Captain Cook's Journal During His First Voyage Round the World/Chapter 2
CHAPTER 2. RIO JANEIRO TO TAHITI.
REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES FROM RIO DE JANEIRO TOWARDS TERRA DEL FUEGO.
[December 1768. Rio to Strait Le Maire.]
THURSDAY, December 8th. Fore and Middle parts Moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder, little wind and Clear weather. At 3 p.m. the Boat returned from the Island; hoisted her in and made Sail at 6. The Sugar Loaf at the west Entrance of Rio de Janeiro bore North 1/2 East, distance 7 leagues; it lies from the City of Rio de Janeiro, from which I take my Departure, South-West 4 miles. Wind East-North-East, North-East, North by East; course South 7 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 85 miles; latitude 24 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 29 minutes West.
Friday, 9th. Genteel light breezes and Clear weather. At 3 a.m. the Fore top-gallant Mast broke short by the Cap; the Carpenter employed making another. Wind North, North-East, South-South-West; course South 22 degrees East; distance 32 miles; latitude 24 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 16 minutes West.
Saturday, 10th. Moderate breezes with some flying showers of Rain the first part. Wind southerly; course, South-East 1/2 East; distance 75 miles; latitude 25 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 12 minutes West.
Sunday, 11th. Little wind and Clear weather the Most part of this day. Serv'd Slops to the People. Wind southerly; course South 20 degrees East; distance 9 miles; latitude 25 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 8 minutes West.
Monday, 12th. First part, light Airs; remainder, Genteel breezes and Clear weather. Found the variation of the Compass by the Evening Amplitude and an Azimuth in the Morning to be 8 degrees 30 minutes East, and the Observed Latitude at Noon to be short of that given by the Log 10 Miles. Exercised the People at Great Guns and Small Arms. Wind variable; course South-South-West; distance 34 miles; latitude 26 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 23 minutes West.
Tuesday, 13th. First part Gentle breezes and Clear, remainder a Steady Gale. The weather a little hazey. Variation 8 degrees 23 minutes East. Wind North-East and North-North-East; course South 19 degrees 40 minutes West; distance 113 miles; latitude 28 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 6 minutes West.
Wednesday, 14th. First and latter parts, fresh breezes and Cloudy; middle, little wind, with Thunder, Lightning and Rain. The Caulkers employed Caulking the Ship's Decks. Wind, North-West, West, South by West; course South 16 degrees East; distance 87 miles; latitude 29 degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 55 minutes West.
Thursday, 15th. The first part a fresh Gale and dark Cloudy weather; Remainder, little wind and clear; a large swell from South-West. Wind South-West by South, South, East-South-East; course South 14 degrees 15 minutes East; distance 45 miles; latitude 30 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 39 minutes West.
Friday, 16th. Genteel breezes and Clear weather. Variation 9 degrees 36 minutes East. Wind East-North-East, North-West, North-East; course South 32 degrees West: distance 86 miles; latitude 31 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 32 minutes West.
Saturday, 17th. Hazey with frequent Showers of Rain all the Fore and Middle part; latter, Clear weather with a Gentle breeze of wind. Wind, variable from North-West, South-West, to South-South-East; course South 14 degrees West; distance 56 miles; latitude 32 degrees 15 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 48 minutes West.
Sunday, 18th. First part, light winds; remainder, fresh breezes and Clear weather. Variation 11 degrees 3 minutes East. Wind, South-East to North-East; course South 51 West; distance 43 miles; latitude 32 degrees 42 minutes South, longitude 43 degrees 27 minutes West.
Monday, 19th. A steady fresh breeze and fair weather. At half-past 5 p.m. Longitude in per Observation of the sun and moon 43 degrees 38 minutes West from Greenwich. Variation 11 degrees 3 minutes East. The Observed Latitude exceeds that given by the Log 7 Miles. Wind northerly; course South-West; distance 116 miles; latitude 34 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 45 degrees 6 minutes West.
Tuesday, 20th. A fresh breeze of Wind and hazey. Variation 13 degrees 44 minutes East. Observed Latitude exceeds that given by the Log 11 miles. Wind north; course South-West 1/4 South; distance 160 miles; latitude 36 degrees 2 minutes South, longitude 47 degrees 14 minutes West.
Wednesday, 21st. Wind and weather Variable. Saw several black sheer Waters. Sounded twice this 24 Hours but found no ground with 90 fathoms. The Observed Latitude again ahead of the Log 16 miles. Wind variable; course South 42 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 90 miles; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 48 degrees 30 minutes West.
Thursday, 22nd. Little wind the most part of this day. Variation 15 degrees 30 minutes East. Bent a New Suit of Sails. Wind southerly; course West; distance 40 miles; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 49 degrees 1 minute West.
Friday, 23rd. Light Airs and Clear weather. Saw some Turtle upon the Water but could not catch any. Sounded no ground with 200 fathoms. Variation 15 degrees 40 minutes East. Wind southerly; course North 48 degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 36 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 49 degrees 32 minutes West.
Saturday, 24th. First part Calm; remainder a Genteel breeze and fine Clear weather. This night had 2 Sets of Observations of the Moon and the Star Aldebaran, which gave the Longitude 49 degrees 54 minutes 15 seconds West; the first sett gave 49 degrees 55 minutes 15 seconds, and the Second 49 degrees 53 minutes 15 seconds. Wind calm, north-easterly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 39 miles; latitude 37 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 50 degrees 32 minutes West.
Sunday, 25th. Fresh breezes and fine Clear weather. Wind North-East by North to North; course South 50 degrees West; distance 116 miles; latitude 38 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 52 degrees 5 minutes West.
Monday, 26th. A Fresh breeze of Wind and Cloudy weather; passed by some Rock Weed. At noon the Observed latitude 26 Miles to the Southward of the Log, which I believe is chiefly owing to her being Generally steer'd to the Southward of her Course. Yesterday being Christmas Day the people were none of the Soberest. Wind North; course South-West; distance 158 miles; latitude 40 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 54 degrees 30 minutes West.
Tuesday, 27th. Fresh breezes and Hazey with Squalls which Obliged us during the Night to take in the small Sails and 2 reefs in the Topsails which were let out in the Morning. Wind northerly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 123 miles; latitude 41 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 56 degrees 15 minutes West.
Wednesday, 28th. First part Strong Gales and Cloudy, which Obliged us to get down Top-Gallant Yards. At 8 p.m. it blew a Storm of Wind with Rain which brought us under our Mainsail with her Head to the Westward. Sounded 50 fathoms, fine brown Sand; at midnight had 40 fathoms, the same bottom. At 4 a.m. had 46 fathoms Coral Rock. The weather being more Moderate, made Sail under the Courses and Set the Topsails with 2 Reefs in. Wind South-East to South; latitude 40 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 58 degrees 29 minutes West.
Thursday, 29th. First part moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder fresh breezes and Clear. P.M. loosed all the Reefs out, and got Topgallant Yards a Cross. Variation per Azimuth 16 degrees 12 minutes, per Amplitude 16 degrees 32 minutes; Mean of the Two 16 degrees 22 minutes East. Between 9 and 10 a.m. took 7 sets of Observations between the sun and moon to find the Longitude of the Ship. Each set Consists of three Observations; the Mean of the whole gave 59 degrees 18 minutes 34 seconds West of Greenwich. The result of each set was as follows: viz., 1st set, 59 degrees 8 minutes; Second, 59 degrees 21 minutes; Third, 59 degrees 34 minutes; Fourth, 59 degrees 17 minutes; Fifth, 59 degrees 11 minutes 45 seconds; Sixth, 59 degrees 19 minutes 30 seconds; and the Seventh, 59 degrees 20 minutes 45 seconds. The greatest differance between any two — viz., the first and third — is but 26 minutes, and the mean of these two differ from the mean of the whole only 2 minutes 26 seconds. This shews to what degree of accuracy these observations can be made even by Different Persons, for four of these were made and computed by Mr. Green and the rest by myself. The Longitude given by the Ship, reckoning from the last Observation 5 Day s ago, differs only 8 Miles from the Observation, which shews that we have not been in any Currents. Soundings from 40 to 47. Wind North-Easterly; course South 46 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 81 miles; latitude 41 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 59 degrees 37 minutes West.
Friday, 30th. Little wind, and sometimes Calm; the first part Clear weather, remainder Foggy and Hazey. Soundings from 44 to 49 fathoms; Grey sandy Bottom. Caught both this Morning and last Night a great Number of insects. Some were upon the Wing, but the greater part were upon the water, and many of these alive and of such sort as cannot fly far; and yet at this Time we could not be less than 30 Leagues from Land. Wind variable; course South 30 degrees West; distance 54 miles; latitude 42 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 60 degrees 15 minutes West.
Saturday, 31st. Cloudy weather, with some Lightning and a few showers of rain. Variation 18 degrees 36 minutes East. Soundings from 46 to 50 fathoms; fine dark sand. Wind South-Easterly; course South 18 degrees West; distance 43 miles; latitude 43 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 60 degrees 26 minutes West.
Sunday, January 1st, 1769. First and Latter part, fresh breezes and Clear weather; in the Middle, light Airs and Calm. At Noon, longitude in per 4 Sets of Observations between the sun and moon 61 degrees 8 minutes 28 seconds west. The Difference between the least and Greatest of these sets was 8 minutes, and the mean of 2 differs from the Mean of the whole but 32 seconds. The Longitude by account carried on from the last Observations exactly agree with these Observations. Saw a great number of small Whales about the Ship. Wind South to West-South-West; course South 36 degrees West; distance 39 miles; latitude 43 degrees 35 minutes South; longitude 61 degrees 8 minutes 28 seconds West.
Monday, January 2nd. The first part of this day a Genteel gale and Clear weather; middle, Squally, with Lightning and rain, and some showers of Large Hail Stones; towards Noon a Steady fresh breeze and Clear weather. At noon longitude in by 3 sets of Observations between the sun and moon 61 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds, which is 43 seconds to the Eastward of yesterday's Observations. The Ship by the Log has made 4 minutes East. Wind Westerly; course South 2 degrees East; distance 92 miles; latitude 45 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds West.
Tuesday, 3rd. Fresh gales and clear weather; under Single Reef Topsails. P.M. Saw some Whales and Porpoises and small red Crawfish, some of which we Caught. At Noon saw several Birds of a light Grey Colour, like Pidgeons, but smaller; these are of the Mother Carey's kind. Longitude per Observation 61 degrees 29 minutes 45 seconds, which is 22 minutes to the westward of Yesterday, but the ship hath made 41 minutes, Consequently there is an Error of 19 minutes, which is not to be supposed to be in the Log in one Day's run; but, be it which way it will, it is not great. Wind West, Southerly; course South 11 degrees; distance 122 miles; latitude 47 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 29 minutes 45 seconds West.
Wednesday, 4th. First part, genteel breeze and Clear; latter, fresh gales, with heavy squalls of wind and rain, which brou ght us under our courses and main topsails close reefed. Soon after noon saw the appearance of Land to the Eastward, and being in the Latitude of Peypes Island, as it is lay'd down in some Charts, imagined it might be it. Bore down to be Certain, and at 1/2 past 2 p.m. discovered our Mistake, and hauld the Wind again. At 6 sounded, and had 72 fathoms black sand and mud. Variation 19 degrees 45 minutes East. Wind West-North-West to South-West by South; course South 30 degrees East; distance 76 miles; latitude 48 degrees 28 minutes South, longitude 60 degrees 51 minutes West.
[Nearing Terra del Fuego.]
Thursday, 5th. Fore part, fresh Gales and Clear; Middle, light Airs; remainder, fresh Gales and a little hazey. P.M. found the Variation to be 20 degrees 4 minutes East; Soundings 75 and 73 fathoms. A great Number of Water Fowl about the Ship. Wind South-West, North-East, North-North-East; course South 28 degrees West; distance 92 miles; latitude 49 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 67 minutes West.
Friday, 6th. Fresh gales, the Air very Sharp and Cold; frequent showers of rain and Squalls. Soundings 75 fathoms. Saw some Penguins. Gave to each of the People a Fearnought Jacket and a pair of Trowsers, after which I never heard one Man Complain of Cold, not but that the weather was cold enough. Wind West, Southerly; course South 8 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 92 miles; latitude 51 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 62 degrees 19 minutes West.
Saturday, 7th. First part, Strong Gales, with excessive hard Squals, with rain. At 9 p.m. wore and brought too, her head to the Westward under the Mainsail, and Reef'd the Foresail for the first time. The Storm continued with a little intermission until a little towards Noon, when it abated, so we could set the Topsails close Reefed. Saw many Penguins and some Seals. Wind southerly: course South 62 degrees East; distance 14 miles; latitude 51 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 59 minutes West.
Sunday, 8th. Wind and weather both Variable, but for the most part little wind. P.M. loosed the Reef out of the Foresail and 2 Reefs out of Each Topsail. A.M. got Top gallant Yards across and loosed all the Reefs out. Soundings from 80 to 75 fathoms. Wind South, South-West, West, North-West; course North 72 degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 51 degrees 16 minutes South; longitude 62 degrees 50 minutes West.
Monday, 9th. First and Latter parts, a moderate breeze and Clear weather; Middle, squally with rain. P.M. found the Variation by several azimuths to be 22 degrees 24 minutes East. Saw a great Number of Penguins and Seals.
Tuesday, 10th. Moderate breezes and fine clear weather. At 2 p.m. Sounded 86 fathoms; black sand and Small stones. Variation 21 degrees 57 minutes East. At 1/2 past 10 Tackt having Stood south 12 Leagues. After standing to the Westward 14 Miles, sounded, and had 80 fathoms black grey sand; 3 Leagues farther 76, coarse black sand; Tack'd, and at noon had 70 fathoms black gravel and Small Stones of different Colours. Saw several flights of black Sheerwaters. Wind West-South-West, South-West; course South 18 degrees West; distance 38 miles; latitude 52 degrees 54 minutes South, longitude 63 degrees 10 minutes West.
Wednesday, 11th. A Steady Genteel breeze and clear weather. P.M. after standing 13 Leagues South-South-West Sounded 64 fathoms Gravel and small Stones; Standing South-West by South 11 leagues farther, had 46 fathoms, the same sort of bottom. At 8 a.m. saw the land of Terra del Fuego, extending from the west to the South-East by South, distance off shore between 3 and 4 Leagues; sounded and had 35 fathoms small, soft, Slate Stones. Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes East. In ranging along shore to the South-East at the distance of 2 or 3 leagues, had 27 and 26 fathoms muddy bottom. Saw some of the natives, who made a Smook in several places, which must have been done as a Signal to us as they did not continue it after we passed. By our Longitude we ought not to have been so far to the Westward as Statenland, as it is laid down in the Charts; but it appeared from Subsequent Observations that the Ship had got near a Degree of Longitude to the Westward of the Log, which is 35 Miles in these Latitudes. Probably this in part may be owing to a Small Current setting to the Westward, occasioned by the Westerly Current which comes round Cape Horn and through Strait La Maire, and the indraught of the Streights of Magellan. Wind westerly; course South 30 degrees West; distance, 100 miles; latitude 54 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 64 degrees 35 minutes West per log.
Thursday, 12th. First part, moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder sometimes a fresh breeze, sometimes Calm, Hazey weather with rain. At 5 the wind coming to the Northward obliged us to Tack and Stood North-Westward, being then about 5 Miles from the Shore, and had 23 fathoms, sandy Bottom. At Midnight Tackt and Stood to the Eastward. At Noon the Land over the Entrance of Straits La Maire, East-North-East, distance, 7 leagues; Soundings from 28 to 38 fathoms. Wind North, North-North-East, variable, West-South-West; latitude 54 degrees 34 minutes South per observation.
Friday, 13th. The greatest part of this day little wind and Cloudy. At 8 p.m., Cape St. Diego, at the west entrance of Straits La Maire, East, distance about 5 leagues. Keept under an easey Sail until daylight, at which time we were abreast of Cape St. Diego, and then put into the Straits, but the Tide soon turned against us and obliged us to haul under the Cape again and wait until 9 a.m. when it shifted in our favour. Put into the Straits again with a Moderate breeze at South-West, which soon grew Boisterous with very heavy Squalls, with rain and hail, and obliged us to Close reef our Topsails. Wind North-East by East, West-South-West, South-West; latitude 54 degrees 39 minutes South; at noon, Cape St. Diego North 2 leagues.
[In Strait of Le Maire.]
Saturday, 14th. First part Strong Gales, and very heavy squalls with Hail and Rain; remainder more moderate but unsettled, sometimes a fresh breeze and Squally, and sometimes little wind. Kept plying in the Straits until 1/2 past 4 p.m., at which time the Tide had made strong against us, and the wind not abating, bore away, intending to have hauled under Cape St. Diego, but was prevented by the force of the Tide, which carried us past that Cape with surprising rapidity, at the same time caused a very great sea. At 6, the weather being Clear, took 9, or 3 sets of, Observations of the sun and moon in order to find the Longitude of the place, and as they perhaps are the first Observations of this kind that were ever made so near to the Extremity of South America, I have inserted them below just as they were taken, that everybody may judge for themselves.
|NAME OF SET.||TIME BY THE WATCH IN HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||APPARENT TIME COMPUTED FROM IN HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||OBSERVED DISTANCE. SUN AND MOON'S NEAREST LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||OBSERVED ALTITUDE. SUN'S LOWER LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||OBSERVED ALTITUDE. MOON'S UPPER LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||CORRECT ALTITUDE. SUN'S CENTER IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||CORRECT ALTITUDE. MOON'S CENTER IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.||THE LONGITUDE RESULTING FROM BOTH SETS OF OBSERVATIONS IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.|
|—||8 27 15||—||71 26 0||15 36 0||24 13 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 30 30||—||71 28 0||15 11 0||24 8 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 32 15||—||71 29 0||14 56 0||23 57 0||—||—||— .|
|—||25 30 00||—||- 83 0||45 43 0||72 18 0||—||—||— .|
|1st set||8 30 0||6 12 53||71 27 40||15 14 20||24 6 0||15 22 39||23 43 0||66 7 45.|
|—||8 33 50||—||71 30 0||14 43 0||23 38 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 35 39||—||- 31 0||14 25 0||23 42 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 37 46||—||- 30 30||14 10 0||23 32 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 107 15||—||- 91 30||43 18 0||23 112 0||—||—||— .|
|2nd set||8 35 45||6 18 41||71 30 30||14 26 0||23 37 20||14 34 00||23 14 0||66 19 45.|
|—||8 39 10||—||71 31 30||13 56 0||23 26 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 41 20||—||- 32 00||13 40 0||23 20 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 43 49||—||- 33 00||13 18 0||23 6 0||—||—||— .|
|—||8 124 19||—||- 96 30||- 114 0||- 52 0||—||—||— .|
|3rd set||8 41 26||6 24 26||71 32 10||13 38 0||23 17 20||13 46 0||22 55 0||66 0 45.|
N.B. The mean of the three sets is 66 degrees 9 minutes 25 seconds, and the mean of Mr. Green's Computations from the same Observations was 66 degrees 14 minutes 0 seconds, and the mean of his computations and mine will be 66 degrees 11 minutes 32 seconds, and therefore the Longitude of Cape St. Diego or the North-West entrance of Strait Le Maire will be 66 degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds West from Greenwich, and its Latitude 54 degrees 39 minutes South.
Note: The distance of the sun and moon was taken by Mr. Green alone, my Quadrant being out of Order.
Cape St. Diego bore at this time South by East about 4 Leagues Distant. At 1/2 past 7 Tackt and Stood to the South-East, Cape St. Diego bearing South by East, distance 5 Leagues. At 1 a.m., Squally, wore Ship, Staten Land extending from North to East. At 4, Moderate Weather, loosed a Reef out of each Topsail, the Cape of Good Success West by South, and Cape St. Diego North-North-West, being now in the Strait, but the Tide turning against us soon carried us out. The Violence of the Tide of Ebb rose such a Sea off Cape St. Diego, that it looked as if it was breaking Violently on the ledge of Rocks, and would be taken for such by any who know'd not the true cause. When the Ship was in this Torrent she frequently Pitched her Bowsprit in the Water. By Noon we got under the Land between Cape St. Diego and Cape St. Vincent, where I thought to have Anchored, but found the Bottom every where hard and Rocky; the Depth of Water from 30 to 12 fathoms. Sent the Master to Examine a small Cove which appeared to our View a little to the Eastward of Cape St. Vincent. Wind South-South-West and South-West by South.
Sunday, 15th. Moderate breezes at South and South-East, and cloudy weather, the greater part of this day. At 2 p.m. the Master return'd with an account that there was Anchorage in 4 fathoms Water and a good bottom close to the Eastward of the first black bluff point which is on the East side of Cape St. Vincent, at the very Entrance of the Cove we saw from the Ship (which I named Vincent Bay). Before this Anchoring ground lay several Rocky Ledges covered with Sea Weed: on these Ledges I was informed was not less than 8 or 9 fathoms, but in standing in with the Ship the first we came upon had only 4 fathoms upon it. I therefore thought that Anchoring here would be attended with some Risk, and that it would be better to Endeavour to find some Port in the Strait, and there Compleat our Wood and Water. However, I sent an Officer with a Boat on shore to attend to Mr. Banks and people who was very desirous of being on shore at any rate, while I keept plying as near the shore as possible with the Ship. At 9 they return'd on board bringing with them several Plants, Flowers, etc., most of them unknown in Europe, and in that Alone consisted their whole Value; they saw none of the Natives, but meet with several of their old Hutts. Hoisted the Boat in and made Sail into the Straits and at 3 a.m. Anchord in 12 1/2 fathoms Water (the bottom Coral rocks) before a small Cove which we took for Port Maurice, and near 1/2 a Mile from the shore Cape St. Diego South-South-West, and Cape St. Bartholomew (which is the south point of Staten Land) East-South-East.
Port Maurice appeared to afford so little Shelter for Shipping that I did not think it worth while to hoist a Boat out to Examine it; we saw here 2 of the Natives come down to the Shore, who stay'd sometime, then retir'd into the Woods againe. At 10 o'Clock got under Sail, Wind at South-East, and plyed to Windward.
[In Success Bay.]
Monday, 16th. A Fresh breeze of Wind at South and South-West, with frequent showers of Rain and Snow. At 2 p.m. Anchored in the Bay of Success in 9 fathoms, the bottom Owse and sand. The south point of the Bay bore South-East and the north point East-North-East. This Bay I shall describe when I come to speake of the rest of the Coast. Hoisted out the Boats and moor'd with the Stream Anchor. While this was doing I went ashore accompanyed by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander to look for a Watering place and to speak with the Natives, who were assembled on the Beach at the Head of the Bay to the Number of 30 or 40. They were so far from being afraid or surprised at our coming amongst them that three of them came on board without the least hesitation. They are something above the Middle size, of a Dark Copper Colour with long black hair; they paint their Bodies in Streakes, mostly Red and Black. Their Cloathing consists wholy in a Guanacoe Skin or that of a Seal, in the same form as it came from the Animal's back.
The Women Wear a Piece of Skin over their Privy Parts, but the Men observe no such decency. Their Hutts are made like a behive, and open on one side where they have their fires; they are made of small Sticks and covered with branches of trees, long Grass, etc., in such a manner that they are neither Proof against Wind, Hail, rain or Snow, a sufficient proof that these People must be a very hardy race. They live chiefly on shell fish, such as Muscels, which they gather from off the Rocks along the Sea Shore, and this seems to be the Work of the Women. Their Arms are Bows and Arrows neatly made; their Arrows are bearded, some with glass and others with fine flint; several Pieces of the former we saw amongst them with other European things, such as rings, Buttons, Cloth, Canvas, etc., which I think proves that they must sometimes travel to the Northward, as we know of no Ship that hath been in these parts for many Years; besides, they were not at all surprised at our Fire Arms; on the Contrary, they seemed to know the use of them, by making signs to us to fire at Seals or Birds that might come in the way. They have no Boats that we saw or anything to go upon the Water with; their number doth not Exceed 50 or 60 young and old, and there are fewer Women than Men. They are Extreamly fond of any Red thing, and seemed to set more Value on Beads than anything we could give them; in this Consists their whole Pride, few, either Men or Women, are without a Necklace or String of Beads made of Small Shells or bones about their Necks. They would not taste any strong Liquor, neither did they seem fond of our Provisions. We could not discover that they had any Head or Chief or Form of Government, neither have they any useful or necessary Utensil except it be a Bag or Basket to gather their Muscels into. In a word they are perhaps as Miserable a sett of People as are this day upon Earth. Having found a convenient place on the south side of the Bay to Wood and Water at, we set about that Work in the Morning, and Mr. Banks with a Party went into the Country to gather Plants, etc.
Tuesday, 17th. Fresh Gales at South-South-West and West-South-West with rain and Snow, and, of Course, very cold weather; notwithstanding we kept geting on board Wood and Water, and finished the Survey of the Bay. Mr. Banks and his Party not returning this Evening as I expected, gave me great uneasiness, as they were not prepared for Staying out the Night. However, about Noon they returned in no very Comfortable Condition, and what was still worse 2 blacks, servants to Mr. Banks, had perished in the Night with Cold. Great part of the day they landed was spent before they got through the Woods, after which they advanced so far into the Country that they were so far from being able to return that night, and with much difficulty they got to a place of Tolerable Shelter where they could make a fire: these 2 men being Intrusted with great part of the Liquor (that was for the whole party) had made too free with it, and Stupified themselves to that degree that they either could or would not Travel, but laid themselves down in a place where there was not the least thing to Shelter them from the inclemency of the night. This was about 1/4 of a Mile from where the rest took up their Quarters, and notwithstanding their repeated Endeavours, they could not get them to move one Step farther, and the bad travelling made it impossible for any one to Carry them, so that they were Obliged to leave them, and the next morning they were both found dead.
Wednesday, 18th. All the Middle and Latter parts of this day it blow'd very strong from the South-South-West and South-West, attended with Snow, Hail and Rain, and brought such a Sea into the Bay, which rose the Surf to such a Height that no Boat could land. The same Stormy weather and Surf continued all
Thursday, 19th. All this time the Ship road very easy with her Broad side to the swell. The great Surf that always will be upon the Shore when the wind blows hard from the Southward makes Wooding and Watering tedious, notwithstanding there are great plenty of both close to high water Mark.
Friday, 20th. Moderate gales and Cloudy with frequent Showers of rain all this day. This Evening the Surf abated, and at 2 a.m. sent the People on shore to Wood and Water and cut Brooms, all of which we Completed this day. In this Service we lost our small Kedge Anchor, it having been laid off the Watering Place to ride the Long-boat by, and the Gale had broke away the Hawser and Buoy rope, and perhaps buried the Anchor in the Sand, for notwithstanding our utmost Endeavours we were not able to Hook it. Took up the Stream Anchor and made ready for Sailing.
[Sailed from Success Bay.]
Saturday, 21st. Wind from South-South-West to South-West; moderate breezes the first part; latter, fresh Gales with Showers of Rain. P.M. hoisted in the Boats, and made ready for Sailing; at 2 a.m. weighed and made Sail out of the Bay. At 1/2 past 4 the Cape of good Success bore West, and Cape Bartholomew East. Variation per Azimuth, 24 degrees 9 minutes East; at Noon the Cape of good Success bore North 36 degrees West; distance, 11 leagues.
Sunday, 22nd. Wind between the South and the West first and Latter part, fresh Gales and Squally, with rain; the Middle, little wind and rain. A.M. found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 20 degrees 4 minutes East. Unbent the Cables and Stowed the Anchors. At Noon, Latitude observed 56 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude, made from the Cape of Good Success, 42 minutes East.
Monday, 23rd. Winds variable from South-East round by the South-West to North-West. First part, a fresh breeze and Squally, the remainder moderate breezes and sometimes Calm and clear weather, which is more than we have had for several days past. At 4 a.m. saw the Land in the South-West Quarter, and a small Island bearing West; from this Time until 9 it was Calm, at which time the Ship drove very fast to the North-East by North. At 9 Sprung up a light breeze at North, loos'd all the Reefs out, and set the Steering sails. The Cape of good Success bore North-East by North; Staten land seen from the Deck bearing North-East; the Sugar Loaf on Terra Del Fuego North-North-East, and is the same Hill as is seen from the North-East side of the Land; it appears to stand but a little way in Land from the Shore; and the Mainland and Islands on the Coast extending from the Cape of good Success to the South by West. The Country Mountainous, of an indifferent height; the Tops were covered with Snow, which had lately fell, as it did not lay long. There appeared to be several Bays and inlets and Islands laying along the Coast; the 3rd view in the Chart exhibits the appearance of this Coast where g is new Island, c the Sugar Loaf, and h the Cape of good Success. At noon the West End of New Island bore North-West by West, 5 leagues. Latitude observed 55 degrees 25 minutes South, this Island I named New Island because it is not laid down in any Chart.
Tuesday, 24th. The fore and Middle parts of these 24 Hours Moderate Gales and Cloudy with some Showers of Rain; the Latter, fresh gales with flying Showers. At 7 p.m. New Island bore North-West by North, and a small Island laying to the Westward of it bore West by North. Variation per Several Azimuths 21 degrees 0 minutes East, which is much less than we have yet found it upon this Coast; yet I am satisfied with the Goodness of the Observations. At 1/2 past 1 a.m. the Wind Shifted from South-South-West to East-South-East. Tackt and stood South-West; at 6 Saw the Land to the Westward making like several Islands. At 8 two Small Islands laying off a low Point of Land bore West by South, distant 3 Leagues, and the small Island we saw last night bore North-North-West. This I take to be the Island of Evouts, it is about one League in Circuit, and of a Moderate height and lies 4 Leagues from the Main. Near the South Point of it are some Peaked rocks pretty high above Water; the wind coming to the Southward we did but just weather this Island; in passing it, sounded and had 40 fathoms Water, sand, and broken Shells. At Noon it bore North-East distance one League, and the low point of land before mentioned South 17 degrees West distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Tackt and Stood to the South-East, wind at South-South-West. From this low Point the land trends to the North-West, about 4 Leagues, where it ends in a low point round which to the Westward appears to be a Deep Bay, unless this land should prove to be an Island or Islands, which is most likely. It rises into high Craggy hills, and the Shore seems to form several Bays; if so, they must afford good Shelter for Shipping against Southerly and Westerly winds.
[Off Cape Horn.]
Wednesday, 25th. Winds from the South to the West-North-West, the first part fresh Gales and Squally with some Rain; Middle, little wind with Hail and Rain; latter, fresh Gales and Hazey, with Showers of Rain. At 8 p.m. the Island of Evouts North-West, distant 3 or 4 miles. Variation, per morning Amplitude 21 degrees 16 minutes East. At 8 a.m. the Southermost low point of land seen Yesterday Bore South 74 degrees West, and a remarkable Peaked Hill to the Southward of it South-West; and soon after we discovered that the land which we took Yesterday to be a part of the Main or an Island, was three Islands, which I take to be Hermites. At Noon the South Point of the Southermost Island bore North-West by West distant 3 leagues, having then 58 fathoms Peble Stones. This Point is pretty high and consists of Peaked Craggy rocks, and not far from it lay several others high above Water. It lies in the Latitude of 55 degrees 53 minutes South and South-West 26 Leagues from Straits La Mair, and by some on board thought to be Cape Horn; but I was of another Opinion, and with good reason, because we saw land to the Southward of it about 3 or 4 leagues. It appeared not unlike an Island with a very high round Hummock upon it; this I believe to be Cape Horn, for after we had stood about 3 Leagues the weather cleared up for about a quarter of an hour, which gave us a sight of the land bearing West-South-West, but we could see no land to the southward or Westward of it, and therefore conclude that it must be the Cape, but whether it be an Island of itself, a part of the Southermost of Hermits Islands, or a part of Terra del Fuego, I am not able to determine. However, this is of very little Consequence to Navigation: I only wished to be Certain whether or no it was the Southermost Land on or near to Terra del Fuego; but the thick foggy weather and the westerly winds which Carried us from the land prevented me from satisfying my Curiosity in this point, but from its Latitude and the reasons before given I think it must, and if so it must be Cape Horn, and lies in the latitude of 55 degrees 53 minutes South and Longitude 68 degrees 13 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich, being the Mean result of Several Observations of the sun and moon made the day after we left the land, and which agreed with those made at Straits Le Mair, allowing for the distance between one place and the other, which I found means very accurately to determine. As we are now about taking our departure from the Land, which we are not likely to fall in with again, I shall give a more full Description of such parts of the Coasts of Terra del Fuego as hath fallen under my inspection.
We fell in with this Coast 21 Leagues to the Westward of Straits Le Mair, and ranged the coast from thence to the Strait within 2 or 3 Leagues of the Land, and had soundings all the way from 40 to 20 fathoms, a Gravelly and Sandy Bottom. The land near the Shore is in general low but hilly, the face of the Country appears Green and Woody, but in land are Craggy Mountains; they appeared to be of no great height, nor were they Covered with Snow. The most remarkable land on Terra Del Fuego is a high Mountain in form of a Sugar Loaf, situated not far from the sea on the South-West side of the Land, and 3 hills called the 3 Brothers. They lay near the Shore and nine Miles to the Westward of Cape St. Diego, which is a low point that forms the North-West Entrance of Strait Le Mair, and are Contiguous to Each other. The Sugar Loaf lies from these Hills South-South-West, and when it was in this situation the Appearances of the Land is represented in the first View in the Chart, but it must be observed that from this point of View the Three Brothers appear far more Conspicuous than from any other; these land Marks are by some Voyagers thought very necessary to know Strait Le Mair by, but whoever coasts Terra Del Fuego within sight of land cannot possibly miss the Strait, it being of itself so very Conspicuous; and Staten Land, which forms the East side, is still more so from its very rugged appearance. One League and a half to the Westward of Cape St. Diego lies Cape St. Vincent, between these two Capes lies Vincent's Bay, a Small Cove wherein is Wood and Water, and before which a Ship might Anchor with a Southerly or South-West wind, but the ground is none of the best, unless you go into the very Mouth of the Cove, which is on the East side of the first Bluff point from Cape St. Vincent, where there is Anchorage in 4 fathoms, a Sandy Bottom. In going in keep clear of the Sea Weed, and send a Boat Ahead to sound, and at best this is but a bad place for Shipping, and only recommended to such as are in want of Wood and Water, and have no Opportunity to put into the Strait, which in Prudence ought not to be attempted but with a fair wind or Moderate weather, and upon the very first of the Tide of Flood, which hapens here at the full and Change of the Moon about 1 or 2 o'clock, and then to keep as near to Terra Del Fuego Shore as the winds will permit. By using these Precautions you will be sure of either getting quite through the Straits in one Tide or to the Southward of Success Bay; and it may be more Prudent to put in there should the wind be Southerly, than to attempt to weather Staten Land with a Lee Wind and Current, for I believe this to be the Chief reason why Ships have run a Risk of being drove on that Island.
Strait Le Maire is formed on the West by part of Terra Del Fuego, and on the East by the West end of Staten Land or Island; its Length and Breadth is about 5 Leagues each; about the Middle of the Strait is Success Bay, on Terra Del Fuego side, and about a 1/4 of a League more to the Northwards is Port Maurice, a little Cove, before which we Anchored in 12 fathoms.
[Description of Strait of Le Maire.]
The Bay of Success is discovered immediately upon entring the Strait from the Northward; there is likewise a good Land Mark near the South head to know it by, which is a Mark on the land like a lane or broad road leading up from the Sea into the Country; this Bay is 1/2 a League Wide at the Entrance, and lies in West 2 1/2 Miles, and hath good Anchorage in every part of it, in 10, 8, and 7 fathoms clear ground, and affords plenty of exceeding good Wood and Water. The Wood is of the Birch kind, but of a diffrent Quality to that in England or North America; here are likewise of the Winter Bark tree and some few others, Wild Selary, some Berrys like Cranberrys, but growing on Bushes, very few Wild Fowls of any Sort, and no Fish Except Shell Fish, such as Muscels, Limpets, etc.; and what we saw of the interior parts of the Country is still more barren of the necessaries of Life than the Sea. The few days we stay'd here we had constant bad weather, the Winds from the South-West and West-South-West with rain, Hail and Snow. Snow generally fell on the Hills everywhere with these winds when we had rain in the Bay or upon the Sea Coast. I observed the same in respect to Staten Land, but as it never froze it did not lay long; yet it must render the Country Cold and barren, and unfit for Cultivation. The Tides in Success Bay flows at the full and Change of the Moon, about 4 or 5 o'Clock, and riseth between 5 and 6 feet Perpendicular, but in the Strait the flood runs 2 or 3 Hours longer, and there the Ebb or Southerly Current runs near Double the strength of the Flood or Northerly Current.
Staten Island lies nearest East and West, and from what I could see and judge of it may be about 12 Leagues in length and 5 in breadth. On the North side are the appearances of Bays or Harbours, and the land is not destitute of Wood and Verdure, nor covered with Snow any more than Terra del Fuego.
On the South-West side of the Cape of good Success (which forms the South-West entrance of Strait Le Mair, and is known by some rocks off it) lies Valentine's Bay, the entrance of which we only saw. From this Bay the land Trends to the West-South-West; for 20 or 30 Leagues it appears High and Mountainous, and forms several Bays and inlets South-West 1/2 South 14 Leagues from the Cape of good Success, and 2 or 3 Leagues from the Shore lies New Island; it is 2 leagues in length, North-East and South-West, the North-East end is terminated by a remarkable Hillock. South-West 7 Leagues from New Island lies the Isle Evouts, and South, a little Westerly from this island, lies Barnevelts, two small flatt Islands close to each other; they are partly Environ'd with rocks of Different height above water, and lay South-West 24 leagues from Strait le Mair. From Barnevelts Island to the South-East point of Hermites island is South-West by South, distance 3 Leagues. These Islands lay South-East and North-West, and are pretty high, and will, from most points of view, be taken for one Island or a part of the Main; from the South-East point of Hermites Isles to Cape Horn, the Course is South-West by South, distance 3 Leagues. The Appearance of this Cape and Hermites Islands is represented in the last View in the chart which I have drawn of this Coast from our first making the land unto Cape Horn, in which is included Strait Le Mair and part of Staten Land. In this chart I have laid down no land nor figured out any Shore, but what I saw myself and thus far the Chart may be depended upon. The Bays and inlets are left voide, the openings of which we only see from the Ship. It cannot be doubted but what there is Anchorage, Wood and Water in those Bays, and it must have been in some of them that the Dutch Squadron commanded by Hermites put into in the year 1624. It was the Vice Admiral Chapenham, of this Squadron, who first discovered that the land of Cape Horn was consisted of a Number of Islands, but the account they have given of those parts is very short and imperfect, and that of Schouton and Le Maire still worse, that it is no wonder that the Charts hitherto published should be found incorrect, not only in laying down the Land, but in the Latitude and Longitude of the places they contain, but I can now venture to Assert that the Longitude of few parts of the World are better Ascertained than that of Strait Le Maire and Cape Horn, being determined by several Observations of the Sun and moon made both by myself and Mr. Green, the Astronomer.
We found the Variation of the Compass on this Coast to be from 23° to 25° east, except near Barnevelts Islands and Cape Horn, where we found it less and unsettled; it is likely that it is here disturbed by the land, as the Dutch Squadron before mentioned found in this very place all their Compasses to differ from each other. The declination of the South point of the Dipping Needle when set up ashore in Success Bay was 68° 15′ below the horizon. Between Strait Le Maire and Cape Horn we found a Current setting generally pretty strong to the N.E. when we were in with the Shore, but when 15 or 20 Leagues off we were not sencible of any.
Remarkable Occurrences in January 1769.—South Seas.
Thursday, 26th.—Fresh Gales and thick Hazey weather, with small rain. At 2 p.m., the weather clearing up a little, saw Cape Horn bearing W.S.W., distance about 6 leagues, and from which I take my departure. Its Latitude and Longitude have before been taken notice of. Wind S.W. by W. to W.N.W.; course S. 15° W.; distance, 63 miles; lat. 56° 57′; long. 68° 13′ W.; at noon, Cape Horn N., 58 miles.
Friday, 27th.—First part, moderate breezes and thick Hazey weather; the Middle, fair and Cloudy; and the Latter, fresh Gales with some rain. At 8 a.m. took two Setts of Observations of the sun and moon; the first gave 68° 15′; the second, 68° 9′; the Mean of the 2 is 68° 12′ W. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by these Observations is 68° 42′ less 14′, the Longitude made from Cape Horn, equal to 68° 28′, the longitude of Cape Horn according to the Observation. A Great many large Albetrosses about the Ship. Wind, S.W., W. and N.; course, S. and W.; distance, 32 miles; lat. 57° 2′ S., long. 68° 27′ W.
Saturday, 28th.—Fresh Gales the most part of this day; first and Middle parts cloudy; latter, clear with a Sharp cold air. At 2 p.m. saw the land, bearing North, distant about 8 Leagues; it made in 2 Hummocks, and appeared to be an Island, which I take to be the Isle of Diego Ramirez. It lays in the Latitude of 56 degrees 38 minutes South and Longitude 68 degrees 47 minutes West from Greenwich. Found the Variation this Evening to be 22 degrees East. A.M. had 3 sets of Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 69 degrees 7 minutes 15 seconds West. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by the Observation is 69 degrees 24 minutes, from which take 1 degree 48 minutes, the longitude made from Cape Horn, the remainder is 67 degrees 36 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape, which is 52 minutes less than the result of Yesterday's Observations. This difference may arise partly from the Observations and partly from the Ship's runs; the mean of the 2 gives 68 degrees 2 minutes and 68 degrees 24 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape from the Observations taken at Strait Maire 136 degrees 26 minutes/2 = 68 degrees 13 minutes West from Greenwich. The Longitude of Cape Horn being deduced from no less than 24 Observations taken at no very great distance from the Cape, and on both sides of it, and when the Sun was both to the East and West of the Moon; for in this case the Errors arising from the Observations are most likely to Correct one another. Wind, North and West by North to North-West by West; course, South 39 degrees West; distance, 80 miles; latitude 58 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 70 degrees 1 minute West.
Sunday, 29th. First and Latter parts, fresh Gales and Squally, with flying Showers of rain and Hail; the Middle, strong Gales with heavy Squalls and showers of rain. At 8 p.m. took 2nd Reef Topsails, at 6 a.m. Close reefd the Foretopsails and took in the Mizen Topsl, and at 10 set it again and let the reef out of the Fore top-sails. Wind, West Northerly; course South-West; distance, 79 miles; latitude 59 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 72 degrees 48 minutes West.
Monday, 30th. Fore part, fresh Gales and Squally with Hail and rain, remainder moderate and Cloudy. At 6 a.m. loosed the 2nd reef out of the Topsails and set Top-gallant Sails. At 11 Longitude per 3 sets of Observations of the sun and moon, 1st set 73 degrees 38 minutes 15 seconds; second set 73 degrees 25 minutes 45 seconds; and 3rd, 73 degrees 19 minutes 30 seconds; the mean of the whole is 73 degrees 27 minutes 50 seconds West, and 35 minutes less than the Longitude by Dead reckoning, which is only 6 Leagues in this Latitude, and therefore not worth taking notice of. Latitude per Observation 60 degrees 4 minutes South. Wind West by North and West-North-West; course, South 33 degrees West; distance, 76 miles; latitude 60 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 74 degrees 10 minutes West.
Tuesday, 31st. First part moderate and Cloudy, with some rain; in the night, little wind and Calm; towards Noon, fresh Gales and Cloudy. Between 7 and 8 p.m., being then in the Latitude of 60 degrees 10 minutes, which was the farthest south we were, and in the Longitude of 74 degrees 30 minutes found the Variation of the Compass by the mean of Azimuth to be 27 degrees 9 minutes East. At 3 a.m. wind at East-South-East, and Moderate breeze. Set the Steeringsails, and soon after 2 Birds like Penguins were seen by the Mate of the Watch. Wind West-North-West, calm, East-South-East, South-South-East; course North 71 degrees West; distance, 55 miles; latitude 59 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 75 degrees 54 minutes West.
Wednesday, February 1st. First part, fresh Gales; latter, light Airs and Cloudy; P.M. found the Variation by several Azimuth to be 24 degrees 53 minutes East. At Noon sounded, but had no ground with 240 fathoms of line; hoisted a Boat out to try if there was any Current, but found none. The weather was such as to admit Mr. Banks to row round the Ship in a Lighterman's Skiff shooting birds. Wind, South-East by East, South-South-East, East; course, North-West by West; distance, 106 miles; latitude 58 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 78 degrees 42 minutes West.
Thursday, 2nd. First part, light breezes and Cloudy; remainder, sometimes a fresh breeze and at other times little wind and hazey, rainy, Cold weather. Took in the Steeringsls and a reef in each Topsail. Wind variable, North-North-West, South-West and South; course, West by North; distance, 82 miles; latitude 58 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 80 degrees 58 minutes West.
Friday, 3rd. Calm and Light Airs, and for the most part Cloudy and sometimes drizling rain. Variation 24 degrees 4 minutes East. Wind, West by North, North-West by West; course South 82 West; distance 30 miles; latitude 58 degrees 33 minutes South, longitude 81 degrees 55 minutes West.
Saturday, 4th. Fore and Middle parts, little wind and dark cloudy weather; latter, fresh Gales and Cloudy with some rain. P.M. had a Boat out and Shott several sorts of Birds, one of which was an Albetross as large as a Goose, whose wings when Extended measured 10 feet 2 inches; this was grey, but there are of them all White except the very tip end of their Wings. Another sort, in size between an Albetross and a large Gull, of a grey Colour, with a white Spot above their Tail about the Breadth of one's hand, and several other sorts. Wind Westerly; course North 13 degrees West; distance 48 miles; latitude 57 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 16 minutes West.
Sunday, 5th. Fresh gales with heavy squalls the first part; remainder, little wind and Cloudy. Very cold weather. Wind, West-South-West, West by North and South-West by West; course North; distance 49 miles; latitude 56 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 16 minutes West.
Monday, 6th. A moderate breeze of Wind with some flying showers of hail and rain; close upon a Wind all this day. Wind South-West by West to West by North; course North 1/4 East; distance 86 miles; latitude 55 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 23 minutes West.
Tuesday, 7th. A fresh breeze and dark cloudy weather, with some showers of rain; the wind, varying from West to North by West, obliged us to Tack several times. Wind North-West by West, West by South; course North 20 degrees West; distance 46 miles; latitude 54 degrees 40 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 54 minutes West.
Wednesday, 8th. First part, cloudy with Squalls of wind and Showers of rain and hail; Latter part thick hazey weather, with frequent Showers. Wind, Westerly, South by West; course North 14 degrees 43 minutes West; distance 58 miles; latitude 53 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 83 degrees 19 minutes West.
Thursday, 9th. Fresh gales all this day, sometimes squally with rain; under Double-reef Topsails in the night, and Single-reeft Topsail in the day. Wind Southerly; course North 55 degrees West: distance 130 miles; latitude 52 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 86 degrees 17 minutes West.
Friday, 10th. The former part of this day had fresh breezes and Dark cloudy weather; in the night hard Squalls with rain, and afterwards hazy, rainy weather. Wind Westerly; course North 22 degrees West; distance 67 miles; latitude 51 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 86 degrees 37 minutes West.
Saturday, 11th. Former part Light Airs with drizling rain; remainder, a Moderate breeze and Cloudy. Wind, variable, southerly; course, North 54 degrees West; distance 36 miles; latitude 50 degrees 55 minutes South, longitude 87 degrees 24 minutes West.
Sunday, 12th. First and Middle parts, fresh gales and cloudy; latter, little wind and clear. Having for some time past generally found the Ship by Observation to the Northward of the Log, which is not owing to a Current as I at first imagined, but to a wrong Division of the Log line, being 2 1/2 feet in each Knot — but this is now rectified. Wind South-West by South; course North 48 degrees West; distance 113 miles; latitude 49 degrees 41 minutes South, longitude 89 degrees 36 minutes West.
Monday, 13th. The first part of these 24 Hours, moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder, fresh Gales and cloudy. P.M saw a great many Albetrosses and other Birds about the Ship; some were all white and about the size of Teal. Took several Observations of the sun and moon, the result of which gave 90 degrees 13 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich. The Variation of the Compass by the Mean of several Azimuths 17 degrees East. The Longitude by account is less than that by Observation, 37 minutes, which is about 20 Miles in these high Latitudes, and nearly equal to the Error of the Log line before mentioned. This near Agreement of the 2 Longitudes proves to a Demonstration that we have had no Western Current since we left the Land. Wind West, Northerly; course North 75 degrees West; distance 35 miles; latitude 49 degrees 35 minutes, longitude 90 degrees 37 minutes.
[Remarks on Passage round Cape Horn.]
From the Foregoing observations it will appear that we are now advanced about 12 degrees to the westward of the Strait of Magellan, and 3 1/2 degrees to the Northward of it, having been 33 days in Doubling Cape Horn or the Land of Terra del Fuego, and Arriving into the Degree of Latitude and Longitude we are now in, and without being brought once under our close Reef'd Topsails since we left Strait Le Maire, a Circumstance that perhaps never hapned before to any ship in those Seas so much dreaded for Hard gales of Wind; in so much that the doubling of Cape Horn is thought by some to be a mighty thing, and others to this day prefer the Straits of Magellan. As I have never been in those Straits I can onl y form my Judgement on a Carefull Comparison of the Different Ships' Journals that have passed them, and those that have sail'd round Cape Horn, particularly the Dolphin's two last Voyages and this of ours, being made at the same season of the Year, when one may reasonable expect the same Winds to prevail. The Dolphin in her last Voyage was three Months in getting through the Straits, not reckoning the time she lay in Port Famine; and I am firmly perswaided from the Winds we have had, that had we come by that Passage we should not have been in these Seas, besides the fatiguing of our People, the damage we must have done to our Anchors, Cables, Sails, and Rigging, none of which have suffer'd in our passage round Cape Horn.
From what I have said it will appear that I am no advocate for the Straits of Magellan, but it should be expected that I should say something of Strait le Mair, through which we passed, and this is the more incumbant on me as it was by choice and contrary to the Advice given by Mr. Walter, the ingenious Author of Lord Anson's Voyage, who advised all Ships not to go through this Strait but to go to the Eastward of Staten Land, and likewise to stand to the Southward as far as 61 or 62 degrees south before any Endeavour is made to get to the Westward. With respect to the Passing of Strait le Mair or going round Staten Land, I look upon of little Consequence, and either one or the other to be pursued according to Circumstances; for if you happen to fall in with the land to the Westward of the Strait, and the winds favourable for going through, it certainly must be a piece of folly to lose time in going round Staten Land, for by paying a little Attention to the Directions I have already given no ill Consequences can attend; but on the Contrary if you should fall in with the land to the eastward of the Straits or the wind should prove Boisterous, or unfavourable, in any of these Cases the going to the eastward of Staten Land is the most Advisable. And next, as to running into the Latitude of 61 or 62 degrees South before any Endeavour is made to get to the Westward, is what I think no man will ever do that can avoid it, for it cannot be supposed that anyone will steer south mearly to get into a high Latitude, when at the same time he can steer west, for it is not Southing but Westing that is wanting. But this way you cannot Steer because the Wind blows almost Constantly from that Quarter, so that you have no other Choice but to stand to the Southward, close upon a Wind, and by keeping upon that Tack you not only make Southing but Westing also, and sometimes not a little when the wind Varies to the Northward of West; and the farther you advance to the Southward the better Chance you have of having the Winds from that Quarter or Easterly, and likewise of meeting with finer weather, both of which we ourselves Experienced. Prudence will direct every man when in those high Latitudes to make sure of sufficient Westing to double all the lands before he thinks of standing to the Northward. When the winds was Westerly the Mountains on Terra Del Fuego were generally covered with dense Clouds, formed, as one may reasonably suppose, by Westerly Exhalations and by Vapours brought thither by the Westerly winds. From that Quarter come frequent Showers of rain, hail, and Snow; and after we had left the land and were standing to the Southward, with the winds westerly, dark dence clouds were Continually forming in the Horizon, and rose to about 45 degrees, where they began to dissipate. These were generally attended with Showers of Rain, or hail, and Squals of Wind, but as we advanced to the Southward, these Clouds became less dence, and in the Latitude of 60 degrees 10 minutes, when we got the winds Easterly, the weather was more serene and Milder; again as we advanced to the Northward we had a constant Clouded sky and dark gloomy weather, the whole time exceeding Cold.
[Cape Horn to Tahiti.]
Tuesday, 14th. The first part, fresh Gales and Hazey with rain; the remainder moderate and Cloudy, with frequent rain. Wind, Westerly, South; course South-West; distance 32 miles; latitude 49 degrees 6 minutes South, longitude 91 degrees 12 minutes West.
Wednesday, 15th. Little wind and Cloudy the most part of this day. Variation per Azimuth in the Evening 12 degrees East, and in the morning both by an Amplitude and an Azimuth 11 degrees East. A.M. Shifted the Mainsail, Mizen, Fore, and Main topsail. Wind, South-South-West, South-West, West by North; course North 46 degrees West; distance 86 miles; latitude 48 degrees 27 minutes South, longitude 92 degrees 5 minutes West.
Thursday, 16th. The first part of this day had fresh Gales and Cloudy; in the night thick hazey weather with heavy squalls of wind and rain, which obliged us to close-reef our Topsails. In the morning and all the forenoon had strong gales and cloudy weather, and very heavy Seas from the South-South-West, one of which broke upon the Quarter and carried away the Driver Boom. Wind North-West, West, and South; course North 74 degrees West; distance 97 miles; latitude 48 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 94 degrees 25 minutes West.
Friday, 17th. Strong Gales and Cloudy the most part of this day. Split the Maintopsail and unbent it, and bent another. Wind South-South-West; course North-West by West 1/2 West; distance 132 miles; latitude 46 degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 97 degrees 17 minutes West.
Saturday, 18th. Fresh gales all this day. The weather Variable, sometimes fair and Cloudy, other times hazey, with drizzling rain. Saw some Birds nearly as big as Albetrosses; they were all black, with Yellow Beaks. Wind South-West by West; course North 32 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 140 miles; latitude 44 degrees 50 minutes South, longitude 99 degrees 7 minutes West.
Sunday, 19th. First part, fresh Gales and Hazey; the Middle part, hazey, with drizling rain; the latter, gentle breezes and fine Clear weather, yet the Air is still Cold. Wind South-West by West to West by South; course North-North-West 3/4 West; distance 103 miles; latitude 43 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 100 degrees 21 minutes West.
Monday, 20th. Moderate breezes and fine weather the greater part of this day, and the Sea very smooth. Found by repeated trials that the South point of the Dipping Needle Dip'd 65 degrees 52 minutes below the Horizon. Wind Westerly; course South 65 degrees West; distance 58 miles; latitude 43 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 101 degrees 34 minutes West.
Tuesday, 21st. Fresh breezes and pretty Clear weather. Variation 6 degrees 30 minutes East. Wind North-West; course South 62 degrees West; distance 115 miles; latitude 44 degrees 39 minutes South, longitude 103 degrees 54 minutes West.
Wednesday, 22nd. Hazey, rainy weather the most part of this Day. Wind North-Westerly; course South 86 degrees West; distance 91 miles; latitude 44 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 106 degrees 1 minute West.
Thursday, 23rd. Little wind and Calm, and some Lightning, a thing we have not seen for some time past, and therefore suppose not common in these Seas in high Latitudes. Variation 5 degrees 34 minutes East. Wind North-West, calm; course North 30 degrees East; distance 13 miles; latitude 44 degrees 35 minutes South, longitude 105 degrees 52 minutes West.
Friday, 24th. First part, Calm; Middle, light breezes; latter, fresh breezes and hazey. P.M. had several Azimuths, all of which gave the Variation less than 4 degrees East, but they were a little doubtful on account of the Rowling of the Ship. What winds we have had this day hath been from the Eastward, and are the first we have had from that Quarter since we left the Latitude 58 degrees 46 minutes. Wind calm, East-North-East and East-South-East; course North 42 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 79 miles: latitude 43 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 107 degrees 6 minutes West.
Saturday, 25th. First and Middle parts, fresh Gales and Cloudy, with some rain; the Latter, little Wind and Cloudy. Wind South-East by East, South-South-East; course North 48 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 112 miles; latitude 42 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 109 degrees 0 minutes West.
Sunday, 26th. First part, Calm and light Airs; remainder, very strong gales and Squally, with Showers of rain, which at length brought us under our two Courses, and close-reefed Maintopsail. Wind calm, North-West and West-South-West; course North 26 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 88 miles; latitude 41 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 109 degrees 52 minutes West.
Monday, 27th. First part, Strong Gales and Cloudy; the remainder, Gentle Breezes and clear weather. P.M. set the topsail one Reef out. A large swell from the South-West. Wind westerly; course North 18 degrees West; distance 85 miles; latitude 39 degrees 43 minutes South, 110 degrees 26 minutes West.
Tuesday, 28th. The former part little wind and fine clear weather; the Air full as warm as in the same Degree of North Latitude at the Correspondent Season of the Year. The South-West swells still keep up, notwithstanding the Gale hath been over about 30 Hours, a proof that there is no land near in that Quarter. The remainder part of this day fresh breezes and clear. At 9 a.m. took 3 Sets of Observations of the sun and moon in order to find the Longitude of the Ship. Wind West to North-West; course North 13 degrees West; distance 42 miles; latitude 39 degrees 33 minutes 30 seconds South, longitude 110 degrees 38 minutes West.
Wednesday, March 1st. First part fresh breezes, the remainder moderate breezes and clear weather. The result of the Forementioned Observations gives 110 degrees 33 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich, and exactly agrees with the Longitude given by the Log from Cape Horn. This Agreement of the two Longitudes after a Run of 660 leagues is surprizing, and much more than could be expected; but, as it is so, it serves to prove, as well as the repeated trials we have made when the weather would permit, that we have had no Current that hath Affected the Ship since we came into these Seas. This must be a great Sign that we have been near no land of any extent, because near land are generally found Currents. It is well known that on the East side of the Continent in the North Sea we meet with Currents above 100 Leagues from the Land, and even in the Middle of the Atlantic Ocean, between Africa and America, are always found Currents; and I can see no reason why Currents should not be found in this Sea, supposing a Continent or lands lay not far West from us, as some have imaggin'd, and if such land was ever seen we cannot be far from it, as we are now 560 leagues West of the Coast of Chili. Wind West by South; course North 76 degrees West; distance 52 miles; latitude 38 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 111 degrees 43 minutes West; at noon, Cape Horn South 60 degrees East 660 leagues.
Thursday, 2nd. Former part, fresh gales and hazey, with much rain; the remainder, a Strong fresh gale and pretty clear weather. Wind Westerly; course North by West; distance 87 miles; latitude 37 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 112 degrees 5 minutes West.
Friday, 3rd. First part, moderate breezes; remainder, calm and clear weather. A.M. employed filling salt Water in the Fore Hold and airing all the Spare Sails. Wind West, calm; course North 17 degrees East; distance 31 miles; latitude 36 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 111 degrees 34 minutes West.
Saturday, 4th. First part, Calm; remainder, a fine genteel breeze and clear weather. Variation per Azimuth and Amplitude this Evening 2 degrees 26 minutes East. The South-West swell still keeps up, notwithstanding it hath been Calm 24 hours. Wind calm, North-East, North; course North 50 degrees West; distance 58 miles; latitude 36 degrees 12 minutes South, longitude 112 degrees 50 minutes West.
Sunday, 5th. First and latter parts, fine Clear weather; the Middle, fresh gales and Hazey, with rain. Wind North-West by North and North-West; course South 81 degrees 40 minutes West; distance 64 miles; latitude 36 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 114 degrees 9 minutes West.
Monday, 6th. Moderate breezes and Tolerable clear weather all this day. The wind a little Variable, which caused us to Tack several Times. Wind North-West by North to West-North-West; course South 57 degrees West; distance 20 miles; latitude 36 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 114 degrees 30 minutes West.
Tuesday, 7th. A Moderate steady breeze and clear weather. Wind North-West; course South 64 degrees 15 minutes West; distance, 83 miles; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 116 degrees 8 minutes West.
Wednesday, 8th. The first and Middle parts moderate breezes and Cloudy; the Latter Part Variable winds and much Rain. Wind North-West, variable; course South 78 degrees West; distance, 76 miles; latitude 37 degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 117 degrees 41 minutes West.
Thursday, 9th. First part, moderate and Hazey, with Drizling rain; the remainder fresh breezes and clear weather. Variation 4 degrees 41 minutes east. Wind South-West by West to South by East; course North 38 degrees West; distance 123 miles; latitude 35 degrees 47 minutes South, longitude 119 degrees 18 minutes West.
Friday, 10th. Moderate breezes and fine Pleasant weather. Wind South-East; course North 40 degrees West; distance 121 miles; latitude 34 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 120 degrees 54 minutes West.
Saturday, 11th. A Steady gale and fine weather. Variation 4 degrees 12 minutes East. Wind South-East; course North 46 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 116 miles; latitude 32 degrees 54 minutes South, longitude 122 degrees 35 minutes West.
Sunday, 12th. Ditto weather. Variation 4 degrees 12 minutes East. Put the Ship's Company to three Watches, they having been at Watch and Watch since our first arrival on the coast of Terra del Fuego. Wind South-East; course North 49 degrees West; distance 122 miles; latitude 31 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 124 degrees 25 minutes West.
Monday, 13th. First part a Steady, fresh Gale; the remainder, little wind and fine Clear weather. Wind South-East; course North 48 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 72 miles; latitude 30 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 125 degrees 28 minutes West.
Tuesday, 14th. Little wind and fine Pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. took several Observations of the sun and moon; the mean result of which gave 126 degrees 20 minutes 45 seconds, the Longitude of the Ship West of Greenwich, and is 47 degrees Longitude West of account carried on from Cape Horn. Wind South, East-South-East, East-North-East; course North 50 degrees West; distance 47 miles; latitude 30 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 126 degrees 10 minutes West.
Wednesday, 15th. Light breezes and clear weather. Variation, p.m. 3 degrees 45 minutes East, a.m. 3 degrees 22 minutes East. Saw a Tropic Bird. Wind, East-North-East and East-South-East; course, North 47 degrees 15 minutes West; distance, 50 miles; latitude 29 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 126 degrees 53 minutes West.
Thursday, 16th. Light Airs next to a Calm and clear Weather. Variation by the mean result of 21 Azimuths, 1 degree 30 minutes East. This evening observed an Occultation of h by the [crescent], Immersion at ---- hours ---- minutes and Emersion at ---- hours ---- minutes ---- seconds a.m. Variation per s everal Azimuths 2 degrees East. Wind East-South-East, South-South-East, South-West; course North-North-West; distance 34 miles; latitude 29 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 8 minutes West.
Friday, 17th. Little wind and fine Pleasant weather. Variation, p.m. 3 degrees 27 minutes East. Wind, South-East by South; course, North 20 degrees West; distance, 55 miles; latitude 28 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 29 minutes West.
Saturday, 18th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; latter, fresh gales and hard Squalls, with much rain. Took 2 Reefs in the Topsails. Wind North-East North; course North 60 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 78 miles; latitude 27 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 128 degrees 44 minutes West.
Sunday, 19th. First part fresh Gales and Squally, with rain; remainder more moderate and cloudy. Variation, a.m. per Means of several Azimuths, 3 degrees 14 minutes East. Loosed the 2d reefs out of the Topsails. Wind between the North and West; course North 52 degrees West; distance 50 miles; latitude 27 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes West.
Monday, 20th. A Fine breeze and pleasant weather. Saw several Tropic Birds. Wind West; course North; distance 95 miles; latitude 25 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes West.
Tuesday, 21st. First part little wind, the remainder Calm. Variation, 3 degrees 43 minutes East. Saw some rock weed and a great many Tropic Birds. Wind West by North, calm; course North; distance 23 miles; latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes West.
Wednesday, 22nd. First part Calm, in the night Squally, with rain. A.M. a fresh breeze and Cloudy. Variation per Amplitude 3 degrees 10 minutes East. Saw some Egg Birds. Wind North by East to North-North-West; course West; distance 57 miles; latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 52 minutes West.
Thursday, 23rd. Fresh gales and Squally, with rain, the first part; remainder fresh Gales and Cloudy. P.M. saw some Men-of-War Birds, and Egg Birds, and in the Morning saw more Egg Birds and Tropic Birds. The Man-of-War and Tropic Birds are pretty well known, but the Egg Bird (as it is called in the Dolphin's Journal) requires some discription to know it by that Name. It is a small slender Bird of the Gull kind, and all white, and not much unlike the small white Gulls we have in England, only not so big. There are also Birds in Newfoundland called Stearings that are of the same shape and Bigness, only they are of a Greyish Colour. These Birds were called by the Dolphin Egg Birds on account of their being like those known by that name by Sailors in the Gulph of Florida; neither they nor the Man-of-War Birds are ever reckoned to go very far from Land. Wind North by West to West by North: course North 13 degrees West; distance 49 miles; latitude 24 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 130 degrees 8 minutes West.
[Passing Low Archipelago.]
Friday, 24th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with some rain in the forepart of this day. All the forepart of these 24 hours the Sea was smooth, but at 12 at night it was more so, and about 3 in the Morning one of the people saw, or thought he saw, a Log o f Wood pass the Ship. This made us think that we were near some land, but at daylight we saw not the least appearance of any, and I did not think myself at liberty to spend time in searching for what I was not sure to find, although I thought myself not far from those Islands discovered by Quiros in 1606; and very probably we were not, from the birds, etc., we have seen for these 2 or 3 days past. Wind West-North-West to North-West; course North-East by North 1/4 East; distance 99 miles; latitude 22 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 2 minutes West.
Saturday, 25th. First part dark cloudy weather, with rain and a fresh breeze of wind; remainder fair and Cloudy. Wind North-West by North, to West by North; course North-East 1/2 North; distance 95 miles; latitude 22 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 55 minutes West.
Sunday, 26th. Squally weather, with rain. At 5 p.m. saw some sea Weed pass the Ship, and at 7 William Greenslade, Marine, either by Accident or design, went overboard and was Drowned. The following circumstances makes it appear as tho' it was done design'dly. He had been Centinel at the Steerage door between 12 and 4 o'clock, where he had taken part of a Seal Skin put under his charge, and which was found upon him. The other Marines thought themselves hurt by one of their party commiting a crime of this nature, and he being a raw young fellow, and, as very probable, made him resolve upon commiting this rash Action, for the Serjeant not being willing that it should pass over unknown to me, was about 7 o'clock going to bring him aft and have it inquired into, when he gave him the Slip between Decks, and was seen to go upon the Forecastle, and from that time was seen no more. I was neither made acquainted with the Theft or the Circumstances attending it, until the Man was gone. Wind, North-West to West; longitude 127 degrees 43 minutes West.
Monday, 27th. Variable winds and weather, with frequent showers of rain. At Noon saw a Bird like a Gannet. Wind variable; course North 1/4 East; distance 30 miles; latitude 21 degrees 2 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 38 minutes West.
Tuesday, 28th. Little wind and Cloudy. Variation per Amplitude 3 degrees 56 minutes East. Wind Easterly; course North-North-West; distance 37 miles; latitude 20 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 50 minutes West.
Wednesday, 29th. Little winds and Cloudy weather. Variation per Azimuth 2 degrees 27 minutes East. Saw a Bird like a Dove and several fish about the Ship. Employed worming the Best Br. Cable, repairing and Painting the Boats. Wind Easterly; course North 75 degrees West; distance 50 miles; latitude 20 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 27 minutes West.
Thursday, 30th. First part, Calm and close Cloudy weather; in the night had Variable winds and weather, with rain. A.M. G enteel Breezes and Cloudy weather. Between 10 and 11 a.m. took several Observations of the sun and moon; the mean result of them gave the Longitude of the Ship at Noon to be 127 degrees 38 minutes, and is 1 degree 49 minutes East of the Longitude given by the Log; but on the 4th Instant the ship by Observation was 47 minutes West of the Log, therefore she must have lost 2 degrees 36 minutes of the Log since the last Observation — an Error too great to be accounted for. Wind calm, variable, South-South-East; course North 40 degrees West; distance 53 miles; latitude 19 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 27 minutes West.
Friday, 31st. A Steady breeze and fine pleasant weather. A.M. took several Observations of the sun and moon, the mean result of them came within 8 Miles of Yesterday's Observations computed both by Mr. Green and myself, and yet cannot think so great an error can have been committed in the ship's run in so short a time as these observations seem to point out, and therefore I shall abide by the Longitude given by the Log unless from subsequent Observations this error should be found to be just. Wind South; course North 75 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 111 miles; latitude 19 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 131 degrees 21 minutes West.
Saturday, April 1st. A steady fresh Trade and fine Weather. Variation per several Azimuths 2 degrees 32 minutes East. Wind South-East to East 1/2 North; course West; distance 122 miles; latitude 19 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 133 degrees 28 minutes West.
Sunday, 2nd. A fresh Trade wind and fine pleasant weather. At Noon saw a Large flock of Birds; they had brown backs and white Bellies. They fly and make a noise like Stearings, and are shaped like them, only something larger. Saw likewise some black Sheerwaters and Several Man-of-War birds. Wind East; course North 86 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 118 miles; latitude 19 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 135 degrees 33 minutes West.
Monday, 3rd. First and Latter parts a steady fresh Breeze and cloudy; the Middle, sometimes squally with rain, at other times little wind. P.M. saw 2 Birds like Albetrosses; they were all white except the Tip of their wings and Tails. Wind East; course North 82 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 110 miles; latitude 18 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 137 degrees 29 minutes West.
Tuesday, 4th. A Steady fresh Trade and clear weather. At 1/2 past 10 a.m. saw land bearing south, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Haul'd up for it, and soon found it to be an Island of about 2 Leagues in Circuit and of an Oval form, with a Lagoon in the Middle, for which I named it Lagoon Island. The Border of land Circumscribing this Lagoon is in many places very low and narrow, particularly on the south side, where it is mostly a Beach or Reef of rocks; it is the same on the North side in 3 places, and these disjoins the firm land and make it appear like so many Islands covered with wood. On the West end of the Island is a large Tree which looks like a large Tower, and about the Middle of the Island are two Cocoa Nutt Trees that appears above all the other wood, which as we approached the Island looked very much like a flag. We approached the north side of this Island within a Mile, and found no Bottom with 130 fathoms of line, nor did there appear to be Anchorage about it. We saw several of the Inhabitants, the most of them men, and these Marched along the shore abreast of the Ships with long Clubs in their hands as tho' they meant to oppose our landing. They were all naked except their Privy parts, and were of a Dark Copper Colour with long black Hair, but upon our leaving the Island some of them were seen to put on a Covering, and one or two we saw in the Skirts of the Wood was Cloathed in White; these we supposed to be Women. This Island lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees 47 minutes and Longitude 139 degrees 28 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich; variation 2 degrees 54 minutes East. Wind East, East by South; course North 88 degrees West; distance 114 miles; latitude 18 degrees 42 minutes South, longitude 139 degrees 29 minutes West.
Wednesday, 5th. A fresh steady gale and fine weather. At 1 p.m. made Sail to the Westward, and at 1/2 past 3 saw land to the North-West, which we got up with at Sun sett and proved to be a low woody Island of a Circular form, and not much above a Mile in Compass. This Island I called Thrum Cap; it lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees 35 minutes South and in the Longitude of 139 degrees 48 minutes West from Greenwich, and North 62 degrees West, 7 Leagues from Lagoon Island. We saw no inhabitants, nor the appearance of any, and yet we were within 1/2 a Mile of the Shore. I observed by the Shore that it was near low Water, and at Lagoon Island I observed that it was either high Water or else there was no Ebbing and flowing of the Sea. From these Circumstances I infer that a South by East or South Moon makes high Water. Here we caught a King Fish, being the first fish we have got in these Seas. Wind East; course North 77 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 79 miles; latitude 18 degrees 25 minutes South, longitude 140 degrees 51 minutes West.
Thursday, 6th. A fresh Trade and fine Pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. Saw land to the Westward, which proved to be an Island of about 12 or 15 Leagues in Compass; is very low and entirely drown'd in the Middle, forming there a large lake, into which there appeared to be no inlet. The border of land and Reef surrounding this lake like a wall appeared to be of a Bow-like figure, for which reason I named it Bow Island. The South side, along which we sail'd, was one continued low narrow Beach or Reef like a Causeway for 4 Leagues and upwards, and lies East by North and West by South. The East and West Ends and North side of this Island are wooded-in Groves, and the firm Land appeared disjoined and like a Number of Islands, and very probably is so. The North-West parts of the Island we only saw across the Lake, and not very distinct on account of its great extent, and night coming on before we had run the whole length of the Island. This description must be imperfect, and the whole Island may form a Different figure to what I have here described. The east end lies in the Lat. of 18° 23′ S., and Long. 141° 12′ W. from Greenwich. Variation 5° 38′ East. This Island is Inhabited; we not only saw smook in Different Parts, but people also. At Noon saw Land to the Westward. Wind east; course N. 85° W.; distance 94 m.; lat. 18° 19′ S., long. 142° 29′ W.
Friday, 7th.—Fresh Gales and Cloudy. At ½-past 2 p.m. got up with the East end of the Land seen yesterday at Noon, and which proved to be an assemblage of Islands join'd together by Reef, and extending themselves N.W. by N. and S.E. by S. in 8 or 9 Leagues and of various breadths; but there appeared to be a total Seperation in the middle by a Channell of half a Mile broad, and on this account they are called the two Groups. The S. Eastermost of them lies in the Latitude of 18° 12′ and Long. of 142° 42′ W. from Greenwich, and W. ½ N. distant 25 Leagues from the W. end of Bow Island. We ranged along the S.W. side of this Island, and hauled into a Bay which lies to the N.W. of the Southermost point of them, and where there appeared to be Anchorage and the Sea was smooth and not much Surf on the Shore; but we found no ground with 100 fathoms ¾ of a Mile from the Shore, and nearer we did not go. Here several of the Inhabitants assembled together with their Canoes, with a design, as we thought, to come off to us, as they hauld one of them over the reef seemingly for that purpose; but after waiting near ½ an hour, and they not attempting to come, we bore away and made Sail, and presentley the Canoe put off after us; but, as we did not stop, they soon went back again. They were in all respects like those we had seen on Lagoon Island, and Armed with Clubs and long Pikes like them. At ½-past 6 a.m. Saw a small Island to the Northward, hauled our wind for it, and soon got close in with it. It is about 3 or 4 Miles in Circuit, and very low, with a Pond in the Middle. There is some wood upon it, but no inhabitants but Birds, and for this reason is called Bird Island. It lies in the lat. 17° 48′ and long. 143° 35′ W., and W. ½ N. 10 Leagues from the West end of the two Groups. The birds we saw were Men-of-War Birds and several other sorts. Wind East; course N. 66° W.; distance 66 m.; lat. 17° 48′ South, long. 143° 31′ W.
Saturday, 8th.—Fresh Trade and pleasant weather, but about noon had a few flying showers of rain. Variation 6° 32′ E. Wind E. by S. and E.; course N. 87° W.; distance 100 m.; lat. 17° 43′ S., long. 145° 16′ W.
Sunday, 9th.—A steady fresh gale and pleasant weather. At 2 p.m. saw Land to the Northward, hauld up for it, and found it to be a double range of low woody islands joined together by reefs, by which means they make one Island in form of an Ellipsis or Oval, in the Middle of which is a Salt water lake. The small Islands and reefs circumscribes or bounds this lake like a Chain; it is therefore called Chain Island. It is in length, North-West and South-East, about 5 Leagues, and in breadth about 5 Miles. The middle of it lies in the Latitude of 17 degrees 23 minutes South, and Longitude 145 degrees 54 minutes West, and West by North 45 Leagues from Bird Island. Variation per Several Azimuths 4 degrees 54 minutes East. Wind East by North to North by East; course West, Northerly; distance 81 miles; latitude 17 degrees 42 minutes South, longitude 146 degrees 40 minutes West.
Monday, 10th. P.M. moderate breezes and cloudy; in the Night, dark, cloudy, unsettled weather, with very much Thunder, Lightning, and rain. A.M. little wind and fair. P.M. variation per Several Azimuths 5 degrees 41 minutes East. At 8 a.m. saw Osnaburg Island (so called by Captain Wallis, the first discoverer) bearing North-West by West, distance 4 or 5 Leagues. It is a high round Island, and appears to be not above a League in Circuit, and when it bears as above it looks like a high Crown'd Hatt, but when it bears North the Top is more like the roof of a House. It lies in the Latitude of 17 degrees 48 minutes South and Longitude 148 degrees 10 minutes West, and West by South, 44 Leagues, from Chain Island. Wind North-North-West, variable, North-West by North; course South 13 degrees West; distance 67 miles; latitude 18 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 47 minutes West; at noon, Osnaburg Island North by West 1/2 West, 5 leagues.
[Arrive at Tahiti.]
Tuesday, 11th. First part, little wind and cloudy; the remainder, little wind and very Variable; unsettled weather, with some rain. P.M. took several Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude of the ship to be 148 degrees 18 minutes West, and differs but little from that given by the Log. At 6 a.m. saw King George's Island Extending from West by South 1/2 South to West by North 1/2 North. It appeared very high and Mountainous. Wind variable; course North 66 degrees West; distance 54 miles; latitude 17 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 39 minutes West; Osnaburg Island East 1/2 South, 13 leagues.
Wednesday, 12th. Variable, light Airs all these 24 Hours, and Hot sultry weather. At 5 p.m. King George's Island extending from North-West by West to South-West, distance 6 or 7 Leagues; and at 6 a.m. it bore from South-South-West to West by North, being little wind with Calms. Several of the Natives came off to us in their Canoes, but more to look at us than anything else. We could not prevail with any of them to come on board, and some would not come near the ship. Wind variable; course West; distance 18 miles; latitude 17 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 58 minutes West; at noon, King George's Island, from South to West by North, 5 leagues.
Thursday, 13th. The first part Cloudy and Squally, with Showers of rain; remainder, genteel breezes and clear weather. At 4 p.m. the North-East point of Royal Bay West 1/2 North; run under an easy sail all night, and had soundings from 22 to 12 fathoms 2 or 3 Miles from the Shore. At 5 a.m. made sail for the bay, and at 7 anchored in 13 fathoms. At this time we had but very few men upon the sick list, and these had but slite complaints. The Ship's company had in general been very healthy, owing in a great measure to the Sour kroutt, Portable Soup and Malt; the two first were served to the People, the one on Beef Days and the other on Banyan Days. Wort was made of the Malt, and at the discretion of the Surgeon given to every man that had the least simptoms of Scurvy upon him. By this means, and the Care and Vigilance of Mr. Monkhouse, the Surgeon, this disease was prevented from getting a footing in the Ship. The Sour Kroutt, the Men at first would not eat it, until I put it in practice — a method I never once Knew to fail with seamen — and this was to have some of it dressed every day for the Cabin Table, and permitted all the Officers, without exception, to make use of it, and left it to the Option of the men either to take as much as they pleased or none at all; but this practice was not continued above a Week before I found it necessary to put every one on board to an allowance; for such are the Tempers and disposition of Seamen in general that whatever you give them out of the common way — altho' it be ever so much for their good — it will not go down, and you will hear nothing but murmurings against the Man that first invented it; but the moment they see their superiors set a value upon it, it becomes the finest stuff in the world and the inventor an honest fellow. Wind easterly.
- Slops are materials for making clothes.
- Pepys' Island, placed on charts, from a report by Captain Cowley in 1683, about 230 miles north of Falkland Islands, and long imagined to exist. It was eventually recognised, after the discovery of Cowley's manuscript Journal, that Cowley had sighted the Falklands.
- Modern determination is 54 degrees 40 minutes South, 65 degrees 8 minutes West.
- The Endeavour was three days and a half in getting through the Strait of Le Maire, as far as Success Bay. It is a difficult passage for a sailing vessel even in the present day, as the tides are strong and winds generally contrary, but experience has enabled good directions to be given as to the best way to pass the Strait. Cook himself gives capital advice farther on.
- Cook's description of the natives of Tierra del Fuego is good to the present day, except that those who live farther westward are still more wretched. Those of the main island, in which the Bay of Good Success lies, are able to kill guanaco, and enjoy a better climate. They, as Cook observed, never go on the water, whereas those westward practically live in canoes.
- This island is still so called in the charts.
- No doubt this was Cape Horn, but it lies in 55 degrees 58 minutes South, 67 degrees 16 minutes West.
- Now called Thetis Bay, it is a very poor anchorage.
- Diego Ramirez is in 56 degrees 31 minutes South, 68 degrees 43 minutes West.
- This was the best observation.
- N.B. 23 days only from Success Bay.
- These are instances of Cook's observation and seamanlike perspicacity. The prevailing belief of the time was in a great southern continent.
- These are instances of Cook's observation and seamanlike perspicacity. The prevailing belief of the time was in a great southern continent.
- h is Saturn, [crescent] the Moon.
- Blanks in manuscript.
- The Endeavour was now passing to the northward of the easternmost islands of the Paumotu or Low Archipelago, though out of sight of them.
- This island is Vahitahi, one of the Paumotu or Low Archipelago.
- Akiaki. It is inhabited.
- Hao. It is a large atoll, thirty miles in length. Cook only saw a portion of it.
- Marokau and Ravahare. Two atolls close together.
- Maitea, the easternmost of the Society Islands, which are all high, and a great contrast to the low coral atolls of the Paumotus.
- So named by Captain Wallis. The native name was ascertained by Cook, who spelt it Otaheite. Now known as Tahiti. It is the chief island of the Society Group, and was annexed by the French in 1844.
- Matavai Bay.