete in H. dives); under parts with at least throat and abdomen white, the chest, sides, and flanks more or less buffy, ochraceous, or tawny, the first (at least) more or less streaked with black; sexes alike.

Range. — Nicaragua to Cayenne, southeastern Brazil, and western Ecuador.

(About nine species.[3])

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP HYLOPEZUS.

a. Wing-coverts unspotted; chest deep tawny-ochraceous, very narrowly streaked with black. (Caribbean slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica.)

Hylopezus dives (p. 154).

aa. Wing-coverts conspicuously spotted with buff or ochraceous; chest white or buffy, very heavily streaked with black.

b. Flanks light grayish buffy, streaked with dusky. (Hylopezus perspicillatus.)
c. Back and scapulars conspicuously streaked with buff. (Eastern Panamá)

Hylopezus perspicillatus perspicillatus (p. 155).

cc. Back and scapulars inconspicuously or not at all streaked. (Western Panamá and southwestern Costa Rica.)

Hylopezus perspicillatus lizanoi (p. 156).

bb. Flanks bright buffy or tawny-buff, unstreaked.
c. Chest more heavily and more extensively streaked with black; buffy spots on wing-coverts more sharply defined; outer web of primaries brownish tawny. (Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and Nicaragua.)

Hylopezus perspicillatus intermedius (p. 156).

cc. Chest less heavily and less extensively streaked with black; buffy spots on wing-coverts less sharply defined; outer web of primaries olive-brown. (Guiana and Amazon Valley.)

Hylopezus macularius (extralimital).[4]

HYLOPEZUS DIVES (Salvin).

DIVES ANTPITTA.

Adults (sexes alike). — Pileum and hindneck dull slate color, indistinctly streaked or squamated with slate-blackish; rest of upper parts dull slate color anteriorly passing into olive posteriorly, the feathers (especially the scapulars) with very narrow and mostly indistinct shaft-streaks of pale buffy; upper tail-coverts and tail russet-brown or vandyke brown; general color of wings deep olive-brown, the outer webs of primaries paler and more rufescent brown; outermost feather of alula edged with buff or ochraceous-buff; loral, orbital, and suborbital regions buff, more or less flecked with dusky, the lower-anterior portion of auricular region deeper buffy; upper-posterior portion of auricular region dull slate color, more or less tinged with olive; malar region, chin, and throat white or buffy white, the first more or less flecked with dusky; chest and sides of breast ochraceous, the feathers with median or central portion paler and edged with black, producing a streaked effect; sides, flanks, under tail-coverts and under wing-coverts plain ochraceous to rufous-tawny; inner webs of remiges passing into dull vinaceous-cinnamon on edges; maxilla brownish, paler along tomia, darker (sometimes nearly black) on culmen; mandible pale dull yellowish (in dried skins), usually tinged with brownish laterally or terminally; legs and feet pale yellowish or yellowish brown (in dried skins).

Adult male. — Length (skins), 118-129 (124); wing, 73.5-78 (75.8); tail, 29-31 (30); culmen, 19-19.5 (19.3); tarsus, 37; middle toe, 18-20.5 (19.2).[5]

Adult female. — Length (skin), 119; wing, 75; tail, 30; culmen, 18; tarsus, 36; middle toe, 19.

Caribbean slope of Costa Rica (Tucurríqui; Jiménez; Guácimo; La Vijágua) and Nicaragua (Chontales; Greytown; Rio Escondido; Los Sábalos).

Grallaria dives Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864 (pub. April 1, 1865), 582 (Tucurríqui, e. Costa Rica; coll. Salvin and Godman); Ibis, 1872, 313 (Chontales, Nicaragua). — Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1865, 182 (Greytown, Nicaragua); ix, 1868, 110 (Tucurríqui, Costa Rica). — Frantzius, Journ. für Orn., 1869, 306 (Costa Rica). — Sclater, Ibis, 1877, 450 (Tucurríqui, Costa Rica; Chontales, Nicaragua; monogr.; crit.); Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 323 (do.). — Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 406 (Los Sábalos, Nicaragua). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 406, footnote (crit.; Greytown and Los Sábalos). — Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 534 (Costa Rica; descr. young). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 243, pl. 53, fig. 1. — Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 504 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua).
[Grallaria] dives Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 76. — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 43.
Hylopezus dives Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 628 (Costa Rica).
Grallaricula perspicillata (not Grallaria perspicillata Lawrence) Sclater, Ibis, 1873, 373 (Chontales, Nicai'agua).

HYLOPEZUS PERSPICILLATUS PERSPICILLATUS (Lawrence).

LAWRENCE'S ANTPITTA.

Adults (sexes alike). — Pileum and hindneck plain slate color, passing into light olive on forehead, the feathers sometimes with very narrow and indistinct shaft-streaks of paler; rest of upper parts olive, the scapulars and interscapulars with more or less distinct mesial (usually guttate) streaks of buff, these sometimes margined with blackish; general color of wings rather browner olive than back, etc., the wing-coverts with terminal (usually triangular) spots of buff or ochraceous, outer web of exterior feather of alula buff, the outer webs of primaries with a basal area of dull ochraceous followed by a space of olive, the remaining portion pale ochraceous-brown; a broad and conspicuous orbital ring of buff or ochraceous-buff; lores buff, with, middle portion (vertically) black or dusky; suborbital region and anterior portion of auricular region buff, the former barred or flecked with black; auricular region (except lower-anterior portion) olive, with narrow shaft-streaks of buff; malar region and under parts white, the chest, breast (except median portion), and sides broadly streaked with black and tinged or suffused with buff, the flanks olive with indistinct broad streaks or flammulations of pale yellowish buff; under tail-coverts buff; under wing-coverts and broad edgings to inner web of remiges bright ochraceous or ochraceous- buff, the coverts near edge of wing more or less streaked with dusky; maxilla dark brown, usually paler terminally; mandible pale dull yellowish (in dried skins), brownish terminally; iris light brown;[6] legs and feet light brownish (in dried skins).

Adult male. — Length, (skins), 118-129 (125); wing, 77.5-82.5 (79.9); tail, 26.5-30 (28.7); culmen, 18-20 (18.8); tarsus, 34-37.5 (35.2); middle toe, 16-18.5 (17.1).[7]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 125-126 (125.5); wing, 78-79.5 (78.7); tail, 28-30 (29); culmen, 19; tarsus, 34-36.5 (35.2); middle toe, 16.5-18 (17.4).[8]

Panamá (Lion Hill; Panamá; Natá, Coclé; Divala; Santa Fé de Verágua; Santiago de Verágua; Mina de Chorcha; Volcán de Chiriquí).

Grallaria perspicilleta Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vii, 1862, 303, 326 (Lion Hill, Panamá; coll. G. N. Lawrence). — Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 357 (Lion Hill). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 146 (Santa Fé and Santiago de Verágua, Panamá); 1870, 196 (Volcán de Chiriquí and Mina de Chorcha, Panamá). — Sclater, Ibis, 1877, 449 (Panamá; monogr.; crit.); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 325, excl. syn. part (Panamá; Santa Fé, Mina de Chorcha, and Volcán de Chiriquí, Panamá). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1884, 406, footnote (crit.). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 242, pl. 53, fig. 2.
[Grallaria] perspicillata Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 76, part (Panamí). — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 44, part (Panamí).

HYLOPEZUS PERSPICILLATUS LIZANOI (Cherrie).

LIZANO'S ANTPITTA.

Similar to H. p. perspicillatus but back and scapulars plain olive (or with only a few very narrow streaks of buff on extreme upper back), the olive much more grayish, brown, or olive area on middle of primaries much less distinct (sometimes obsolete), and chest and sides usually more strongly suffused with yellowish buff.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 120-135 (126); wing, 79-84.5 (81.7); tail, 26.5-32 (30.2); culmen, 19-20.5 (19.6); tarsus, 34-37.5 (35.8); middle toe, 16.5-18.5 (17.3).[9]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 115-132 (125); wing, 79-84.5 (82.4); tail, 27.5-32 (30.2); culmen, 19-21 (19.8); tarsus, 32.5-37 (34.8); middle toe, 16.5-18 (17.5).[9]

Southwestern Costa Rica (Pozo Azúl de Pirrís; Pirrís; Pozo del Pitál, Rio Naranjo; Pozo de Térraba; Térraba; Boruca, Paso Reál and Pozo del Rio Grande, Boruca; Lagarto; Buenos Aires; Las Trojas; El Generál) and western Panamá (Divala).

Grallaria intermedia (not of Ridgway) Zeledón, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 115, part (Pozo Azúl de Pirrís, s. w. Costa Rica).
Grallaria lizanoi Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, no. 855, Sept. 4, 1891, 342 (Las Trojas, s. w. Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Costa Rica, vi, 1893, 19 (Pozo del Pitál, s. w. Costa Rica); Expl. Zool. Merid. Costa Rica, 1893, 44 (Lagarto, Boruca, Térraba, and Buenos Aires, s. w. Costa Rica). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 243. — Bangs, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 298 (Boruca, Paso Reál, and Pozo del Rio Grande, s. w. Costa Rica).
[Grallaria] lizanoi Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 44.
Hylopezus lizanoi Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 629 (Pacific slope Costa Rica, up to 1,500 ft.).

HYLOPEZUS INTERMEDIUS (Ridgway).

TALAMANCA ANTPITTA.

Similar to H. p. lizanoi but flanks and posterior portion of sides clear plain ochraceous or ochraceous-buff.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 114-137 (128); wing, 78-83 (80.5); tail, 25.5-32 (29.4); culmen, 17-20 (19); tarsus, 34-37 (35.7); middle toe, 17-18.5 (17.3).[9]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 113-134 (123); wing, 77-82 (70.6); tail, 27-35 (29); culmen, 18-20 (10.2); tarsus, 35-38.5 (36.2); middle toe. 16.5-18 (17.2).[10]

Caribbean slope of Costa Rica (Angostura; Talamanca; Santa Clara; Jiménez; San Carlos; La Balsa; El Hogár; Guápiles; Cuábre; Guácimo; Volcán de Turrialba; La Florída; La Cristina; La Vijágua) and Nicaragua (San Emilis, Lake Nicaragua).

Grallaria perspicillata (not of Lawrence, 1861) Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., ix, 1868, 110 (Angostura, Costa Rica). — Frantzius, Journ. für Orn., 1869, 306 (Costa Rica). — Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 62 (San Carlos, Costa Rica). — Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 325, part (syn. part; " Valza," i. e., La Balsa, Costa Rica).
[Grallaria] perspicillata Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 76, part (Costa Rica). — Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 44, part (Costa Rica).
G[rallaria] intermedia Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, no. 26, April 11, 1884, 406, footnote (Talamanca, Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).
Grallaria intermedia Zeledón, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 115, part (Jiménez, Costa Rica). — Cherrie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 534 (Jiménez; crit.). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 243 (Angostura, La Balsa, Talamanca, Jiménez, and San Carlos, Costa Rica).
[Grallaria] intermedia Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 44.
Hylopezus intermedius Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 629 (Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica up to 800 or 900 ft.; crit.; habits).


  1. ?, a wood, forest; ?, walking.
  2. In H. dives even the eighth primary (third from outside) is much shorter than the secondaries.
  3. Of these I have examined only H. dives (Sclater), H. intermedius (Ridgway), H. lizanoi (Cherrie), H. perspicillatus (Lawrence) and H. macularius (Temminck).
  4. Pitta macularia Temminck, Pl. Col., ii, livr. 85, July, 1830, in text to Genus Pitta, sp. 11 (Brazil). — C[olobathris] macularia Cabanis, in Wiegm. Archiv für Naturg., 1847, pt. i, 217. — Grallaria macularia Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1842, 334; Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XV, 1890, 324.
  5. Three specimens.
  6. Heyde, manuscript.
  7. Five specimens.
  8. Four specimens.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Ten specimens.
  10. Ten specimens.