Captain Cook's Journal During His First Voyage Round the World/Chapter 1
CHAPTER 1. ENGLAND TO RIO JANEIRO.
REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES ON BOARD HIS MAJESTY'S BARK ENDEAVOUR.
[May to July 1768.]
RIVER THAMES, Friday, May 27th, to Friday, July 29th. Moderate and fair weather; at 11 a.m. hoisted the Pendant, and took charge of the Ship, agreeable to my Commission of the 25th instant, she lying in the Bason in Deptford Yard. From this day to the 21st of July we were constantly employed in fitting the Ship, taking on board Stores and Provisions, etc. The same day we sailed from Deptford and anchored in Gallions reach, were we remained until the 30th. The transactions of Each Day, both while we lay here and at Deptford, are inserted in the Log Book, and as they contain nothing but common Occurrences, it was thought not necessary to insert them here.
[July to August 1768.]
July 30th to August 7th. Saturday, July 30th, Weighed from Gallions, and made sail down the River, the same day Anchored at Gravesend, and the next Morning weighed from thence, and at Noon Anchored at the Buoy of the Fairway. On Wednesday, 3rd of August, Anchored in the Downs in 9 fathoms of water, Deal Castle North-West by West. On Sunday, 7th, I joined the Ship, discharged the Pilot, and the next day saild for Plymouth.
Monday, 8th. Fresh Breezes and Cloudy weather the most part of these 24 hours. At 10 a.m. weighed and came to sail; at Noon the South Foreland bore North-East 1/2 North, distant 6 or 7 Miles. Wind West by North, North-West.
Tuesday, 9th. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. At 7 p.m. the Tide being against us, Anchored in 13 fathoms of Water; Dungeness South-West by West. At 11 a.m. Weighed and made Sail down Channel; at Noon, Beachy Head, North by East 1/2 East, distant 6 Leagues, Latitude observed 50 degrees 30 minutes North. Wind North-West to North.
Wednesday, 10th. Variable: light Airs and Clear weather. At 8 p.m. Beachy Head North-East by East, distant 4 Leagues, and at 8 a.m. it bore North-East by North, 9 Leagues. Found the Variation of the Compass to be 23 degrees West; at Noon the Isle of Wight North-West by North. Wind West by North, North-East by East.
Thursday, 11th. Light Airs and Clear weather. At 8 p.m. Dunnose North by West 5 Leagues, and at 4 a.m. it bore North-North-East 1/2 East, distant 5 Leagues. Wind Variable.
Wednesday, 12th. Light Airs and Calms all these 24 Hours. At Noon the Bill of Portland bore North-West 1/2 West, distant 3 Leagues. Latitude Observed 50 degrees 24 minutes North. Wind Easterly.
Thursday, 13th. Ditto weather. At Noon the Start Point West 7 or 8 miles. Latitude Observed 50 degrees 12 minutes North, which must be the Latitude of the Start, as it bore West. Wind Variable.
Sunday, 14th. Fine breezes and Clear weather. At 1/2 past 8 p.m. Anchored in the Entrance of Plymouth Sound in 9 fathoms water. At 4 a.m. weighed and worked into proper Anchoring ground, and Anchored in 6 fathoms, the Mewstone South-East, Mount Batten North-North-East 1/2 East, and Drake's Island North by West. Dispatched an Express to London for Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander to join the Ship, their Servants and Baggage being already on board. Wind North-Easterly.
Monday, 15th. First and latter parts Moderate breezes and fair; Middle squally, with heavy showers of rain. I this day received an order to Augment the Ship's Company to 85 Men, which before was but 70. Received on board fresh Beef for the Ship's Company. Wind South-West to South-East.
Tuesday, 16th. First part moderate and Hazey; Middle hard Squalls with rain; the Latter moderate and fair. Received on board a supply of Bread, Beer, and Water. A Sergeant, Corporal, Drummer, and 9 Private Marines as part of the Complement. Wind South-South-East to North-East.
Wednesday, 17th. Little wind and Hazey weather. Sent some Cordage to the Yard in order to be Exchanged for Smaller. Several Shipwrights and Joiners from the Yard Employed on board refitting the Gentlemen's Cabins, and making a Platform over the Tiller, etc. Wind South-East to East by South.
Thursday, 18th. Little wind and Cloudy. Struck down 4 guns into the Hold. Received on board 4 More, with 12 Barrels of Powder and several other Stores. Shipwrights and Joiners Employed on board. Wind Ea sterly.
Friday, 19th. Former part little wind with rain; remainder fair weather; a.m. Read to the Ship's Company the Articles of War and the Act of Parliament, they likewise were paid two Months' Wages in advance. I also told them that they were to Expect no additional pay for the performance of our intended Voyage; they were well satisfied, and Expressed great Cheerfulness and readiness to prosecute the Voyage. Received on board another Supply of Provisions, Rum, etc. Wind North-West to South-West.
Saturday, 20th. First part little wind with rain; remainder fresh Gales and thick rainy weather. Employed making ready for Sea. Wind West-South-West.
Sunday, 21st. Fresh Gales and Ditto Weather. The Shipwrights having finished their Work, intended to have sailed, instead of which was obliged to let go another Anchor. Wind South-West, West-South-West.
Monday, 22nd. Fresh Gales, with heavy squalls of Wind and Rain all this 24 hours. Wind South-West.
Tuesday, 23rd. Ditto weather. Struck Yards and Topmasts; Anchored between the Island and the Main His Majesty's Ship Gibraltar. Wind West by South.
Wednesday, 24th. Fresh Gales and Hazey weather; a.m. hove up the Small Bower Anchor and got Topmasts and Yards. Wind West by South.
Thursday, 25th. Moderate and Cloudy weather; a.m. received on Board a supply of Beer and Water, and returned all our Empty Casks. Loosed the Topsails as a Signal for Sailing. Wind West, North by West, North-West by West.
[Sailed from Plymouth.]
Friday, 26th. First part fresh Breezes and Cloudy, remainder little wind and Clear. At 2 p.m. got under Sail and put to Sea, having on board 94 Persons, including Officers, Seamen, Gentlemen, and their Servants; near 18 Months' Provisions, 10 Carriage Guns, 12 Swivels, with good Store of Ammunition and Stores of all kinds. At 8 the Dodman Point West-North-West, distant 4 or 5 Leagues; at 6 a.m. the Lizard bore West-North-West 1/2 West, 5 or 6 Leagues distant. At Noon Sounded and had 50 fathoms, Grey sand with small Stones and broken Shells. Wind North by West, North-West, West by South; course South 21 degrees East; distance 23 miles; latitude 49 degrees 30 minutes North, longitude 5 degrees 52 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 21 degrees West distant 23 miles.
Saturday, 27th. First part Light Airs and Clear weather, remainder fresh breezes and Cloudy. Berthed the Ship's Company, Mustered the Chests and Stove all that were unnecessary. Wind North-West, North-East, South-East; course South-West; distance 77 miles; latitude 48 degrees 42 minutes North, longitude 6 degrees 49 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 29 degrees East, 80 miles.
Sunday, 28th. Former part fresh Gales and Hazey with rain; remainder a Moderate breeze and Cloudy. Wind Easterly; course South 48 degrees West; distance 130 miles; latitude 47 degrees 16 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 7 minutes West; at noon Lizard North 40 degrees 5 minutes East; 69 leagues.
Monday, 29th. Light Airs and Hazey the Most part of these 24 hours with some Rain. Wind North-Westerly; course South 21 degrees West; distance 41 miles; latitude 46 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 29 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 37 degrees 45 minutes East, 86 leagues.
Tuesday, 30th. Fresh Gales all these 24 Hours. At 1/2 past 1 p.m. Spoke with His Majesty's Ship Guardaloupe; at 6 Close Reeft the Topsails, and got down the Top Gallant Yards. Wind Westerly; course South 27 degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 46 degrees 9 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 52 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 36 degrees East, 96 leagues.
Wednesday, 31st. First and Middle parts, Moderate breezes and Clear; Latter, fresh Gales and Cloudy. At 6 p.m. loosed the 2nd Reef out of the Topsails, and at 8 a.m. took them in again; at Noon Tacked and stood to the North-West, having stood before to the Southward. Wind West to South-West; course South 36 degrees East; distance 82 miles; latitude 45 degrees 3 minutes North, longitude 8 degrees 43 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North-North-East, 105 leagues.
[September 1768. Plymouth to Madeira.]
Thursday, September 1st. Very hard gales, with some heavy showers of Rain, the most part of these 24 Hours, which brought us under our two Courses, Broke one of our Main Topmast phuttock Plates, washed overboard a small Boat belonging to the Boatswain, and drowned between 3 and 4 Dozen of our Poultry, which was worst of all. Towards Noon it moderated, so that we could bear our Maintopsail close Reefd. At Midnight wore and stood to the Southward. Wind Westerly; course South 70 degrees West; distance 20 miles; latitude 44 degrees 56 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 9 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 28 degrees 15 minutes West, 109 leagues.
Friday, 2nd. Fresh Gales and Cloudy the most part of these 24 hours. P.M. got up the spare Mainsail to dry, it being Wet by the Water getting into the Sail room, occasioned by the Ship being very Leakey in her upper works. At 5 a.m. loosed 2 Reefs out of each Topsail, and saw the Land, which we judged to be Cape Finister and Cape Ortugal. At 10 Tackt, being about 4 miles off Shore, and stood to the North-West; at Noon, Cape Ortugal bore East by South, distance about 8 Leagues. Wind North by West, West, South-West, West-South-West; course South by West; distance 64 miles; latitude 43 degrees 53 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 26 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North-North-East, 130 leagues.
Saturday, 3rd. First part little wind and Hazey, with rain; remainder strong Gales with hard squalls, which brought us under our close Reeft Topsails, and obliged us to strike Topgallant Yards. At 8 a.m. wore ship and stood to the Southward. Wind South-West and West; course South 68 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 44 miles; latitude 44 degrees 9 minutes North, longitude 10 degrees 20 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 29 1/2 degrees East, 138 leagues.
Sunday, 4th. Fore part fresh Gales and Clear; remainder light Airs and Calm. At 6 a.m. Cape Finister bore South by West 1/2 West, distance 10 or 11 leagues. Loosed all the Reefs out of the Topsails, and got Topgallant Yards across. Wind Westerly, Calm; at noon, Island of Cyserga, East-South-East 3 leagues.
Monday, 5th. Light breezes and Calm all these 24 hours. At 2 p.m. had an Observation of the Sun and Moon, which gave the Longitude 8 degrees 42 minutes West from Greenwich. At 6 Cape Finister bore South by West 1/2 West, 6 Leagues. Variation of the Compass per Azimuth 18 degrees 42 minutes West. At Noon, Cape Finister South by East, distant 4 leagues; latitude observed 43 degrees 4 minutes, therefore Cape Finister must lay in latitude 42 degrees 53 minutes North. Wind Westerly, North-West, Calm.
Tuesday, 6th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather these 24 Hours. A.M. found the Variation by the Mean of 5 Azimuth to be 21 degrees 40 minutes West, 3 Degrees more than what it was found Yesterday, which I cannot account for, as both Observations appeared to me to be equally well made. At 10.28 had an Observation of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 9 degrees 40 minutes West from Greenwich. By this Observation Cape Finister must lay in 8 degrees 52 minutes, and by that made yesterday in 8 degrees 40 minutes. The Mean of the two is 8 degrees 46 minutes West of Greenwich the Longitude of the Cape, its latitude being 42 degrees 53 minutes North. Wind North-West; course South 42 degrees West; distance 70 miles; latitude 42 degrees 1 minute North, longitude 9 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 42 degrees East, 70 miles.
Wednesday, 7th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather; found the Variation to be 21 degrees 4 minutes West. Wind West-North-West; course South by West; distance 92 miles; latitude 40 degrees 29 minutes North, longitude 10 degrees 11 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 13 degrees East, 49 leagues.
Thursday, 8th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy weather. A.M. Past by 2 Sail, which were standing to the North-East. Wind West-North-West to West by South; course South 4 degrees East; distance 111 miles; latitude 38 degrees 33 minutes North, longitude 10 degrees West; at noon, Cape Finister North 12 degrees East, 88 leagues.
Friday, 9th. First part fresh Gales; remainder moderate breezes and fine, Clear weather. Set up the Topmast rigging, and found the Variation to be 19 degrees 50 minutes West. Wind West by North to North-East; course South 40 degrees West; distance 116 miles; latitude 37 degrees 4 minutes North, longitude 11 degrees 33 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 20 degrees East, 124 leagues.
Saturday, 10th. A steady, fresh breeze and fine Clear weather. Found the Variation of the Compys by the Evening and Morning Amplitude and by 2 Azimuth to be 20 degrees 59 minutes West. Wind North-East by East; course South 36 minutes West; distance 130 miles; latitude 35 degrees 20 minutes North, longitude 13 degrees 28 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 24 degrees East, 166 leagues.
Sunday, 11th. The same Winds and weather Continue. Found the Variation to be this Evening 18 degrees 54 minutes, and in the Morning 17 degrees 58 minutes West, they both being the mean result of several good Observations. Wind North-East by East, North by East; course South 32 degrees West; distance 94 miles; latitude 34 degrees 1 minute North, longitude 14 degrees 29 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 26 1/2 degrees East, 198 leagues.
Monday, 12th. Moderate breezes and fine Clear weather. At 6 a.m. the Island of Porto Santo bore North-West by West, distance 9 or 10 leagues. Hauld the Wind to the westward at noon, the Deserters extending from West-South-West to South-West by South, the Body of Madeira West 1/2 South, and Porto Santo North-North-West 1/2 West. Wind North-North-West; course South 40 degrees West; distance 102 miles; latitude 32 degrees 43 minutes North, longitude 15 degrees 53 minutes West.
Tuesday, 13th. Fresh breezes and clear weather. At 8 p.m. anchored in Funchal Road in 22 fathoms. Found here His Majesty's Ship Rose and several Merchants' Vessels. In the Morning new berthed the Ship, and Moor'd with the Stream Anchor, half a Cable on the Best Bower and a Hawser and a half on the Stream Wind North-West.
MOORED IN FUNCHAL ROAD, MADEIRA, Wednesday, 14th. First part fine, Clear weather, remainder Cloudy, with Squals from the land, attended with Showers of rain. In the Night the Bend of the Hawsers of the Stream Anchor Slip'd owing to the Carelessness of the Person who made it fast. In the Morning hove up the Anchor in the Boat and carried it out to the Southward. In heaving the Anchor out of the Boat Mr. Weir, Master's Mate, was carried overboard by the Buoy rope and to the Bottom with the Anchor. Hove up the Anchor by the Ship as soon as possible, and found his Body intangled in the Buoy rope. Moor'd the Ship with the two Bowers in 22 fathoms Water; the Loo Rock West and the Brazen Head East. Saild His Majesty's Ship Rose. The Boats employed carrying the Casks a Shore for Wine, and the Caulkers caulking the Ship Sides. Wind Easterly.
Thursday, 15th. Squals of Wind from the Land, with rain the most part of these 24 Hours. Received on board fresh Beef and Greens for the Ship's Company, and sent on shore all our Casks for Wine and Water, having a Shore Boat employed for that purpose. Wind North-East to South-East.
Friday, 16th. The most part fine, Clear weather. Punished Henry Stevens, Seaman, and Thomas Dunster, Marine, with 12 lashes each, for refusing to take their allowance of Fresh Beef. Employed taking on board Wine and Water. Wind Easterly.
Saturday, 17th. Little wind, and fine Clear weather. Issued to the whole Ship's Company 20 pounds of Onions per Man. Employed as Yesterday. Wind Westerly.
Sunday, 18th. Ditto Weather. P.M. receive d on board 270 pounds of fresh Beef, and a Live Bullock charged 613 pounds. Compleated our Wine and Water, having received of the former 3032 Gallons, of the Latter 10 Tuns. A.M. unmoor'd and prepar'd for Sailing. Funchall, in the Island of Madeira, by Observations made here by Dr. Eberton, F.R.S., lies in the latitude of 32 degrees 33 minutes 33 seconds North and longitude West from Greenwich 16 degrees 49 minutes, the Variation of the Compass 15 degrees 30 minutes West, decreasing as he says, which I much doubt; neither does this Variation agree with our own Observations. The Tides flow full, and Change North and South, and rise Perpendicular 7 feet at Spring Tides and 4 feet at Niep tides. We found the North point of the Diping Needle, belonging to the Royal Society, to Dip 77 degrees 18 minutes. The Refreshments for Shipping to be got at this place are Wine, Water, Fruit of Several Sorts, and Onions in Plenty, and some Sweatmeats; but Fresh Meat and Poultry are very Dear, and not to be had at any rate without Leave from the Governour. Wind southerly, East-South-East, South-West.
[Sailed from Madeira.]
Monday, 19th. Light breezes and fine Clear weather. At Midnight Sailed from Funchall. At 8 a.m. the high land over it bore North 1/2 East. Unbent the Cables, stow'd the Anchors, and issued to the Ship's Company 10 pounds of Onions per Man. Ship's Draught of Water, Fore 14 feet 8 inches; Aft 15 feet 1 inch. Wind East-South-East; latitude 31 degrees 43 minutes North; at noon, High land over Funchall North 7 degrees East, 49 miles.
Tuesday, 20th. Light Airs and Clear weather. P.M. took several Azimuth, which gave the Variation 16 degrees 30 minutes West. Put the Ship's Company to three Watches. Wind variable; course South 21 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 28 miles; latitude 31 degrees 17 minutes, longitude 17 degrees 19 minutes West; at noon, Funchall, Island of Madeira, North 13 degrees East, 76 miles.
Wednesday, 21st. First part light Airs, remainder fresh Breezes and Clear weather. Served Hooks and Lines to the Ship's Company, and employed them in the day in making Matts, etc., for the Rigging. Wind South-West to South-West by West; course South 60 degrees East; distance 60 miles; latitude 30 degrees 46 minutes North, longitude 16 degrees 8 minutes South; at noon, Funchall North 10 degrees West, 113 miles.
Thursday, 22nd. Genteel breezes and Clear weather. At 4 p.m. saw the Salvages bearing South; at 6, the Body of the Island bore South 1/2 West, distant about 5 leagues. Found the Variation of the Compass by an Azimuth to be 17 degrees 50 minutes West. At 10 the Isles of Salvages bore West by South 1/2 South, distance 2 leagues. I make those Islands to be in latitude 30 degrees 11 minutes South, and South 16 degrees East, 58 leagues from Funchall, Madeira. Wind South-West; course South 35 degrees 30 minutes East; distance 73 miles; latitude 29 degrees 40 minutes North, longitude 15 degrees 31 minutes West; at noon, Funchall North 21 degrees West, 62 leagues.
Friday, 23rd. Light breezes and Clear weather. At 6 a .m. saw the Peak of Teneriff bearing West by South 1/2 South, and the Grand Canaries South 1/2 West. The Variation of the Compass from 17 degrees 22 minutes to 16 degrees 30 minutes, Wind South-West, North-East; course South 26 degrees West; distance 54 miles; latitude 28 degrees 51 minutes North, longitude 15 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Funchal North 12 degrees 45 minutes West, 77 leagues.
Saturday, 24th. A fresh Breeze and Clear weather the most part of these 24 Hours. I take this to be the North-East Trade we have now got into. At 6 p.m. the North-East end of the Island of Teneriff West by North, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Off this North-East point lies some Rocks high above the water. The highest is near the point, and very remarkable. By our run from Yesterday at Noon this end of the Island must lie in the latitude of 28 degrees 27 minutes and South 7 degrees 45 minutes East, distance 83 leagues from Funchal, and South 18 degrees West, 98 miles from the Salvages. At 1 a.m. the Peak of Teneriff bore West-North-West. Found the Variation to be this morning 16 degrees 14 minutes West. The Peak of Teneriff (from which I now take my departure) is a very high Mountain upon the Island of the same name — one of the Canary Islands. Its perpendicular higth from Actual Measurement is said to be 15,396 feet. It lies in the Latitude of 28 degrees 13 minutes North, and Longitude 16 degrees 32 minutes from Greenwich. Its situation in this respect is allowed to be pretty well determined. Wind North-East by East; latitude 27 degrees 10 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 18 degrees 45 minutes, 74 miles.
Sunday, 25th. A Steady Trade Wind and Clear Weather. The Variation by the Amplitude this Evening was 14 degrees 58 minutes West. Wind East by North, East-North-East; course South 41 degrees West; distance 126 miles; latitude 25 degrees 36 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 33 degrees 15 minutes East, 61 leagues.
Monday, 26th. Fresh breezes and somewhat Hazey. Variation by this Evening Amplitude 15 degrees 1 minute West. Wind North-East by East; course South 22 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 122 miles; latitude 23 degrees 43 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 29 degrees East, 317 miles.
Tuesday, 27th. Ditto weather. Served Wine to the Ship's Company, the Beer being all Expended but 2 Casks, which I intend to keep some time Longer, as the whole has proved very good to the last Cask. At Noon found the Ship by Observation 10 miles a Head of the Log, which I suppose may be owing to a Current setting in the same direction of the Trade Wind. Wind North-East; course South 19 degrees West; distance 145 miles; latitude 21 degrees 26 minutes North; at noon, Peak of Teneriff, North 26 degrees East, 154 leagues.
Wednesday, 28th. A Fresh Trade wind and Hazey weather. The Variation of the Compass by the mean of Several Azimuth taken this Evening 12 degrees 46 minutes, and in the Morning by the same Method 12 degrees 43 minutes West. This day's Log and Observed Latitude agree, which is not reconcilable to Yesterday. Exercised the People at Small Arms. Wind North-East, East-North-East; course South 12 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 150 miles; latitude 18 degrees 59 minutes North; at noon, Peak of Teneriff North 23 degrees 15 minutes East, 204 leagues.
Thursday, 29th. Fresh breezes and Hazey weather. The Variation 12 degrees 33 minutes West; the Observed Latitude ahead of that given by the Log 10 miles. Wind North-East by North; course South 14 degrees West; distance 90 miles; latitude 17 degrees 32 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff, North 33 degrees East, 236 leagues.
[Off Cape de Verd Islands.]
Friday, 30th. A Steady breeze and Pleasant weather. At 6 a.m. saw the Island of Bonavista (one of the Cape de Verd islands), Extending from South by East to South-West by South, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Ranged the East side of this Island at the Distance of 3 or 4 miles from the Shore, until we were obliged to Haul Off to avoid a Ledge of Rocks which stretched out South-West by West from the Body or South-East Point of the Island 1 1/2 leagues. Had no ground with 40 fathoms a Mile without this Ledge. The Island of Bonavista is in Extent from North to South about 5 leagues, is of a very uneven and hilly Surface, with low sandy beaches on the East side. The South-East part of the Island, from which I take my Departure, by an Observation this day at Noon lies in the latitude of 16 degrees North, and according to our run from Madeira in the longitude of 21 degrees 51 minutes West from Greenwich, and South 21 degrees West; 260 leagues from Tenerriff. Drawings Numbers 1 and 2 represent the appearance of the East side of this Island, where (2) is the South-East point, with the hill over it, which is high, of a round Figure, and the southermost on the Island. Wind North-East; course South 12 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 97 miles; latitude 15 degrees 37 minutes North per observation; Teneriffe, North 20 degrees 43 minutes East, 262 1/3 leagues; at noon the hill on the South-East Point of the Island Bonavista North 69 degrees West, distant from the shore 3 leagues.
Saturday, October 1st. A steady gale and somewhat Hazey. Variation by very good Azimuths this Evening 10 degrees 37 minutes, and by the same in the Morning 10 degrees 0 minutes West; at Noon found the ship a Head of the Log 5 Miles. Wind North, North-North-East; course South 12 degrees 12 minutes West; distance 114 miles; latitude 14 degrees 6 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon Island of Bonavista, South-East point, North 9 degrees West, 116 miles.
Sunday, 2nd. First part a Steady breeze and pleasant weather, remainder light breezes and Cloudy. At noon found the Ship by Observation ahead of the Log 7 miles. Wind North by East, North-North-West; course South 1 degree West; distance 92 miles; latitude 12 degrees 34 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 45 minutes East, 69 leagues.
Monday, 3rd. Cloudy weather, with light winds and Calms. Variation by this Evening Amplitude South 8 degrees 49 minutes West. A.M. hoisted out a Boat to try if there was any Current; found one setting to the South-East at the rate of 3/4 of a Mile per hour. Wind North, calm, South-South-West 1/2 West; course South 3 degrees 30 minutes East; distance 20 miles; latitude 12 degrees 14 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees East, 76 leagues.
Tuesday, 4th. Calm for the Greatest part of the 24 Hours. By an Observation we had this Morning of the Sun and Moon found our Selves in the Longitude of 22 degrees 32 minutes 30 seconds West from Greenwich; that by account is 21 degrees 58 minutes, the Difference being 34 miles Westerly, which does not agree with the Setting of the Current, for having try'd it twice to-day and found it set to the East-South-East 1 Mile per Hour, and at the same time found the Ship to the Southward of the Log by the Noon Observation 10 miles. Served Portable soup and Sour kroutt to the Ship's Company. Wind variable; course South 53 degrees West; distance 17 miles; latitude 11 degrees 53 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 33 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees East, 82 leagues.
Wednesday, 5th. Light breezes of Wind, sometimes Clear and sometimes Cloudy weather. Variation 6 degrees 10 minutes West by an Amplitude and Azimuth this evening. At noon found the Ship by the Observed Latitude 7 Miles to the Southward of the Log, and by the Observed Longitude 30 degrees to the Eastward of Yesterday's Observations; and as these Observations for finding the Longitude (if carefully observed with good Instrument) will generally come within 10 or 15 Miles of each other, and very often much nearer, it therefore can be no longer in Doubt but that there is a Current setting to the Eastward; yet we cannot have had this Current long, because the Longitude by account and that by Observation agree to-day, but Yesterday she was 28 miles to the Westward of the Observation. Wind calm, North-East, East; course South 29 degrees East; distance 57 miles; latitude 10 degrees 56 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 3 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees East, 101 leagues.
Thursday, 6th. First part light Breezes and Cloudy; Middle frequent heavy Squalls, with rain, till towards Noon when we had again little wind. Found the Variation by the mean of 3 Azimuth, taken this Morning, to be 8 degrees 52 minutes West, which makes the Variation found Yesterday doubtful. Wind North-East, South-East, Southerly; course South 10 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 77 miles; latitude 9 degrees 40 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 28 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 4 degrees East, 128 leagues.
Friday, 7th. Variable light Airs and Calm all these 24 Hours. At Noon found the Current to set South-East 1/4 South one Mile per hour, and yet by Observation at Noon I find the Ship 12 Miles to the Northward of Account, a Circumstance that hath not hapned for many days, and which I believe to be owing to the heavy Squalls we had Yesterday from the South-East, which obliged us to put frequently before the Wind. Wind Southerly, calm, Northerly; course South 5 degrees West; distance 10 miles; latitude 9 degrees 42 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 19 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 4 degrees East, 127 leagues.
[Between Cape de Verd Islands and Equator.]
Saturday, 8th. First part, light Airs and Clear weather; Middle, Squally, with Thunder and Lightning all round; lat ter part, Moderate breezes and Clear weather. Had several Azimuths both in the Evening and Morning, which gave the Variation South 8 degrees 30 minutes West. At Noon found by Observation that the Ship had outrun the Log 20 Miles, a Proof that there is a Current setting to the Southward. Wind North-East by North to East-South-East; course South by East; distance 78 miles; latitude 8 degrees 25 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 4 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 1 degree 45 minutes East, 152 leagues.
Sunday, 9th. Light Airs and fine Clear weather. Found the Variation by a great Number of Azimuth made this Afternoon to be 8 degrees 21 minutes 30 seconds West, and by the Morning Amplitude 7 degrees 48 minutes. At Noon try'd the Current, and found it set North-North-West 3/4 West, 1 1/8 miles per hour. The Shifting of the Current was conformed by the Observed Latitude Wind East-South-East; course South 16 degrees West; distance 29 miles; latitude 7 degrees 58 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 13 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees 40 minutes, 161 leagues.
Monday, 10th. First part, light breezes and Clear weather; Middle, squally, with heavy Showers of Rain; latter, Variable, light Airs and Calm and dark gloomy weather. At 3 p.m. found the Current to set North-North-East 1/4 East, 1 1/4 Mile per Hour, and at Noon found it to set North-East 3/4 North at the same rate, and the Variation to be 8 degrees 39 minutes West by the Mean of Several Azimuth. Wind South-East by East, Southerly; course South; distance 10 miles; latitude 7 degrees 48 minutes North; longitude 22 degrees 13 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees East, 164 leagues.
Tuesday, 11th. Very Variable weather, with frequent Squalls rain, and Lightning. By the Observed Latitude at Noon I find the Ship hath only made 22 Miles Southing since the last Observation two days ago, whereas the Log gives 55 Miles, a Proof that there is a Current setting to the Northward. Wind South-East; course South 52 degrees West; distance 18 miles; latitude 7 degrees 36 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 8 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees East, 168 leagues.
Wednesday, 12th. Much the same weather as Yesterday the first part, the remainder mostly Calm and cloudy weather. A.M. try'd the Current and found it set South by West 1/4 West, 1/2 Mile per Hour, which is not agreeable to yesterday's remark. Wind variable; course South 33 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 20 miles; latitude 7 degrees 21 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 39 minutes West; at noon Bonavista North 5 degrees East, 174 leagues.
Thursday, 13th. Light Airs of Wind, with some heavy showers of rain. Variation by Azimuth and Amplitude this Evening 8 degrees 46 minutes West. At Noon try'd the Current, and found it set South 3/4 East, 1/3 of a Mile per Hour; but finding the Observation and Log agree, I am inclinable to think it hath had no effect upon the Ship. Wind South-West, West-South-West; course South 16 degrees 45 minutes East; distance 21 miles; latitude 7 degrees 1 minute North, longitude 22 degrees 32 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees East, 181 leagues.
Friday, 14th. Dark, gloomy weather, with much rain, the Wind Variable from West-South-West to South-South-East, sometimes on one Tack and sometimes on the other. Wind West-South-West to South-South-East; course South 5 degr ees East; distance 24 miles; latitude 6 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 30 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees 15 minutes, 188 leagues.
Saturday, 15th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; Middle, Squally, with rain; latter part, light Airs and Clear weather. A little before Noon took several Observations of the sun and moon, the mean result of which gave the Longitude to be 23 degrees 46 minutes West from Greenwich, which is 1 degree 22 minutes more Westerly than that by account carried on from the last Observation; and the Observed Latitude is 24 Miles more Northerly than the Log since the Last Observation 2 days ago, all of which shows that the North-Westerly Current hath prevailed for this some Days past. Wind South-South-West to South-East; course South 30 degrees East per log; distance 12 miles; latitude 6 degrees 50 minutes North; longitude 22 degrees 23 minutes West per account, 23 degrees 46 minutes per sun and moon; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North by East, 187 leagues.
Sunday, 16th. First part Calm, the remainder Gentle breezes and fine, Pleasant weather. At 3 hours 30 minutes 39 seconds Apparent time p.m. the observed distance of the sun and moon's nearest Limb was 52 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds; the Altitude of the sun's lower limb 32 degrees 39 minutes; the Altitude of the moon's lower limb 58 degrees 36 minutes; the longitude of the Ship from the aforegoing Observations 23 degrees 33 minutes 33 seconds West from Greenwich, differing 13 minutes from those made this Morning or Yesterday, the Ship laying all the time becalmed. Variation of the Compass 8 degrees 45 minutes West. Wind South-East, variable, North-East; course South 2 degrees East; distance 72 miles; latitude 5 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 23 degrees 45 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 15 minutes East, 208 leagues.
Monday, 17th. Variable, light Airs and Calm clear weather. 1/2 past 1 p.m. took two Distances of the sun and moon, the first of which gave the Longitude 23 degrees 45 minutes 56 seconds, and the last 23 degrees 44 minutes West, the difference being not quite two miles, which shows how near to one another these observations can be made. Wind South, South-East, variable; course South by West 1/2 West; distance 11 miles; latitude 5 degrees 17 minutes North, longitude 23 degrees 47 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 15 minutes East, 212 leagues.
Tuesday, 18th. Sometimes little wind, sometimes Squally, with rain and Lightning. Wind South to East-South-East; course South 48 degrees West; distance 45 miles; latitude 4 degrees 47 Minutes North, longitude 24 degrees 23 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 12 degrees East, 229 leagues.
Wednesday, 19th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. The Observed Latitude to the Northward of that given by the Log 9 miles, which I suppose must be owing to a Current. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course South 42 degrees West; distance 88 miles; latitude 3 degrees 44 minutes North, longitude 25 degrees 23 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 14 degrees East, 253 leagues.
Thursday, 20th. A Genteel gale and Clear weather. At a little before 5 p.m. had an Observation of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 25 degrees 46 minutes West from Greenwich, which is more Westerly than that by account carried on from the last Observation; and the Observed latitude being again to the Northward shows that there must be a current setting between the North and West. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course South 52 degrees West; distance 48 miles; latitude 3 degrees 16 minutes North, longitude 26 degrees 20 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, North 18 degrees 30 minutes East, 270 leagues.
Friday, 21st. A moderate breeze, and for the most part clear weather. Longitude per the Mean of 2 Observations of the sun and moon made at 4 hours 45 minutes and at 4 hours 54 minutes p.m., 26 degrees 33 minutes West. Variation of the Compass 4 degrees 7 minutes West, and the Observed Latitude at Noon to the Northward of the Log 7 Miles. Wind South-East to South-South-East; course South 58 degrees West; distance 57 miles; latitude 2 degrees 46 minutes North, longitude 27 degrees 11 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista South-East point, North 21 degrees East, 281 leagues.
Saturday, 22nd. Moderate breezes and fine, pleasant weather. Variation 3 degrees 17 minutes West. Wind South-East by South; course South 43 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 1 degree 40 minutes North, longitude 28 degrees 12 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 23 degrees East, 312 leagues.
Sunday, 23rd. A moderate, Steady breeze and fine Clear weather. The Ship by Observation at Noon is 8 Miles to the Northward of the Log. Wind South-South-East; course South; distance 5 miles; latitude 1 degree 40 minutes North, longitude 28 degrees 12 West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 23 degrees East, 312 leagues.
Monday, 24th. First part ditto weather; remainder fresh Breezes and Cloudy, with some flying Showers of rain. Variation per Azimuth this morning 3 degrees West. At Noon by Observation found the Ship 11 Miles ahead of the Log. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course South 49 degrees West; distance 50 miles; latitude 1 degree 7 minutes North; longitude 28 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 25 degrees East, 328 leagues.
Tuesday, 25th. A Genteel breeze and Clear weather, with a Moist Air. Soon after sunrise found the Variation of the Compass to be 2 degrees 24 minutes West, being the Mean result of several very good Azimuths. This was just before we crossed the Line in the Longitude of 29 degrees 29 minutes West from Greenwich. We also try'd the Diping Needle belonging to the Royal Society, and found the North point to Dip 26 degrees below the Horizon; but this Instrument cannot be used at Sea to any great degree of accuracy on account of the Motion of the Ship, which hinders the Needle from resting. However, as the Ship was pretty steady, and by means of a Swinging Table I had made for that purpose, we could be Certain of the Dip to two Degrees at most. The Observed Latitude and that by account nearly Agree. Wind South-East to South-East by East; course South 30 degrees West; distance 95 miles; latitude 0 degrees 15 minutes South, longitude 29 degrees 30 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 26 degrees East, 358 leagues.
Wednesday, 26th. First part light Airs and Cloudy weather, the remainder a Moderate Breeze and Cloudy. After we had got an observation, and it was no longer Doubted that we were to the Southward of the Line, the Ceremony on this occasion pra ctis'd by all Nations was not Omitted. Every one that could not prove upon the Sea Chart that he had before Crossed the Line was either to pay a Bottle of Rum or be Duck'd in the Sea, which former case was the fate of by far the Greatest part on board; and as several of the Men chose to be Duck'd, and the weather was favourable for that purpose, this Ceremony was performed on about 20 or 30, to the no small Diversion of the Rest. Wind South-East to South-South-East; course South 31 degrees West; distance 77 miles; latitude 1 degree 21 minutes South, longitude 30 degrees 18 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 25 degrees 30 minutes East, 385 leagues.
Thursday, 27th. Fresh Gales and Close Cloudy weather. Variation 2 degrees 48 minutes West. Wind South-South-East to South-East; course South 38 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 79 miles; latitude 2 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 31 degrees 7 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 26 degrees East, 410 leagues.
Friday, 28th. Fresh Breeze and fine Clear weather. At a little past 1 a.m. Longitude in by the 3 following Observations — viz., by the Moon and the star Arietis, 32 degrees 27 minutes; by the Moon and Pollux, 32 degrees 0 minutes 15 seconds; by ditto, 31 degrees 48 minutes 32 seconds; the mean of the whole is 32 degrees 5 minutes 16 seconds West from Greenwich, which is 31 minutes more Westerly than the longitude by account carried on since the last Observation. The two first observations were made and computed by Mr. Green, and the last by myself. The star Arietis was on one side of the Moon and Pollux on the other. This day at Noon, being nearly in the latitude of the Island Ferdinand Noronha, to the Westward of it by some Charts and to the Eastward by others, was in Expectation of seeing it or some of those Shoals that are laid down in most Charts between it and the Main; but we saw neither one nor a Nother. We certainly passed to the Eastward of the Island, and as to the Shoals, I don't think they Exhist, grounding this my Opinion on the Journal of some East India Ships I have seen who were detain'd by Contrary winds between this Island and the Main, and being 5 or 6 Ships in Company, doubtless must have seen some of them did they lay as Marked in the Charts.,ref>There is a very dangerous reef, As Rocas, 80 miles west of Fernando Noronha. The Endeavour passed 60 miles east of latter.,/ref> Wind South-East to South-East by East; course South 33 degrees West; distance 93 miles, latitude 3 degrees 41 minutes South, longitude 32 degrees 29 minutes West.
Saturday, 29th. Fresh Breezes and pleasant weather. Variation of the Compass 2 degrees 25 minutes West. Wind East-South-East; course South by West; distance 101 miles; latitude 5 degrees 25 minutes South, longitude 32 degrees 48" West.
Sunday, 30th. A Steady breeze, and for the most part close cloudy weather. Variation by several Azimuths 1 degree 31 minutes West. At noon the observed latitude 7 miles southward of account. Wind East-South-East; course South 3/4 West; distance 107 miles; latitude 7 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 4 minutes West.
Monday, 31st. A Fresh breeze and Clear weather. Variation 0 degrees 15 minutes West. Observed Latitude again to the Southward of the Log. Wind East to East-South-East; course, South 1/2 West; distance 114 miles; latitude 9 degrees 1 minute South, longitude 33 degrees 16 minutes West.
[November 1768. Between Equator and Rio.]
Tuesday, November 1st. Moderate breezes, for the most part Cloudy. Variation by the mean of Several Azimuths 0 degrees 58 minutes West in the Evening, and in the Morning found it to be 0 degrees 18 minutes West. Wind East-South-East; course South 3/4 West; distance 98 miles; latitude 10 degrees 38 minutes South.
Wednesday, 2nd. A Steady breeze and fine pleasant weather. This Afternoon, by the mean of Several Azimuths and the Amplitude, found the Variation to be 0 degrees 34 minutes East, from which it appears that about the aforegoing Noon we have Crossed the Line of no Variation in the Latitude of 10 degrees 38 minutes South, and, according to the following Observations, in 32 degrees 0 minutes West longitude from Greenwich. At 5 hours 5 minutes 0 seconds Apparent time a.m. the longitude of the Ship and the Observation of the moon and the star Aldebaran was found to be 32 degrees 0 minutes 45 seconds; at 8 hours 17 minutes 0 seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 25 minutes 0 seconds; and at 9 hours 0 minutes 16 seconds, 32 degrees 19 minutes 0 seconds. The mean of the three is 32 degrees 14 minutes 55 seconds. And again at 7 hours 12 minutes 52 seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 10 minutes 4 seconds; and at 7 hours 19 minutes 42 seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 15 minutes 20 seconds. The mean of these two is 32 degrees 12 minutes 42 seconds, and the mean of the whole is 32 degrees 13 minutes 43 seconds West from Greenwich, which is less by a whole Degree than that by account, which is a Considerable Error to be made in 5 Days in these low Latitudes. One would think from this that we must have had a Current setting to the Eastward, which is not likely that it should set against the settled trade wind. The 3 first of these Observations were made by Mr. Green, and the 2 last by myself. Wind East-South-East, South; course South by West; distance 132 miles; latitude 12 degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 32 degrees 20 minutes West per Observation.
Thursday, 3rd. A Fresh Trade wind and fair weather. Variation per Azimuth this Evening 0 degrees 47 minutes East, and at a little past 9 a.m. longitude in per sun and moon 33 degrees 0 minutes West of Greenwich. Wind East by South-East; course South 15 degrees West; distance 128 miles; latitude 14 degrees 51 minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 7 minutes West.
Friday, 4th. A Steady Gale and fair weather. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 1 degree 29 minutes West, ditto 1 degree 28 minutes West, and by the Amplitude 1 degree 12 minutes West; mean 1 degree 23 minutes West, by which it appears that we have again Crossed the Line of no Variation. At 1/2 past 9 a.m. the longitude of the Ship, per Observation of the sun and moon, 33 degrees 26 minutes 30 seconds. Wind East by South; course South 19 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 125 miles; latitude 16 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 37 minutes West.
Saturday, 5th. Fine pleasant weather. Variation per Azimuth this morning 3 degrees 21 minutes East, which makes me Doubtful of the Variation found yesterday, tho' at the time I had not the least room to doubt of the Accuracy of the Observations. Longitude per Observation 34 degrees 43 minutes 30 seconds West. Wind East to North-East; course South 30 degrees 35 minutes West; distance 109 miles; latitude 18 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 34 degrees 50 minutes West.
Sunday, 6th. First and Latter part squally, with heavy Showers of rain; middle moderate and fair. I now determined to put into Rio de Janeiro in preferance to any other port in Brazil or Falkland Islands, for at this place I knew we could recruit our Stock of Provisions, several Articles of which I found we should in time be in want of, and at the same time procure Live Stock and refreshment for the People; and from the reception former Ships had met with here I doubted not but we should be well received. Wind North-North-East, variable, South; course South 55 degrees West; distance 74 miles; latitude 19 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 35 degrees 50 minutes West.
Monday, 7th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather. P.M. found the Variation to be 4 degrees 49 minutes East. At 6 Sounded and had 32 fathoms Water; the Bottom Coral Rocks, fine Sand and Shells, which Soundings we carried upon a South-West 1/2 West Course 9 or 10 leagues, and then had no ground with 100 fathom. We were by our account and per run afterwards 54 Leagues East from the Coast of Brazil and to the Southward of the Shoals called Abrollos, as they are laid down in Most Charts. Wind South-East to North-East; course South 58 degrees West; distance 68 miles; latitude 19 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 36 degrees 50 minutes West.
Tuesday, 8th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. variation by the Mean of 12 Azimuths 5 degrees 26 minutes East, and by an Amplitude in the Morning 7 degrees 52 minutes. At 6 a.m. saw the Land of Brazil bearing North-West 1/2 North, distance 8 or 10 leagues. At 8 Sounded, had 37 fathoms, Coarse Sand, broken Shells, and Coral Rocks. At 9 brought too and Spoke with a Fishing Boat, who informed us that the land in sight lay to the Southward of Santo Espiritu. It appears high and Mountainous; the drawing Number (3) exhibits a View of this Land as it appeared from the Ship (A), being near to Santo Espiritu, and a remarkable hill (B) bore North-West 1/2 North, distance 7 or 8 leagues. Made Sail in Shore, the wind being Southerly. Had from the above Depth to 14 fathoms the same sort of Bottom. Found the Ship at Noon by Observation 10 Miles to the Southward of account, which I suppose to be occasioned by a Current setting between the South and West. Wind North-North-East, North by West, South-South-West to South by West; course South 50 degrees West; distance 140 miles; latitude 21 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 35 minutes West.
Wednesday, 9th. First and Latter part Hazey, with a Moderate Breeze; Middle, fresh Gales, with Thunder, Lightning, and rain. At 3 p.m. tack't in 16 fathoms, distance from the Shore 5 Leagues, the land Extending from the North-West by West to North-East. At 5 took the 2nd Reef in the Topsails and got down Topgallant Yards, stood to the South-East until Midnight, then tack'd, Sounding from 16 to 55 fathoms. At 8 a.m. Loosed the Reefs out of the Topsails and got Topgallant Yards a Cross; unstowed the Anchors and bent the Cables. At Noon Latitude Observed 21 degrees 29 minutes South, the Land Extending from South-West by South to North-North-West, distance 4 leagues, Soundings from 55 to 10 fathoms. Wind South-South-East, South-South-West, South; course South 62 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 28 miles; latitude 21 degrees 29 minutes South.
[Nearing Rio Janeiro.]
Thursday, 10th. Moderate breezes and Hazey upon the Land. Stood in for the Shore South-West 1/2 West. Depth of water from 10 to 9 fathoms and from 9 to 16 fathoms, being then 4 Leagues from the Land. From 16 fathoms it shoalded gradually to 5 fathoms; then we tacked, being about 1 1/2 Leagues from the Shore. The extreams of the Land to the Southward, which we took for Cape St. Thomas, bore South 3/4 West, distance 4 leagues. The Land from Cape St. Thomas to the Northward lies North by East 1/2 East. Along the Shore is low land covered with Wood and Sandy Beaches, but inland are very high Mountains, the greatest part of them being hid in the Clouds. Stood off until 5 in the Morning East and East by South. Depth of Water 10, 20, 16, 23, and 30 fathoms. At Noon Latitude Observed 21 degrees 30 minutes; Depth of Water 14 fathoms; Grey sand with black Specks. Extreams of the Land from South-West by West to North-North-West; distance 12 or 14 leagues. Wind South-South-East, South-East by South, South by East; course East 1/4 South; distance 17 miles; latitude 21 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 43 minutes West per account.
Friday, 11th. First and Latter parts, moderate breezes and fair, but Cloudy and Hazey over the Land; middle, a fresh breeze and Cloudy. At 8 tack'd and Stood to the North-East. Extream of the Land to the southward, which we took for Cape St. Thomas, South-West 1/2 South; distance 5 or 6 leagues; Depth of Water 13 fathoms, Grey sand. At 11 a.m. tack'd in 14 fathoms and Stood to the South-South-East, and at 3 a.m. Stood over a Shoal or Bank of 6 fathoms, afterwards the Depth increased to 30 fathoms, at Noon in 36 fathoms. Latitude Observed 22 degrees 37 minutes South, which is 10 miles to the Southward of the Log. No Land in sight. Wind South-East to East; course South 5 degrees West; distance 67 miles; latitude 23 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 49 minutes West.
Saturday, 12th. Genteel breezes and fine Clear weather. At 2 p.m. Sounded, but had no ground with 38 fathoms, and soon after sounded and had none at 50 fathoms, from which it appears that we are to the Southward of the Bank we have been upon this 2 days past. It Extends off from the Land between the Latitude 21 degrees and 22 degrees nor less than 18 or 20 Leagues, How much farther I know not. Standing in from Sea, the Depth of Water very soon diminisheth from 30 to 20 and 17 fathoms, afterwards gradually from 9, 8 and even to 6 fathoms; but between this Shoal Water and the Main, which is 6 or 7 leagues, you will have 10, 12 and even 16 fathoms, till you come within 2 or 3 leagues of the Shore. The Bottom is of Various kinds, sometimes Coral Rocks, Coral Rocks and broken Shells, Coarse sand and broken Shells, Small Stones and at other times fine Sand varying at almost every Cast of the Lead. At 5 p.m. saw the Land bearing North-West by West 1/2 West, distance 10 or 12 leagues, which proved to be the Island of Cape Fr io; it appeared in two Hillocks, and from the Deck looked like two Islands. Took several Azimuth of the Sun, which gave the Variation 6 degrees 40 minutes East. At 8 a.m. the Isle of Cape Frio bore West by North 4 leagues. This Island is situated in the Latitude of 23 degrees 2 minutes South, and according to our Reckoning in the Longitude of 38 degrees 45 minutes West from Greenwich, but from many Circumstances I have good reason to think that our reckoning is wrong and that it lies in the Longitude 41 degrees 10 minutes West. It is not of a Large Circuit, but Tolerable high, with a hollow in the Middle, which makes it look like 2 Islands when it first makes its appearance out of the Water. It lays not far from the Main, which with the Island forms a right Angle, one side trending North and the other West. To the northward of the Island and between it and the Main there appears to lay several smaller Islands near each other. The Main land on the Sea Coast appears to be low, but inland are high Mountains. Drawing Number 4 exhibits a View of this Island when it bore West-North-West, distance 4 leagues. Wind North-East, East-North-East; course South 60 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 59 miles; latitude 23 degrees 6 minutes South; Isle of Cape Frio North 60 degrees East, 4 leagues.
Sunday, 13th. First and Latter parts a Genteel Sea breeze and Clear weather, the Middle Calm. P.M. standing along Shore for Rio De Janeiro observed that the land on the Sea Coast is high and Mountainous, and the shore forms some small Bays or Coves wherein are Sandy Beaches. At 8 Shortned Sail; the Sugar Loaf Hill at the West Entrance to Rio De Janeiro West-North-West, distant 4 or 5 leagues, at the same time was abreast of 2 Small rocky Islands, that lie about 4 Miles from the Shore. At 9 a.m. Sprung up a light breeze at South-East, at which time we made Sail for the Harbour, and sent the Pinnace with a Lieutenant before us up to the city of Rio De Janeiro, to acquaint the Vice Roy with the reason that induced us to put in here, which was to procure Water and other refreshments, and to desire the Assistance of a Pilot to bring us into proper Anchoring ground; at Noon Standing in for the Harbour.
[At Rio Janeiro.]
ARRIVAL AT RIO DE JANEIRO, Monday, 14th. Moderate Sea and Low breezes and fine pleasant weather. At 5 p.m. Anchored in 5 fathoms just above the Isle of Cobras, which lies before the City of Rio De Janeiro. A little before we Anchor'd the Pinnace return'd and informed me that the Vice Roy had thought proper to detain the Officer until I went ashore. Soon after we Anchored a Boat came on board bringing several of the Vice Roy's Officers, who asked many Questions in respect to the Ship: Cargo, from whence she came, Number of Guns, Men, etc., all of which was Answered to their satisfaction. They told me it was the Custom of the Port to Detain the first Officer that came from any Ship on her first Arrival until a Boat from the Vice Roy had Visited her; that my Officer would be sent on board as soon as they got on sho re, which was accordingly done. About this time a Boat filled with Soldiers kept rowing about the Ship, which had orders, as I afterwards understood, not to Suffer any one of the Officers or Gentlemen, except myself, to go out of the Ship. In the Morning I waited upon the Vice Roy and obtained leave to purchase Provisions, Refreshments, etc., for the Ship, but obliged me to employ a person to buy them for me under a pretence that it was the Custom of the Place, and he likewise insisted (notwithstanding all I could say to the contrary), on putting a Soldier into the Boats that brought anything to or from the Ship, alledging that it was the Orders of his Court, and they were such as he could not Dispence with, and this indignity I was obliged to submit to, otherwise I could not have got the supplys I wanted; being willing, as much as in me lay, to avoid all manner of Disputes that might cause the least delay, and at the same time to Convince him that we did not come here to Trade, as I believe he imagined — for he Certainly did not believe a word about our being bound to the Southward to observe the Transit of Venus, but looked upon it only as an invented story to cover some other design we must be upon, for he could form no other Idea of that Phenomenon (after I had explained it to him), than the North Star Passing through the South Pole; these were his own words. He would not permit the Gentlemen to reside ashore during our Stay here, nor permit Mr. Banks to go into the country to gather plants, etc.; but not the least hint was given me at this time that no one of the Gentlemen was to come out of the Ship but myself, or that I was to be put under a Guard when I did come; but this I was soon Convinced of after I took my leave of His Excellency and found that an Officer was to attend upon me whereever I went, which at first the Vice Roy pretended was only meant as a Complement, and to order me all the Assistance I wanted. This day the People were Employed in unbending the Sails, in fitting and rigging the Spare Topmasts in the room of the others, and getting on shore Empty Water Casks.
Tuesday, 15th. Fine pleasant weather. Received on board fresh Beef and Greens for the Ship's Company, with which they was served every Day During our Stay here. Got all the Empty Casks on shore, and set the Coopers to Work to repair them; Heeld and Boot Topt the Starboard side.
Wednesday, 16th. Set up the Forge to repair the Iron Work; the People employed in Heeling and Boot Topping the Larboard side, Blacking the Yards, etc.
Thursday, 17th. Set some People to repair the Sails and the Caulkers to Caulk the Ship; the rest of the People employed in the Hold and about the Rigging. For 3 days past I have remonstrated to the Vice Roy and his Officers against his putting a Guard into my Boat, thinking I could not Answer it to the Admiralty the tamely submitting to such a Custom, which, when practiced in its full force, must bring Disgrace to the British Flag. On the other hand, I was loath to enter into Disputes, seeing how much I was like to be delay'd and imbarrassed in getting the supplys I wanted, for it was with much difficulty that I obtained leave for one of my People to attend the Market to buy necessaries for my Table and to assist the Agent to buy the things for the Ship. Having gained this Point and settled everything with the Agent in regard to what was wanting for the Ship, I resolved, rather than be made a Prisoner in my own Boat, not to go any more ashore unless I could do it without having a Soldier put into the Boat, as had hitherto been done; and thinking that the Vice Roy might lay under some Mistake, which on proper Application might be clear'd up, I therefore drew up a Memorial stating the whole case and sent to the Vice Roy this afternoon; and thus a Paper War commenced between me and His Excellency, wherein I had no other Advantage than the racking his invention to find reasons for treating us in the manner he did, for he never would relax the least from any one point.
Friday, 18th. This day I received an Answer to my Memorial, wherein he tells me, amongst other things, that if I think it hard submitting to the Customs of this Port I may leave it when I please; but this did not suit my purpose at present, but I resolved to make my stay as short as possible. I must own that the Memorial of the Vice Roy's was well drawn up and very much to the Purpose, which is more than I can say of any of the subsequent ones.
Saturday, 19th. Close cloudy weather. Employed getting aboard Rum, Water, and other necessaries. Caulking and refitting the Ship. Punished John Thurman, Seaman, with 12 Lashes for refusing to assist the Sailmaker in repairing the Sails.
Sunday, 20th. First part cloudy weather; the Middle very hard Storms of Wind and Rain; the Latter moderate, with rain. This Afternoon sent Lieutenant Hicks in the Pinnace with an Answer to the Vice Roy's Memorial, with orders not to Suffer a Soldier to be put into the Boat; upon which the Guard Boat attended him to the Landing Place and reported it to the Vice Roy, who refused to receive the Memorial, and ordered Mr. Hicks on board Again; but in the Meantime they had put a Guard into the Boat, which Mr. Hicks insisted should be order'd out, that he might return on board in the same manner as he came, without a Guard; and upon his refusing to return other way, all the Crew were by Arm'd force taken out of the Boat (though they gave no provocation nor made the least resistance) and hurried to Prison, where they remained until the next day. Mr. Hicks was then put into one of their Boats, and brought on board under the Custody of a Guard. Immediately upon my hearing of this I wrote to the Vice Roy demanding my Boat and Crew and his Excellency's reason for detaining her, and inclosed the Memorial he had before refused to receive. This I sent by a petty Officer, as I had never objected against a Guard being put into any of my Boats wherein was no Commissioned Officer. He was admitted ashore and delivered the Letter, and was told an Answer would be sent the next day. This evening, between 8 and 9 o'Clock, came on an Excessive hard storm of Wind and Rain, the Longboat coming on board the same time with 4 Pipes of Rum in her. The rope they got hold of broke, and she went a Drift. The Yawl was immediately sent after her; but the Longboat filling with Water, they brought her to a Grapnel and left her, and the Yawl with the People got on board about 3 in the morning. Early this Morning I sent to the Vice Roy to acquaint him with the loss of our Boat, to desire leave and the Assistance of a Shore Boat to look after her, and at the same time to demand the Pinnace and her Crew. After some time the whole was granted, and we was so fortunate as to find the Longboat the same Day, and likewise the 4 Pipes of Rum; but every other thing that was in her was lost.
Monday, 21st. This Morning I received his Excellency's Answer to my last Memorial and Letter. In his Letter he owns there was some indecency in Detaining the Boat, but lays the Blame to my Officer, who only Executed the orders I gave him with Spirit. In one part of his Memorial he says that from the Built of the Ship and other Circumstances he Doubts that she is the King's. This I thought proper to Answer in Writing by telling his Excellency that I was ready to produce my Commission. Rain the most part of this Day.
Tuesday, 22nd. Moderate breezes, with frequent Showers of Rain. Employed getting on board Water, Provisions, etc. Caulking the Ship and repairing the Sails.
Wednesday, 23rd. Fine pleasant weather. Employed as before and setting up the Rigging. This day I received from the Vice-Roy an Answer to my last Memorial, wherein he still keeps up his Doubts that she is not a King's Ship, and accuseth my people of Smuggling, a thing I am very Certain they were not guilty of, and for which his Excellency could produce no proof, notwithstanding many Artful means were made use of to tempt such of our People as were admitted ashore to Trade by the Very Officers that were under His Excellency's own Roof. I thought it incumbent on me to Answer this Memorial, in which I desir'd His Excellency to take into Custody any one of my People that should be found trading even if it amounted to no more than one of the Sailors selling his Cloaths from off his Back for a Bottle of Rum — for what His Excellency called smuggling I was very certain amounted to no more, and even this was only Suspicions of my own.
Thursday, 24th. This day a Spanish Packet (a Small Brig) from Buenos Ayres put in here in her way to Spain. This Vessel belonged to his Catholic Majesty, and notwithstanding the Vice-Roy had all along pretended that the orders he had respecting Foreign Vessels were General, yet this Vessel meet with very Different Treatment from us. No Guard was put over her, and her Officers and Crew went wherever they pleased.
Friday, 25th, Saturday, 26th. Employed getting on board Water as fast as the Coopers could set up and repair the Casks, setting up the rigging and Caulking the Ship's sides.
Sunday, 27th. Bent the Sails and Cleaned the Ship Fore and Aft.
Monday, 28th. Fine pleasant weather. The Caulkers having finished the sides, paid them with Tar. This day I unexpectedly received an Answer from my last Memorial, wherein were only a few weak Arguments to support His Excellency's Suspicions that the Ship did not belong to the King, and that my People Smugled. This Memorial I answered.
Tuesday, 29th. Employed Lashing the Casks that were on the upper Deck and between Decks and making ready for Sea.
Wednesday, 30th. Punished Robert Anderson, Seaman, and William Judge, Marine, with 12 Lashes Each, the former for leaving his Duty ashore and attempting to desert from the Ship, and the latter for using abusive language to the Officer of the Watch, and John Reading, Boatswain's Mate, with 12 lashes for not doing his Duty in punishing the above two Men. Sent a Shore to the Vice-Roy for a Pilot to Carry us to Sea, who sent one on board together with a Large Boat, which I did not want, but it is the Custom in this Port for the Pilots to have such a Boat to attend upon the Ship they Pilot out, and for which you must pay 10 shillings per day, besides the Pilot's fees, which is Seven pounds four Shillings Sterling.
Thursday, 1st December. Wind at South-East, which hinder'd us from Sailing as we intended. Received on board a large Quantity of fresh Beef, Greens and Yams for the Ship's Company.
Friday, 2nd. This morning sent a Packet for the Secretary of the Admiralty on board the Spanish Pacquet, containing copies of all the Memorials and Letters that have passed between the Vice-Roy and me, and likewise another Packet containing Duplicates thereof I left with the Vice-Roy to be by him forwarded to Lisbon. At 9 Weighed and came to Sail and turned down the Bay. Peter Flower, Seaman, fell overboard, and before any Assistance could be given him was drowned; in his room we got a Portugue.
Saturday, 3rd. First part, moderate breezes at South-East; remainder, fresh Gales at South with Rain. At 1 p.m. Anchored in 18 fathoms Water in the Great Road (see Plan).
Sunday, 4th. Fore and Middle parts fresh Gales at South-South-East with heavy rain; Latter, Variable Light Airs and fair weather. Hoisted in the Long-boat and secured her.
Monday, 5th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; Middle, Thunder, Lightning and Rain; latter, little wind at South-West and fair. At 4 a.m. Weighed and tow'd down the Bay (being Calm) with an intent to go to Sea, but having 2 Shott fired at us from Santa Cruze Fort was obliged to come to an Anchor and to send a Boat to the Fort to know the Reason of their firing, who it seems had no orders to let us pass, without which no Ship can go to Sea. This surprized me not a little, as I had but this very morning received a very Polite Letter from the Vice-Roy (in answer to one I had wrote some days ago), wherein he wishes me a good voyage. I immediately dispatched a petty Officer to the Vice-Roy to know the reason why we was not permitted to pass the Fort; the Boat very soon return'd with an order to the Captain of the Fort to let us pass, which Order had been wrote some Days Ago, but either by Design or neglect had not been sent. At 11 weighed in order to put to Sea, but before we could heave up the Anchor, it got hold of a Rock, where it held fast in spite of all our endeavours to Clear it until the Sea Breeze set in.
Tuesday, 6th. The Sea breeze continued all this day. At 2 p.m. the Ship tended to the Wind, which cleared the Anchor. Hove it up and run higher up the Bay and Anchored in 15 fathoms, a little below the Isle or Church of Bon Voyage; found the cable very much rubbed several fathoms from the Anchor.
Wednesday, 7th. First and latter part a Genteel breeze at South-East and East; the Middle, Calm. At 5 a.m. weighed and tow'd out of the Bay; at 8 Discharged the Pilot and his Boat. A breeze of Wind Springing up Easterly made Sail out to Sea, and sent a boat to one of the Islands laying before the Bay to cut Brooms, a thing we was not permitted to do while we lay in the Harbour; the Guard Boat which had constantly attended all the time we lay in the Bay and Harbour did not leave us until the Pilot was discharged. At noon the Sugar Loaf at the west Entrance of the Bay bore North by West 1/2 West, distance, 8 or 9 miles.
[Description of Rio J aneiro.]
A DESCRIPTION OF THE BAY OR RIVER OF RIO DE JANEIRO.
The few days' delay we met with in getting out of Rio de Janeiro gave me an opportunity of Drawing a Plan or Sketch of great part of the Bay, but the Strict watch that was kept over us during our whole stay hinder'd me from taking so accurate a Survey as I wisht to have done, and all the Observations I could make was taken from on board the Ship. This Plan hath no pretensions to accuracy, yet it will give a very good idea of the place, differing not much from the truth in what is Essential.
The Bay of Rio de Janeiro, by some called a River — which its Name Signifies — but this I think is improper, it being nothing more than a Deep inlet of the Sea, into which no considerable fresh water River Emptys itself that I could hear of. Be this as it will, it is Capacious and Capable of Containing a vast Number of Shipping where they may ride in perfect Security. The Entrance is Situated West by North 18 Leagues from Cape Frio, and may be known by a remarkable Hill in the Form of a Sugar Loaf, at the West Entrance of the Bay; but as all the Coast is exceeding high, terminating at the top in Peaked Hills, it is much better known by the Islands laying before it, one of which (called Rodonda) is high and round in form of a Hay Stack, and lies South by West 2 1/2 leagues from the Sugar Loaf or Entrance of the Bay. A little without the East Entrance of the Bay, and near the shore, lay 2 Islands near each other: 3 leagues from the Eastward and 4 miles from the Shore are 2 low Rocky Islands, which are the first you meet with in coming from the Eastward or from Cape Frio.
To sail into Rio de Janeiro there is not the least Danger until you are the length of the Fort of Santa Cruze, which stands on the point that forms the East Entrance of the Bay or River; on the West Entrance is Fort Lorio, built upon a Rock which lies close to the Main Land, the distance from one Fort to the other is 3/4 of a mile East and West, but the Channel for Shipping is not quite so broad by reason of Sunken Rocks laying off each of the Forts; these rocks may not be properly placed in the plan, being only laid down from the information of the Pilot. The Narrowness of the Channell here causeth the Tides both Flood and Ebb to run pretty strong, insomuch that you cannot Stem it without a fresh breeze of Wind, nor is it safe Anchoring because the bottom is foul and Rocky. By keeping in the Middle of the Channell you will not only avoid being forced to come to an Anchor, but all other Dangers. Being got within the entrance your Course up the Bay is North by West 1/2 West and North-North-West something more than one League; this brings you the length of the great Road, and North-West and West-North-West one league more carrys you the length of the Ilha dos Cobras, which lies before the City. Keep the North side of this Island close on board and Anchor above it in 5 fathoms of water, where you see most Convenient before the Monastery of Benedictines, which stands upon a hill at the North-West End of the City. Small Ships and Vessels generally lay between the Town and the Ilha dos Cobras, but in order to get there they must come round the North side of the Island.
I shall now give the best description I can of the Different Forts that are Erected for the Defence of the Bay. The first you meet with coming in from Sea is a Battery of 22 Guns, seated in the Bottom of a sandy Bay, which is on the South side of the Sugar Loaf, and can be designed for no other use than to hinder an Enemy from landing in that valley, from whence I suppose they may March up to the Town or round by the West side of the Sugar Loaf to attack the Forts that are on that side of the Entrance into the Bay, the first of which is Seated under the foot of the Sugar Loaf on a low Isthmus which joyns the Peninsula or point of the Bay with the Land of the Sugar Loaf. It appears to be a square of Stone Work without a Ditch, with Bastions and furnished with Cannon. A little within this fort are 2 battrys of 5 or 6 Guns each. They are designed to play upon Shipping, but neither these battrys or the Fort are out of reach of a Ship's Cannon. Hard by these batterys stands Fort Logie. It is an irregular hexagon, built of Stone upon a Small Rock standing at the west Entrance of the Bay, and is surrounded on all Sides by the Sea. It is mounted with 14 or 15 guns, which are placed so as to play upon Shipping going in and out of the Harbour. There is only one way to go into it, which is by Steps Leading up to a Sally Port on the North-West side. Opposite this is the Fort of Santa Cruze, built upon a low rocky point that forms the East Entrance of the Bay. It hath the Appearance of a Regular Fortification of Stone Work built upon the Slope of the Rock, on which account there are in some places 2 Tier of Guns. It hath no Ditch but on the Land side, where it is cut out of the Rock; in every other part the Sea washes up to its Walls. It seems everywhere to be well Mounted with Cannon Except on the land side, where none are wanting, because they could be of no use, the land being so very high above it. Yet, after all, neither this Fort nor those on the opposite shore do not appear to be of any great Strength, even against Shipping, for which they are wholly design'd, being the key of the Bay. They lay low, and Ships may come so near as to have them entirely within the reach of their Guns; but it would require 5 or 6 Sail of the line to insure Success. Between 2 and 3 Miles within the Entrance of the Bay, on the West Side, is the Isle Borghleone, upon the east point of which is Erected a Battry of Stone, and Mounted with 17 pieces of Cannon. Besides this, on the highest part of the Island, is a Battry of 6 Guns mounted on an Open Platform. These battrys are designed to play upon Shipping in the Bay, and seems not ill designed for that purpose; yet they would be Obliged to Submit to the Attack of Shipping or that of a Land force, there being nothing to hinder the latter from Landing on the Island behind the Battrys. Opposite to this Island, on the low point on the east side of the Bay, is the Battry of St. Dominica of 7 Guns. A little without this Battry, on the East side of the Bay, is a small but high Island, close to the Shore, on the Top of which is the Church of Bonn Voyage, about half-way down the Cliff. Below the Church is a Battry of 3 Guns. Neither the one nor the other of these battry's are of much Consequence. They serve, indeed, to force Shipping coming into the Bay between 2 Fires, and hinder them from Anchoring on that side until they are silenced. The next fortification is that on the Ilha dos Cobras, the east point and North side of which consists of a Rampart Bastion and a Parrapet faced with Stones and mounted with Cannon, but no Ditch, which is not much wanting, as the works are built on the Edge of the rising Ground. The other side next the Town hath no other inclosure but a plain wall without any Guns. It is said that the works on this Island are in bad repair, on account of being so Extensive that they would take more men to Defend them than they could spare, and, placing no Dependancy on their Strength, let them go to decay. The ground on which the Monastry of Benedictines Stands Commands the Works on the Island. Over the South end of the City stands the Castle of St. Sebastian; it is Seated upon a Hill, and Commands the whole Town; and this is all I know of it, only that it is not counted a place of any great Strength. For the Defence of these Forts and the Town the King of Portugal Maintains 7 Regiments of Regular Troops. Those I saw were well cloathed and in good Condition; but this, as I was told, was not the Case with the whole. Besides these Troops are 3 Regiments of Militia, 2 of Horse and one of foot. These consist of the principal inhabitants of the place, who serve without pay, Muster and Exercise in turns nine Months in the year, on which account they rank with the Regular Troops.
The City of Rio de Janeiro is in the Latitude of 22 degrees 50 minutes South and Longitude 42 degrees 15 minutes West from Greenwich. According to Observations made at Sea it is Seated on a plain close to the Shore on the West side of the Bay, at the foot of Several high Mountains. It is neither ill designed nor ill built. The Houses are mostly stone, generally one and two Storys high, with Balconys to most of them. The Streets are of a Convenient breadth, and Cross each other at right Angles, and the whole City may be about 3 miles in Compass. It is Govern'd by a Governor appointed by the King. The present Governor is Don Anto Mendoyaz Fastada, who is no Friend to the English. It likewise is the Residence of the Vice-Roy and Captain General of the States of Brazil, who is as absolute as any Monarch on Earth, and the people to all appearance as much Slaves. This City and Adjacent parts about the Bay are said to contain 100,000 Souls; but not above a twentieth part are Whites. The rest are blacks, many of whom are free, and seem to live in tolerable Circumstances.
The city of Rio de Janeiro is supplied with Water from 2 Different parts of the Adjacent Mountains. That which comes from the Southward is Convey'd a Cross a Deep Valley by an Acquiduct, which Consists of a great Number of Arches placed in 2 Rows, one upon the other; from thence in pipes to a fountain which stands in the Middle of the Square before the Vice-Roy's Palace. At another part of the City is a Reservoir, to which the water is conveyed much in the same manner. From these 2 places, but mostly from the former, the inhabitants fetch all they want, where there is always a Centinel to keep order: and it is likewise here that the Ships Water. They land their Casks upon a Smooth sandy beach about 100 yards from the Fountain, and upon application to the Vice-Roy you have a Centinel to look after them and to clear the way for to come to the fountain to fill water. Upon the whole, Rio de Janeiro is not a bad place for Ships to put in at that want refreshments, not only because the Harbour is safe and Commodious, but that Provision and all manner of Refreshments may be had in tolerable plenty. Bread and Flour are, however, Scarce and Dear, being brought hither from Europe, and are never the better for that Passage. In lieu of these are to be had Yams and Casada. All sorts of Grain — though it may be the produce of this Country — is Dear. Fresh Beef (tho' bad) is to be had in plenty at about 2 1/4 pence per pound, and Jurked Beef about the same price. This is cured with Salt, and dryd in the shade, the bones being taken out, and the Meat cut into large but very thin slices. It eats very well, and if kept in a dry place will remain good a long time at Sea. Rum, Sugar, and Molasses are all good and Cheap. Tobacco is Cheap, but not good. Mutton they have very little. Hogs and all sorts of Poultry are to be got, tho' in no great plenty, and of Course rather dear. Garden Stuff and Fruit in plenty, but none that will keep long at Sea except Pumpkins.
They have a Yard for building Shipping and a small Hulk for heaving down by, there being no other method to come at a Ship's bottom, as the Tides doth not rise above 6 or 7 feet. At the New and full Moon it is high Water at that time about 8 o'clock, when the Land and Sea breezes are regular, but when they are not the Course of Tides are alter'd. The Sea breeze begins to blow about 10 or 12 o'clock, and continues until sunset, when it dies away and is succeeded by the land breeze, which continues most part of the night. From a little after sunrise until the Sea breeze sets in it is generally Calm, and is then the Hotest and mostDisagreeable part of the whole day.
- This is correct.
- Sisarga, near Coruna.
- This is correct.
- Cook, as all other navigators of his time, was unaware of the deviation of the compass caused by the iron of the ship.
- The correct longitude is 9 degrees 15 minutes West.
- Modern determination is 32 degrees 38 minutes North, 16 degrees 54 minutes West.
- Cook was right: the variation was increasing.
- The received height is 12,180 feet. Latitude 28 degrees 16 minutes North, Longitude 16 degrees 38 minutes West.
- This was the Counter Equatorial Current.
- The build and general appearance of the Endeavour not being that of a man-of-war, the Portuguese authorities entertained suspicions regarding her true character, which is not altogether surprising, considering the times; but we can well understand Cook's indignation.
- Modern determination, 22 degrees 54 minutes South, 43 degrees 10 minutes West.