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Captain Cook's Journal During His First Voyage Round the World/Chapter 10

< Captain Cook's Journal During His First Voyage Round the World


CHAPTER 10. BATAVIA TO CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.Edit

[December 1770.]

THURSDAY, 27th. Moderate breezes at West and North-West, with fair weather. At 6 a.m. weighed, and stood out to Sea; at Noon the Island of Edam bore North by East, distant 3 miles.

Friday, 28th. Winds variable between the North and West. At 6 in the Evening anchored in 13 fathoms, Edam Island bearing East, distant 1 1/2 miles. At day light in the morning weighed again, and keept plying to windward between Edam and Duffin's Island, but gained very little owing to the variableness of the winds.

Saturday, 29th. In the P.M. anchored in 12 fathoms water in the Evening until daylight, when we got again under Sail, with the wind at West-South-West, and stood out North-West for the Thousand Islands. Before noon the wind veer'd to North-West, and we endeavour'd to turn through between Pulo Pare and Wapping Island.

Sunday, 30th. After making a short trip to the North-East, we tacked, and weather'd Pulo Pare, and stood in for the Main, having the wind at North-West, a fresh breeze. We fetched Maneaters Island (a small island laying under the Main midway between Batavia and Bantam) after making a trip to the North-East, and finding that we lost ground, we stood in shore again and anchored in 13 fathoms, the above mentioned Island bearing South-West by West, distant 1 mile, and in one with Bantam Hill. At 7 A.M. weighed, with the wind at West-South-West, and stood to the North-West, and weather'd Wapping Island, having the current in our favour.

Monday, 31st. At 1 P.M. the wind veer'd to the Northward; we tack and stood to the Westward, and weather'd Pulo Baby. In the Evening Anchor'd between this Island and Bantam Bay, the Island bearing North, distant 2 miles, and Bantam Point West; at 5 a.m. weighed with the wind at West by South, which afterwards proved variable; at noon Bantam Point South-West 1/2 West, distant 3 Leagues.

JANUARY, 1771.

Tuesday, 1st. In the P.M. stood over for the Sumatra Shore, having the wind at South-South-West, a fresh breeze, and the current in our favour; but this last shifted and set to the Eastward in the Evening, and obliged us to Anchor in 30 fathoms, under the Islands which lay off Verekens point, which point constitutes the narrowest part of the Straits of Sunda. Here we found the current set to the South-West the most part of the night; at 5 a.m. weigh'd with the wind at North-West, and stood to the South-West between the Island Thwart-the-way and Sumatra; the wind soon after coming to the westward we stood over for the Java Shore. At noon the South point of Peper Bay bore South-West by South, and Anger Point North-East 1/2 East, distant 2 Leagues; tacked and stood to the North-West.

Wednesday, 2nd. First and middle parts fresh breezes at South-West, and fair the remainder, squally with rain; plying to windward between Cracatoa and the Java shore without gaining anything.

Thursday, 3rd. In the P.M. had it very squally, with heavy showers of rain; at 1/2 past 7 anchor'd in 19 fathoms, Cracatoa Island South-West, distance 3 Leagues. In the morning came to sail, having very squally variable weather; at Noon Cracatoa West 2 Leagues.

Friday, 4th. Most part of these 24 hours squally, rainy weather, winds variable between the North-North-West and South-South-West; at 5 p.m. anchor'd in 28 fathoms water, Cracatoa West, distant 3 miles. Some time after the wind veer'd to North-West, with which we got under sail, but the wind dying away we advanced but little to the South-West before noon, at which time Princes Island bore South-West, distance 8 or 9 Leagues.

Saturday, 5th. Had fresh breezes at South-West, with squally, rainy weather until the evening, when it clear up, and the wind veer'd to South and South-East, with which we stood to the South-West all night. In the morning the wind veer'd to North-East, which was still in our favour; at noon Princes Island bore West 1/2 South, distant 3 Leagues.

[At Anchor. Princes Island, Sunda Strait.]

Sunday, 6th. At 3 o'clock in the P.M. anchor'd under the South-East side of Princes Island in 18 fathoms water, in order to recruite our wood and water, and to procure refreshments for the people, which are now in a much worse state of health than when we left Batavia. After coming to an anchor I went on shore to look at the watering place, and to speak with the Natives, some of whom were upon the Beach. I found the watering place convenient, and the water to all appearance good, Provided proper care is taken in the filling of it. The Natives seemed inclined to supply us with Turtle, Fowls, etc.; Articles that I intended laying in as great a stock as possible for the benefit of the Sick, and to suffer every one to purchase what they pleased for themselves, as I found these people as easy to traffick with as Europeans. In the morning sent the Gunner ashore with some hands to fill water, while others were empboy'd putting the whole to rights, sending on shore Empty Casks, etc. Served Turtle to the Ship's Company. Yesterday was the only Salt meat day they have had since our arrival at Java, which is now near 4 months.

Monday, 7th. From this day till Monday 14th we were employ'd wooding and watering, being frequently interrupted by heavy rains. Having now compleated both we hoisted in the Long boat, and made ready to put to Sea, having on board a pretty good stock of refreshments, which we purchased of the natives, such as Turtle, Fowls, Fish, two species of Deer, one about as big as a small sheep, the other no bigger than a Rabbit; both sorts eat very well, but are only for present use, as they seldom lived above 24 hours in our possession. We likewise got fruit of several sorts, such as Cocoa Nutts, plantains, Limes, etc. The Trade on our part was carried on chiefly with money (Spanish Dollars); the natives set but little value upon any thing else. Such of our people as had not this Article traded with Old Shirts, etc., at a great disadvantage.

[Batavia to Capetown.]

Tuesday, 15th. Had variable light airs of wind, with which we could not get under sail until the morning, when we weighed with a light breeze at North-East, which was soon succeeded by a calm.

Wednesday, 16th. Had it calm all P.M., which at 5 o'clock obliged us to Anchor under the South Point of Princes Island, the said Point bearing South-West by West, distance 2 miles. At 8 o'clock in the A.M. a light breeze sprung up at North, with which we weigh'd and stood out to Sea. At noon Java Head bore South-East by South, distance 2 Leagues, and the West Point of Princes Island North-North-West, distance 5 Leagues; Latitude Observed 6 degrees 45 minutes South. Java Head, from which I take my departure, lies in the Latitude of 6 degrees 49 minutes South, and Longitude 255 degrees 12 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich, deduced from several Astronomical Observations made at Batavia by the Reverend Mr. Mohr.[1]

Thursday, 17th. Little wind and fair at 6 p.m. Java head bore East-North-East, distant 4 or 5 Leagues; at 6 a.m. it bore North-North-East, 12 Leagues. Wind North-East; course South 27 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 48 miles; latitude 7 degrees 32 minutes South; longitude 255 degrees 35 minutes West.

Friday, 18th. Light Airs and Calms, with Showers of Rain. Wind Variable; course South-West 1/2 South; distance 30 miles; latitude 7 degrees 55 minutes South; longitude 255 degrees 54 minutes West.

Saturday, 19th. For the most part of these 24 hours had little wind and fair weather. Wind Westerly; course South 3 degrees East; distance 53 miles; latitude 8 degrees 48 minutes South; longitude 255 degrees 51 minutes West.

Sunday, 20th. Light Airs and Calms, with some Showers of Rain. Saw 2 Sail in the North-West Quarter standing to the South-West; one of them shew'd Dutch Colours. Wind North Westerly; course South 44 degrees West; distance 36 miles; latitude 9 degrees 14 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 15 minutes West.

Monday, 21st. First part Little wind, the remainder a Gentle breeze; the 2 Sail in sight. Wind Easterly; course South 57 degrees West; distance 58 miles; latitude 9 degrees 46 minutes South; longitude 257 degrees 5 minutes West.

Tuesday, 22nd. Little wind and fair weather. Wind South-Westerly; course North 10 degrees West; distance 17 miles; latitude 9 degrees 29 minutes South; longitude 257 degrees 8 minutes West.

Wednesday, 23rd. Ditto weather; a swell from the Southward, and which we have had ever since we left the Straits of Sunda. Wind Ditto; course East Southerly; distance 18 miles; latitude 9 degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 50 minutes West.

Thursday, 24th. First part Light Airs, the remainder Calm. In the A.M. died John Trusslove, Corporal of Marines, a man much esteem'd by every body on board. Many of our people at this time lay dangerously ill of Fevers and Fluxes. We are inclinable to attribute this to the water we took in at Princes Island, and have put lime into the Casks in order to purifie it. Wind South-West by South to South-South-East; course South; distance 4 miles; latitude 9 degrees 34 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 50 minutes West.

Friday, 25th. Light Airs and Calms; hot, sultry weather. Departed this life Mr. Sporing, a Gentleman belonging to Mr Banks's retinue. Wind Variable and Calms; course South 30 degrees East; distance 12 miles; latitude 9 degrees 44 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 44 minutes West.

Saturday, 26th. First part little wind, the remainder calm and very hot; set up the Topmast Rigging, and clear'd ship between Decks, and wash her with Vinegar. Wind South Westerly; course South-East; distance 17 miles; latitude 9 degrees 56 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 32 minutes West.

Sunday, 27th. Little wind, and sometimes calm. In the evening found the Variation to be 2 degrees 51 minutes West. Departed this life Mr. Sydney Parkinson, Natural History Painter to Mr. Banks, and soon after John Ravenhill, Sailmaker, a man much advanced in years. Wind Variable; course South 30 degrees West; distance 19 miles; latitude 10 degrees 12 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 41 minutes West.

Monday, 28th. Moderate breezes, with some Squalls, attended with Showers of Rain. Wind West-North-West, North-East; course South 43 degrees West; distance 66 miles; latitude 11 degrees 0 minutes South; longitude 257 degrees 27 West.

Tuesday, 29th. Very variable weather; sometimes squally, with rain, other times little wind and calms. In the Night died Mr. Charles Green, who was sent out by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus. He had long been in a bad state of health, which he took no care to repair, but, on the contrary, lived in such a manner as greatly promoted the disorders he had had long upon him; this brought on the Flux, which put a period to his life. Wind North Westerly; course South 40 degrees West; distance 74 miles; latitude 11 degrees 57 minutes South; longitude 258 degrees 15 minutes West.

Wednesday, 30th. First and Latter parts moderate breez es and Cloudy weather; the middle Squally, with rain, Thunder, and Lightning. Died of the Flux Samuel Moody and Francis Haite, 2 of the Carpenter's Crew. Wind Easterly; course South 40 degrees West; distance 67 miles; latitude 12 degrees 48 minutes South; longitude 258 degrees 59 minutes West.

Thursday, 31st. First part Moderate and fair, the remainder frequent Squalls, attended with Showers of Rain. In the course of this 24 Hours we have had 4 men died of the Flux, viz., John Thompson, Ship's Cook; Benjamin Jordan, Carpenter's Mate; James Nickolson and Archibald Wolf, Seamen; a melancholy proof of the calamitieous situation we are at present in, having hardly well men enough to tend the Sails and look after the Sick, many of whom are so ill that we have not the least hopes of their recovery. Wind East-South-East; course South-West; distance 80 miles; latitude 13 degrees 42 minutes South; longitude 259 degrees 55 minutes West.

[February 1771.]

Friday, February 1st. Fresh Gales, with flying showers of rain. Clean'd between Decks, and washed with Vinegar. Wind South-East by South; course South 58 1/2 degrees West; distance 119 miles; latitude 14 degrees 44 minutes South; longitude 261 degrees 40 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. A Fresh Trade, and mostly fair weather. Departed this life Daniel Roberts, Gunner's Servant, who died of the Flux. Since we have had a fresh Trade Wind this fatal disorder hath seem'd to be at a stand; yet there are several people which are so far gone, and brought so very low by it, that we have not the least hopes of their recovery. Wind East-South-East; course South 61 degrees West; distance 131 miles; latitude 15 degrees 48 minutes South; longitude 264 degrees 16 minutes West.

Sunday, 3rd. Ditto weather. In the Evening found the variation to be 2 degrees 56 minutes West. Departed this life John Thurman, Sailmaker's Assistant. Wind Ditto; course South 65 degrees West; distance 128 miles; latitude 16 degrees 40 minutes South; longitude 266 degrees 16 West.

Monday, 4th. A fresh Trade and hazey weather, with some Squalls, attended with Small Rain; unbent the Main Topsail to repair, and bent another. In the night died of the Flux Mr. John Bootie, Midshipman, and Mr. John Gathrey, Boatswain. Wind South-East; course South 69 degrees West; distance 141 miles; latitude 17 degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 268 degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 5th. A fresh Trade wind, and hazey, cloudy weather. Employ'd repairing Sails; appointed Samuel Evans, one of the Boatswain's Mates, and Coxswain of the Pinnace, to be Boatswain, in the room of Mr. Gathrey, deceased, and order'd a Survey to be taken of the Stores. Wind East by South; course West 15 degrees South; distance 141 miles; latitude 18 degrees 6 minutes South; longitude 270 degrees 54 minutes West.

Wednesday, 6th. A Fresh Trade wind and fair weather. In the night died Mr. John Monkhouse, Midshipman, and Brother to the late Surgeon. Wind South-East; course West 12 degrees South; distance 126 miles; latitude 18 degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 272 degrees 28 minutes West.

Thursday, 7th. Gentle Gales, with some Showers in the night. In the Evening found the variation to be 3 degrees 24 minutes West, and in the Morning I took several observations of the Sun and Moon, the mean result of which, carried on to Noon, gave 276 degrees 19 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich, which is 2 degrees to the Westward of that given by the Log; this, I believe, is owing to a following Sea, which I have not as yet allowed, for I judge it to be 6 miles a day since we have had the South-East Trade wind. Wind South-East; course South 75 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 110 miles; latitude 18 degrees 58 minutes South; longitude 274 degrees 20 minutes per Log, 276 degrees 19 minutes per Observation.

Friday, 8th. Winds as Yesterday; clear weather in the day, and Showrey in the Night. In the morning took Observations again of the Sun and Moon, the mean result of which, reduced to noon, gave 278 degrees 50 minutes West, which is 2 degrees 31 minutes West of Yesterday's Observation; the log gives 2 degrees 20 minutes. Wind South-East; course South 78 degrees West; distance 127 miles; latitude 19 degrees 24 minutes South; longitude 276 degrees 40 minutes per Log, 278 degrees 50 minutes per Observation.

Saturday, 9th. Gentle Gales and fair weather in the morning. Saw a Ship on our Larboard Quarter, which hoisted Dutch Colours. Wind South-East; course South 74 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 127 miles; latitude 19 degrees 58 minutes South.

Sunday, 10th. Fresh breezes and Hazey weather. Lost sight in the night of the Dutch Ship, she having out sail'd us. Wind South-East quarter; course South 77 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 136 miles; latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes South; longitude 281 degrees 12 minutes West.

Monday, 11th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. Some hands constantly employ'd repairing Sails. Wind Ditto; course South 75 degrees West; distance 126 miles; latitude 20 degrees 58 minutes South; longitude 283 degrees 22 minutes West.

Tuesday, 12th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. At 7 a.m. died of the Flux, after a long and painful illness, Mr. John Satterly, Carpenter, a man much Esteem'd by me and every Gentleman on board. In his room I appoint George Nowell, one of the Carpenter's Crew, having only him and one more left. Wind South-South-East; course South 71 minutes West; distance 83 miles; latitude 21 degrees 25 minutes South; longitude 284 degrees 46 minutes West.

Wednesday, 13th. Weather as Yesterday. Employ'd Surveying the Carpenter's Stores and repairing Sails. Wind Ditto; course South 72 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 21 degrees 51 minutes South; longitude 286 degrees 15 minutes West.

Thursday, 14th. Moderate breezes and Cloudy, with some Showers of Rain. Variation per Azimuth 4 degrees 10 minutes West. Died Alexander Lindsay, Seaman; this man was one of those we got at Batavia, and had been some time in India. Winds Ditto; course South 73 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 105 miles; latitude 22 degrees 21 minutes South; longitude 288 degrees 3 minutes West.

Friday, 15th. Ditto Weather. Died of the Flux Daniel Preston, Marine. Wind South-East by East; course South 81 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 123 miles; latitude 22 degrees 40 minutes; longitude 290 degrees 15 minutes West.

Saturday, 16th. A Fresh Trade and Cloudy weather. Employ'd repairing Sails, rigging, etc. Wind Ditto; course South 84 degrees West; distance 115 miles; latitude 22 degrees 52 minutes South; longitude 292 degrees 20 minutes West.

Sunday, 17th. Fresh Gales, with some Showers of rain. Variation per Azimuth 10 degrees 20 minutes Westerly. Wind South-East by South; course South 79 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 157 miles; latitude 23 degrees 20 minutes South; longitude 295 8 minutes West.

Monday, 18th. Fair and pleasant weather. Wind South-East by East; course South 75 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 148 miles; latitude 23 degrees 57 minutes South; longitude 297 degrees 46 minutes West.

Tuesday, 19th. Ditto weather. Wind South-East by East and South; course South 77 degrees West; distance 130 miles; latitude 24 degrees 26 minutes South; longitude 300 degrees 5 minutes West.

Wednesday, 20th. Fresh Gales and clear weather. Variation per Azimuth 12 degrees 15 minutes West. This morning the Carpenter and his Mate set about repairing the Long boat, being the first day they have been able to work since we left Princes Island. Wind South; course South 75 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 127 miles; latitude 24 degrees 57 minutes South; longitude 302 degrees 21 minutes West.

Thursday, 21st. First and middle parts fair weather; Latter Squally, attended with Showers of Rain. Between 2 and 3 o'Clock p.m. took several Observations of the Sun and Moon; the mean result of them gave 306 degrees 33 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich, which is 1 degree 55 minutes West of account, and corresponds very well with the last Observations, for at that time the Ship was 2 degrees 10 minutes West of account. In the Night died of the Flux Alexander Simpson, a very good Seaman. In the Morning punished Thomas Rossiter with 12 lashes for getting Drunk, grossly assaulting the Officer of the Watch, and beating some of the Sick. Wind South to East-South-East; course West by South; distance 126 miles; latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South; longitude 304 degrees 39 minutes per Account, 306 degrees 34 minutes per Observation.

Friday, 22nd. Fresh Trade and fair weather. Nothing remarkable. Wind South-East by South; course South 70 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 133 miles; latitude 26 degrees 5 minutes South; longitude 306 degrees 59 minutes West, 308 degrees 54 minutes per Observation.

Saturday, 23rd. Ditto Winds and weather. Variation per Evening Amplitude 17 degrees 30 minutes West. Wind Ditto; course South 64 degrees 14 minutes West; distance 124 miles; latitude 26 degrees 59 minutes; longitude 309 degrees 6 minutes West, 311 degrees 28 minutes per Observation.

Sunday, 24th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. In the A.M. took the opportunity of a fine morning to stay the Main Mast, and set up the Topmast Rigging. Saw an Albatross. Wind Ditto; course South 66 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 117 miles; latitude 27 degrees 45 minutes South; longitude 311 degrees 7 minutes West, 313 degrees 41 minutes per Observation.

Monday, 25th. Gentle Gales, and fair weather. Variation per Evening Azimuth 24 degrees 20 minutes West, and by the Morning Amplitude 24 degrees West Longitude; by Observation of the [circle around a dot, sun] and [crescent, moon] is 3 degrees to the Westwarn of the Log, which shews that the Ship has gain'd upon the Log 1 degree 5 minutes in 3 Days, in which time we have always found the Observ'd Latitude to the Southward of that give n by the Log. These Joint Observations proves that there must be a current setting between the South and West. Wind East by South; course South 58 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 122 miles; latitude 28 degrees 49 minutes South; longitude 313 degrees 6 minutes West, 316 degrees 6 minutes per Observation.

Tuesday, 26th. Fresh Gales. Variation by Azimuth in the Evening 26 degrees 10 minutes West. Wind South-East by East; course South 82 degrees West; distance 122 miles; latitude 29 degrees 6 minutes South; longitude 315 degrees 24 minutes West.

Wednesday, 27th. Ditto Gales and Cloudy. In the A.M. died of the Flux Henry Jeffs, Emanuel Parreyra, and Peter Morgan, Seamen; the last came Sick on board at Batavia, of which he never recover'd, and the other 2 had long been past all hopes of recovery, so that the death of these 3 men in one day did not in the least alarm us.[2] On the contrary, we are in hopes that they will be the last that will fall a sacrifice to this fatal disorder, for such as are now ill of it are in a fair way of recovering. Wind East by South, East by North-North-East; course South 77 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 108 miles; latitude 29 degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 317 degrees 25 minutes West.

Thursday, 28th. Moderate breezes and fair weather until near 5 o'Clock in the A.M., when a heavy Squall from the South-West, attended with rain, took us all aback, and obliged us to put before the wind, the better to take in our Sails; but before this could be done the Foretopsail was split in several places. By 6 o'clock the Topsails and Mainsail were handed, and we brought too under the Foresail and Mizen; at 8 it fell more moderate, and we set the Mainsail, and brought another Foretopsail to the Yard; at Noon had strong Gales and Cloudy weather. Wind North-East by East, North, and South-West; course South 85 1/2 degrees West; distance 88 miles; latitude 29 degrees 37 minutes South; longitude 319 degrees 5 minutes West.

[March 1771.]

Friday, March 1st. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. Found the Bitts which secures the foot of the Bowsprit, loose; this obliged us to put before the wind until they were secured in the best manner our situation would admit; this done, we hauld our wind again to the Westward under the Courses and close Reef'd Topsails. Wind South-West to South by West; course South 86 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 71 miles; latitude 29 degrees 41 minutes South; longitude 320 degrees 26 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. First part fresh Gales and Cloudy; remainder little wind, with some few showers of rain; a Sea from the South-West. Wind Southerly; course South 60 degrees West; distance 80 miles; latitude 30 degrees 21 minutes South; longitude 321 degrees 46 minutes West.

Sunday, 3rd. First part little wind; remainder Gentle gales and clear weather, and the Sea pretty smooth. Wind North-East; course South 58 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 71 miles; latitude 31 degrees 1 minute South; longitude 323 degrees 2 minutes West.

Monday, 4th. In the P.M. had a moderate breeze, which continued until 5 o'clock in the A.M., when it fell calm, and soon after a breeze sprung up at South-West. In the Evening, and most part of the Night, the weather was dark and cloudy, with much Lightning to the Westward. Variation 25 degrees 35 minutes West. Winds North-East to South-West; course South 67 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 31 degrees 54 minutes South; longitude 324 degrees 36 minutes West.

[Off Coast of Natal.]

Tuesday, 5th. Fresh Gales from the South-South-West, with squally, rainy weather, with which we stood to the Westward. In the evening some people thought they saw the appearance of land to the Northward; but this appear'd so improbable that I, who was not on deck at this time, was not acquainted with it until dark, when I order'd them to sound, but found no ground with 80 fathoms, upon which we concluded that no land was near. But daylight in the Morning proved this to be a mistake by shewing us the land at the distance of about 2 Leagues off. We had now the wind at South-East, blowing fresh right upon the land. When we made the land we were standing to the Westward; but, thinking the other the best tack to get off on, we wore, and hauld off to the Eastward, and by Noon had got an Offing of about 4 Leagues, the land at this time extending from North-East by North to West-South-West. This part of the Coast of Africa which we fell in with lies in about the Latitude of 32 degrees 0 minutes South, and Longitude 331 degrees 29 minutes West, and near to what is called in the Charts Point Nattall.[3] It was a steep, craggy point, very much broke, and looked as if the high, craggy rocks were Islands. To the North-East of this point the land in General appear'd to rise, sloping from the Sea to a Moderate height; the Shore, alternately Rocks and Sands. About 2 Leagues to the North-East of the Point appear'd to be the mouth of a River, which probably may be that of St. Johns. At this time the weather was very hazey, so that we had but a very imperfect view of the land, which did not appear to great advantage. Wind South-South-West to South-East; course per Log North 31 degrees West; distance 32 miles; latitude 31 degrees 5 minutes South per Observation, 31 degrees 7 minutes per Reckoning; longitude 331 degrees 19 minutes per Observation, 324 degrees 56 minutes per Reckoning.

Wednesday, 6th. Moderate Gales, with hazey, rainy weather. Stood to the Eastward all the day, having the land in sight, which at 4 p.m. extended from North-East by North to South-West by West, distant 5 Leagues. At 6 in the Morning we could only see it at West distant 7 or 8 Leagues. At Noon found the Ship by Observation 90 Miles to the Southward of account. Thus far the current has carried us to the South since the last observation, which was only 2 days ago; but it is plain, from the position of the Coast, that we have been carried full as far to the West also, notwithstanding we have been standing all the time to the East-North-East[4] Wind Southerly; course South 54 degrees East; distance 37 miles; latitude 32 degrees 4 minutes South; 330 degrees 44 minutes per Observation, 323 degrees 36 minutes per Reckoning.

Thursday, 7th. Cloudy, hazey weather; winds varying between the South-West by South and South-East by South; a light breeze at 1 p.m. Tack'd, and stood to the Westward, land at North, distant about 8 Leagues. At 6 saw it extending from North by West to West by North, distant 5 or 6 Leagues; at 8 tack'd, and stood to the Eastward till 12; then again to the Westward, standing 4 hours on one tack, and 4 on the other. At Noon very cloudy; had no observation; saw the land extending from North by West to West by North. Wind Southerly; course South 156 degrees 5 minutes West; distance 72 miles; latitude 32 degrees 54 minutes South; longitude 331 degrees 56 minutes West per Observation, 323 degrees 54 per Reckoning.

Friday, 8th. In the P.M. stood to the Westward, with the wind at South by West until 4 o'clock; then again to the Eastward, having the land in sight, extending from North-North-East to West by North, distant 8 Leagues. At 12 the wind veer'd to the Eastward, and before Noon blow'd a fresh breeze, with which we steer'd South-West. At 7, the land extending from North-North-West to East-North-East, distant 10 or 12 Leagues, found the Variation by the Amplitude to be 28 degrees 30 minutes West, and by an Azimuth 28 degrees 8 minutes West. At Noon Latitude observ'd 34 degrees 18 minutes, which is 93 miles to the Southward of that given by the Log, or dead reckoning since the last observation. Wind Easterly; course South 39 1/2 degrees West; distance 109 miles; latitude 34 degrees 18 minutes South; longitude 333 degrees 19 minutes West per Observation, 324 degrees 23 minutes per Reckoning.

Saturday, 9th. A steady, fresh Gale, and settled weather. At 4 in the P.M. had high land in sight, bearing North-East by North. At Noon had little wind and clear weather; the observed Latitude 46 miles to the Southward of the Log, which is conformable to what has hapned the 4 preceeding days; and by Observation made of the Sun and Moon this morning found that the Ship had gain'd 7 degrees 4 minutes West of the Log since the last observation, 13 days ago. Wind Ditto; course South 65 degrees West; distance 210 miles; latitude 35 degrees 44 minutes South; longitude 337 degrees 6 minutes West per Observation, 326 degrees 53 minutes per Reckoning.

Sunday, 10th. In the P.M. had a light breeze at North-East until 4 o'clock, when it fell calm, and continued so until 11, at which time a breeze sprung up at West-North-West, with which we stood to the Northward. In the Morning found the Variation to be 22 degrees 46 minutes; at Noon the observ'd Latitude was 14 Miles to the Northward of the Log, which shews that the current must have shifted. Wind North-East Westerly; course North 17 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 55 miles; latitude 34 degrees 52 minutes South; longitude 337 degrees 25 minutes West per Observation, 327 degrees 12 minutes per Reckoning.

Monday, 11th. First part light Airs at West; the remainder had a fresh gale at South-East, with which we steer'd West and West-North-West, in order to make the Land, which was seen from the Deck at 10 A.M. At Noon it extended from North-East to North-West, distant 5 Leagues; the middle appear'd high and mountainous, and the two Extremes low. Took several Observations of the Sun and Moon, which gave the Longitude, reduced to Noon, as per Column. Wind Ditto South-East; course North 85 degrees West; distance 79 miles; latitude 34 degrees 45 minutes South; longitude 338 degrees 48 minutes West per Observation, 328 degrees 35 minutes per Reckoning.

[Off Cape Agulhas.]

Tuesday, 12th. In the P.M. had the wind at South-East and East, with which we steer'd along shore West and West-South-West. At 6 Cape Laguillas[5] bore West, distance 3 Leagues. At 8, the wind being then at South, we tack'd and stood off, being about 2 Leagues from the Cape, which bore about West-North-West. In this Situation had 33 fathoms water; the Wind continued between South-West and South all night, in times very Squally, with rain. At 2 a.m. tacked to the Westward until near 8, when we again stood off Cape Laguillas, North-West, distance 2 or 3 Leagues. At 9 the weather clear'd up, and the wind fix'd at South by West. We tack'd, and stood to the Westward. At Noon Cape Laguillas bore North-East by North, distant 4 Leagues. The land of this Cape is very low and sandy next the Sea; inland it is of a moderate height. Latitude 34 degrees 50 minutes South, Longitude 339 degrees 23 minutes West, or 20 degrees 37 minutes East, deduced from Yesterday's Observations. Wind East-South-East Southerly; course South 69 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 37 miles; Latitude 34 degrees 58 minutes South; longitude 339 degrees 30 minutes per Observation, 329 degrees 17 minutes per Reckoning.

Wednesday, 13th. In the P.M., having the wind at South, we steer'd along shore West by South 1/2 South until 3 o'clock, when, finding this course carried us off from the land, we steer'd West by North; at 6 o'clock Cape Laguillas, or the high land over it, bore East by North 12 Leagues distance, and the westermost land in sight North-West 1/2 West. We continued a West by North course, with the wind at South-East until day light in the Morning, when we haul'd in North-West and North-West by North; at 8 the Cape of Good Hope North-West by North, and at 10 we were abreast of it, and distance off about 1 League or little more. We passed close without a rock, on which the Sea broke very high; it lies about a League right out to Sea from the Cape. After passing the Cape we kept along shore at the distance of about 1 League off, having a fresh Gale at South-East; at noon the Cape bore South-East, distance 4 Leagues. Latitude observed 34 degrees 15 minutes South, Longitude in, by our reckoning, corrected by the last observation, 341 degrees 7 minutes West, or 18 degrees 53 minutes East from Greenwich, by which the Cape lies in 34 degrees 25 minutes South Latitude, and 19 degrees 1 minute East Longitude from Greenwich, which nearly agrees with the observations made at the Cape Town by Messrs. Mason and Dixon in 1761; a proof that our observations have been well made, and that as such they may always be depended upon to a surprizing degree of accuracey. If we had had no such guide we should ha ve found an error of 10 degrees 13 minutes of Longitude, or perhaps more to the East, such an effect the current must have had upon the ship.

Thursday, 14th. Winds at South-East, a fresh Gale, but as we approached the Lyons Tail or West point, Table Bay, we had flurries of wind from all Points of the Compass; this was occasioned by the high land, for clear of it the wind was still at South-East, and bbow'd so strong out of the Bay that we could not work the Ship in; we were therefore obliged to Anchor a good way without all the Ships at Anchor in the Road, in the whole 16 Sail, viz., 8 Dutch, 3 Danes, 4 French, a Frigate, and 3 Store Ships, and one English East Indiamen, who saluted us with 11 Guns; we returned 9. The Gale continued, which obliged us to lay fast all the morning.

Friday, 15th. Strong Gales at South-East all the Afternoon and most part of the Night, though in the Evening it fell a little moderate, which gave the Indiaman's Boat an opportunity to come on board us, with a Complement of a Basket of Fruit, etc,; she was the Admiral Pocock, Captain Riddell, homeward bound from Bombay. In the morning we got under sail, and stood into the Road, having variable light airs mostly from the Sea. A Dutch boat from the Shore came on board, in which were the Master Attendant and some other Gentlemen; the former directed us to a proper birth, where about 10 o'clock we anchored in 7 fathoms water, a Ouzey bottom; the Lyon Tail, or West point of the Bay, bore West-North-West, and the Castle South-West, distance 1 1/2 miles. I now sent a Petty Officer on shore to know if they would return our Salute, but before he return'd we Saluted, which was immediately return'd with the same number of Guns; after this I waited myself upon the Governour, who was pleased to tell me that I should have everything I wanted that the place afforded. My first care was to provide a proper place ashore for the reception of the Sick, for which purpose I order'd the Surgeon to look out for a House where they could be lodged and dieted. This he soon found, and agreed with the people of the house for 2 shillings a day per man; which I found was the customary Price and method of proceeding. I afterwards gave the Surgeon an order to superintend the whole.

[Remarks on Dysentery.]

Few remarks have hapned since we left Java Head that can be of much use to the Navigator, or any other Person, into whose hand this Journal may fall; such, however, as have occur'd I shall now insert. After our leaving Java head we were 11 days before we got the General South-East Trade wind, in which time we did not advance above 5 degrees to the South and 3 degrees to the West, having all the time Variable light Airs of Wind, interrupted by frequent Calms, the weather all the time hot and sultry, and the Air unwholesome, occasioned most probably by the Vast Vapours brought into these Latitudes by the Easterly Trade wind and Westerly Monsoons, both of which blow at this time of the Year in this Sea. The Easterly winds prevail as far as 12 or 10 degrees South, and the Westerly winds as far as 6 or 8 degrees; between them the winds are Variable, and I believe always more or less unwholesome, but to us it was remarkable from the Fatal Consequences that attended it, for whatever might be the cause of First bringing on the Flux among our people, this unwholesome Air had a Great share in it, and increased it to that degree that a Man was no sooner taken with it than he look'd upon himself as Dead. Such was the Despondency that reigned among the Sick at this time, nor could it be by any Means prevented, when every Man saw that Medicine, however skillfully Administered, had not the least effect. I shall mention what Effect only the immaginary approach of this disorder had upon one man. He had long tended upon the Sick, and injoyed a tolerable good State of Health; one morning, coming upon Deck, he found himself a little griped, and immediately began to stamp with his feet, and exclaim, "I have got the Gripes, I have got the Gripes; I shall die, I shall die!" In this manner he continued until he threw himself into a fit, and was carried off the Deck, in a manner, Dead; however he soon recover'd, and did very well.

We had no sooner got into the South-East Trade wind than we felt its happy Effect, tho' we lost several men after, but they were such as were brought so low and weak that there were hardly a possibility of there recovery; and yet some of them linger'd out in a State of Suspence a month after, who, in all Probability, would not have lived 24 Hours before this Change hapned. Those that were not so far gone remained in the same state for some time, and at last began to recover; some few, however, were seized with the disorder after we got into the Trade wind, but they had it but slightly, and soon got over it. It is worth remarking, that of all those who had it in its last stage only one man lived, who is now in a fair way of recovering; and I think Mr. Banks was the only one that was cured at the first Attack'd that had it to a great degree, or indeed at all, before we got into the South-East Trade, for it was before that time that his Cure was happily effected.

It is to be wished, for the good of all Seamen, and mankind in general, that some preventative was found out against this disease, and put in practice in Climates where it is common, for it is impossible to Victual and water a Ship in those Climates but what some one article or another, according to different Peoples opinions, must have been the means of bringing on the Flux. We were inclinable to lay it to the water we took in at Princes Island, and the Turtle we got their, on which we lived several days; but there seems to be no reason for this when we consider that all the Ships from Batavia this Year suffer'd by the same disorder as much as we have done, and many of them arrived at this place in a far worse State; and yet not one of the Ships took any water in at Princes Island. The same may be said of the Harcourt Indiaman, Captain Paul, who sail'd from Batavia soon after our arrival, directly for the Coast of Sumatra; we afterwards heard that she, in a very short time, lost by Sickness above 20 men; indeed, this seem to have been a year of General Sickness over most parts of India, the Ships from Bengal and Madrass bring Melancholly Accounts of the Havock made there by the united force of Sickness and famine.

Some few days after we left Java we saw, for 3 or 4 evenings succeeding one another, boobies fly about the ship. Now, as these birds are known to roost every night on land they seem'd to indicate that some Island was in our neighbourhood; probably it might be the Island Selam, which Island I find differently laid down in different Charts, both in Name and Situation.

The variation of the Compass off the West Coast of Java is about 3 degrees West, which Variation continues, without any sencible difference in the Common Track of Ships, to the Longitude of 288 degrees West, Latitude 22 degrees 0 minutes South. After this it begins to increase apace, in so much that in the Longitude of 295 degrees, Latitude 23 degrees, the Variation was 10 degrees 20 minutes West; in 7 degrees more of Longitude and one of Latitude it increased 2 degrees; in the same space farther to the West it increased 5 degrees; in the Latitude of 28 degrees and Longitude 314 degrees it was 24 degrees 20 minutes; in the Latitude 29 degrees and Longitude 317 degrees it was 26 degrees 10 minutes, and continued to be much the same for the space of 10 degrees farther to the West; but in the Latitude of 34 degrees, Longitude 333 degrees we observed it twice to be 28 1/4 degrees West; but this was the greatest Variation we observed, for in the Latitude of 35 1/2 degrees, Longitude 337 degrees, it was 24 degrees, and continued decreasing, so that of Cape Laguillas it was 22 degrees 30 minutes and in Table Bay it was 20 degrees 30 minutes West.

From what I have observed of the Current it doth not appear that they are at all considerable until you draw near the Meridian of Madagascar, for after we had made 52 degrees of Longitude from Java head we found, by observation, our Error in Longitude was only 2 degrees, and it was the same when we had made only 19 degrees. This Error might be owing partly to a Current setting to the Westward, or, what I thought most likely, that we did not make sufficient allowance for the set of the Sea before when we run, and, lastly, the assum'd Longitude of Java head might be wrong. If any Error lays there it Arises from the imperfection of the Charts I made use of in reducing the Longitude from Batavia to the above mentioned Head, for it cannot be doubted but the Longitude of Batavia is well Determined. After we had passed the Longitude of 307 degrees we began to find the Effects of the Westerly Currents, for in 3 days our Error in Longitude was 1 degree 5 minutes; its Velocity kept increasing as we got to the Westward, in so much that for 5 days successively, after we had mad e the land, we were drove to the South-West or South-West by West by the Currents not less than 20 Leagues a day; and this continued until we were within 60 or 70 Leagues of the Cape, where we found the Current to set sometimes one way and sometimes another, but mostly to the Westward.

After the Boobies above mentioned left us we saw no more birds till we got nearly abreast of Madagascar, where, in the Latitude of 27 3/4 degrees, we saw an Albatross. After that time we saw more of these birds every day, and in greater numbers, together with several other sorts; one sort about as big as a Duck, of a very Dark brown Colour, with a yellowish bill. The number of these birds increased upon us as we approached the Shore. As soon as we got into Soundings we saw Gannets, which we continued to see as long as we were on the Bank, which stretches off Laguillas 40 Leagues, and Extends along shore to the Eastward from Cape False, according to some charts, 160 Leagues; the Extent of this Bank is not well known, however, it is useful in directing Shipping when to haul in to make the land.

[At Anchor. Table Bay.]

Saturday, 16th. Variable light Airs all this day. Moor'd the Ship and Struck Yards and Topmast, and in the morning got all the Sick (28) ashore to Quarters provided for them, and got off fresh meat and Greens for the People on board.

Sunday, 17th. In the A.M. sail'd for England the Admiral Pocock, Captain Riddle, by whom I sent Letters to the Admiralty and Royal Society. About noon came on a hard, dry Gale from the South-East.

Monday, 18th. In the P.M. anchored in the offing an English Ship, which proved to be the Houghton Indiaman from Bengal. In the A.M. it fell moderate, and we began to water the Ship.

Tuesday, 19th. Variable Gentle breezes. All this day employ'd repairing Sails, Rigging, Watering, etc.

Wednesday, 20th. In the P.M. Sail'd the Houghton Indiaman, who saluted us with 11 Guns, which Complement we returned; this Ship, during her stay in India, lost by sickness between 30 and 40 men, and had at this time a good many down with the Scurvey. Other Ships suffer'd in the same proportion. Thus we find that Ships which have been little more than 12 months from England have suffer'd as much or more by Sickness than we have done, who have been out near 3 Times as long. Yet their sufferings will hardly, if att all, be mentioned or known in England; when, on the other hand, those of the Endeavour, because the Voyage is uncommon, will very probable be mentioned in every News Paper, and, what is not unlikely, with many Additional hardships we never Experienced; for such are the disposition of men in general in these Voyages that they are seldom content with the Har dships and Dangers which will naturally occur, but they must add others which hardly ever had existence but in their imaginations by magnifying the most Trifling accidents and circumstances to the greatest Hardships and unsurmountable dangers without the imediate interposition of Providence, as if the whole merit of the Voyage consisted in the Dangers and Hardships they underwent, or that real ones did not hapen often enough to give the mind sufficient anxiety. Thus Posterity are taught to look upon these Voyages as hazardous to the highest degree.

Thursday, 21st. Fine Pleasant Weather. Employ'd getting on board water, overhauling the rigging, and repairing Sails. Sail'd for Batavia a Dutch Ship.

Friday, 22nd, Saturday, 23rd, Sunday, 24th, Monday, 25th, Tuesday, 26th. Mostly Fine pleasant weather. On the 23rd compleated our water, after which I gave as many of the People leave to go on shore to refresh themselves as could be spared at one time.

Wednesday, 27th. Winds variable and clear. Pleasant weather. Sailed for Holland 4 Sail Dutch Ships.

Thursday, 28th, Friday, 29th. Ditto weather. Employ'd fixing new Topmast and Backstays, repairing Sails, etc.

Saturday, 30th. In the P.M. anchor'd here the Duke of Gloucester, English East India Ship from China. In the Evening a prodigious hard gale of wind came on at South-East, which continued till about 3 o'clock in the Morning. During the Gales the Table Mountains and Adjacent Hills were cap'd with Extraordinary while Clouds; the remainder of the Day light Airs and pleasant weather.

Sunday, 31st. Clear pleasant weather all this day. In the Morning we got on board a whole Ox, which we cut up and salted. I had eat ashore some of as good and Fat Beef as ever I eat in my life, and was told that I might have as good to salt; but in this I was very much disappointed. The one I got was thin and Lean, yet well taisted; it weighed 408 pounds.

[April 1771.]

Monday, April 1st. In the P.M. I observed a dark, dence haze like a Fog bank in the South-East Horizon, and which clouds began to gather over the Table Mountain; certain signs of an approaching gale from the same Quarter, which about 4 o'clock began to blow with great voialance, and continued more or less so the Remainder of these 24 Hours, the Table Mountain cap'd with White Clouds all the time. The weather dry and clear.

Tuesday, 2nd. First part fresh Gales at South-East, the remainder little wind and calms. In the P.M. sail'd for England the Duke of Gloucester Indiaman, who Saluted us at his departure. In the A.M. anchored here 2 Dutch Ships from Batavia, and a th ird at Anchor under Penguin Island in distress. Put on shore some Sick People.

Wednesday, 3rd. Fine, pleasant weather. Some people on shore on Liberty to refresh; the rest Employ'd repairing Sails and overhauling the Rigging.

Thursday, 4th. Ditto Weather. Employ'd Painting the Ship and paying her sides.

Friday, 5th. Var'ble light winds. Sail'd for Holland 3 Dutch Ships. Employ'd as above, and getting on board Provisions, etc.

Saturday, 6th. Gentle breezes, with some rain in the Night.

Sunday, 7th. Gentle breezes, and fine, pleasant weather; a Signal for some Ships being in the offing.

Monday, 8th. Gentle Breezes from the Westward. In the Night Anchor'd here the Europa, an English East Indiaman from Bengal, and in the Morning she saluted us with 11 Guns, which Complement we return'd.

Tuesday, 9th. Little wind at South-West, with Foggy, hazey weather. Employ'd making ready for Sea.

Wednesday, 10th. Gentle breezes at South-South-East and fair weather. Took on board 11 of our people from Sick Quarters.

Thursday, 11th. Ditto weather. Employ'd getting on board various Articles of Provisions from the Shore.

Friday, 12th. Wind at South-West, fair weather. Set up the Topmast rigging, and bent the Sails.

Saturday, 13th. Fresh breezes at South-West, and Cloudy, hazey weather, in the night Anchor'd here a Dutch Ship from Holland; she sail'd about 3 months ago in company with 2 more. The news brought by this Ship is that a War is dayley expected between England and Spain; Signals out for 4 or 5 Sail more being in the Offing, one of which is said to be a ship from England; took leave of the Gouvernour, intending to Sail to-morrow.

Sunday, 14th. Wind Westerly, gentle breezes. In the P.M. got all the Sick on board, many of whom are yet in a very bad state of health; 3 died here, but this loss was made up by the opportunity we had of compleating our full complement. In the morning unmoor'd and got ready for Sailing.

Monday, 15th. None of the Ships in the Offing are yet arrived. Desirous as we must be of hearing news from England, I detemmin'd not to wait the arrival of these Ships, but took the advantage of a breeze of wind from the West-South-West; weigh'd and stood out of the Bay, saluted with 13 Guns, which Complement was return'd both by the Castle and Dutch Commodore. The Europa Saluted us as we passed her, which we return'd. This Ship was to have sail'd with or before us, but not liking the opportunity she lay fast. At 5 in the Evening anchor'd under Penguin or Robin Island in 10 fathoms water, the Island extending from West-North-West to South-South-West, distant 1 1/2 or 2 miles.

In the Morning saw a Ship standing into Table Bay, under English Colours, which we took to be an Indiaman; at Noon Latitude observed 33 degrees 49 minutes South; Cape Town South 20 degrees East, distant 7 miles. As we could not Sail in the Morning for want of wind, I sent a Boat to the Island for a few Trifling Articles we had forgot to take in at the Cape, but the people on shore would not permit her to land, so that she return'd as she went, and I gave myself no further Trouble at it. Mr. Banks, who was in the Boat, was of opinion that it was owing to a mistake made respecting the rank of the Officer commanding the Boat; be this as it may, it seems probable that the Dutch do not admit of Strangers landing upon this Island least they should carry off some of those people which, for certain crimes, they Banish here for Life, as we were told was done by a Danish Ship a few years ago. But they might have a better reason for refusing our Boat to land, for it is not improbable but what there might be some English Seamen upon this Island whom they had sent from the Cape while we lay there, well knowing that if they came in my way I should take them on board; and this, I am told, is frequently done when any of His Majesty's Ships are in the Bay, for it is well known that the Dutch East India Ships are mostly mann'd by Foreigners.

[Remarks on Cape of Good Hope.]

The Cape of Good Hope hath been so often discribed by Authors, and is so well known to Europeans, that any discription I can give of it may appear unnecessary. However, I cannot help observing that most Authors, particularly the Author of Mr. Byron's voyage, have heightened the picture to a very great degree above what it will bear; so that a Stranger is at once struck with surprise and disappointment, for no Country we have seen this voyage affords so barren a prospect as this, and not only so in appearance, but in reality.

The land over the Cape which constitutes the Peninsula form'd by Table Bay on the North, and False Bay on the South, consists of high barren Mountains; behind these to the East, or what may be called the Isthmus, is a vast extensive plane, not one thousand part of which either is or can be cultivated. The Soil consists mostly of a light kind of Sea sand, producing hardly anything but heath; every inch of Ground that will bear Cultivation is taken up in Small Plantations, consisting of Vineyards, Orchards, Kitchen Gardens, etc. Hardly any 2 lay together, but are dispers'd from one another at some Distance. If we may judge from circumstances, the Interior Parts of this Country is not more fertile; that is, the fertile land bears a very small proportion to the whole. We were told that they have settlements 28 days' journey inland, which is computed at 900 English Miles, and thus far they bring Provisions to the Cape by land. It is also said that the Dutch Farmers are so dispers'd about the country that some have no neighbours within 4 or 5 days' Journeys of them. Admitting these to be facts, and it will at once appear that the Country in General cannot be very fertile, for it would be absurd to suppose that they would raise provisions at such an immence distance, where the trouble and expence of bringing them to Market must increase, in proportion, could it be done nearer. The Dutch assign another reason for being obliged to extend their Scattered Settlements so far in land; which is, they never disturb the Original native, but always leave them in peaceable possession of whatever lands they may have appropriated to their own use, which in some places is pretty Extensive, and that probably none of the worst, by which good Policy the new Settlers very seldom if ever meet with any Disturbance from the Natives; on the contrary, many of them become their Servants, and mix among them, and are useful members to Society.

Notwithstanding the many disadvantages this Country labours under, such is the industry, economy, and good management of the Dutch that not only the necessary, but all the Luxuries, of Life are raised here in as great abundance, and are sold as cheap, if not cheaper, then in any part of Europe, some few Articles excepted. Naval Stores, however, do not want for price any more here than they do at Batavia; these are only sold by the company, who have a certain fix'd exorbitant Price, from which they never deviate.

The inhabitants of the Cape Town are in General well bred and Extreamly Civil and Polite to all Strangers; indeed, it is their Interest so to do, for the whole Town may be considered as one great Inn fitted up for the reception of all Comers and goers. Upon the whole, there is perhaps not a place in the known World that can Equal this in Affording refreshments of all kinds to Shipping. The Bay is Capacious, pretty safe, and Commodious; it lies open to the North-West winds, which winds, we are told, very seldom blow very Strong,[6] but sometimes sends in a Great Sea, for which reason Ships moor North-East and South-West, and in such a manner as to have an Open Hawse with North-West winds. The South-East winds blow frequently with great Violence; but as this is right out of the Bay it is attended with no danger. Near the Town is a wharfe built of wood, run out a proper Distance into the Sea for the Conveniency of landing and Shipping off goods. To this wharfe water is convey'd in pipes and by means of Cocks. Several Boats may fill water at one and the same time. The Company keeps several large Boats or Hoys to carry goods, provisions, water, etc., to and from Shipping, as well Strangers as their own. Fuel is one of the Scarcest articles they have, and is brought a long way out of the Country, and Consists of Roots of Trees, Shrubs, etc. Except a few English Oaks which they have planted, this Country is wholly destitute of wood, except at too great a distance to be brought to the Cape.[7] In the Article Timber, Boards, etc., they are chiefly supply'd from Batavia.

3 of the winter months, viz., from the middle of May to the middle of August, the Dutch do not allow any of their Ships to lay in Table Bay, but oblige them to go into False Bay, where there is a very safe Harbour,[8] and every other Conveniency both for their own Shipping and Strangers, and where every produce of the Country can be had as cheap as at the Cape Town. The Dutch, I am told, never Deviate from this custom of sending their ships to False Bay at this Season of the Year, notwithstanding there had not a Gale of wind hapned for many years that would have put them in the least Danger in Table Bay.

Table Bay is defended by a Square Fort, situated on the East side of the Town, close to the Sea beach, together with several other out works and Batterys along the Shore of the Bay on each side of the Town. They are so situated as to be cannonaded by Shipping, and are in a manner defenceless against a superior land force. The Garrison at present consists of 800 regulars, besides Militia of the Country, which comprehend every man able to bear Arms. They can, by means of Signals, alarm the whole Country in a very short time, and then every man is immediately to repair to the Cape Town. The French at Mauritius are supply'd with large Quantitys of Provisions from the Cape, viz., Salted Beef, Biscuit, Flour, and wine. While we lay in the Bay 2 Store Ships belonging to the King, of the Burthen of 50 or 60 Gun Ships, and a Snow, sail'd for that Island Loaded with Provisions, besides a large (King's) Frigate we left in the Bay taking in her Cargo. The Provisions contracted for this Year by the French were Salt Beef, 500,000 pounds; Flour, 400,000 pounds; Biscuit, 400,000 pounds; and Wine, 1,200Leagers.


  1. The true longitude of Java Head is 254 degrees 49 minutes West.
  2. These were the last deaths directly attributable to the dysentery contracted at Batavia. Though always enjoying an unenviable reputation, Batavia seems to have had, this year, a more unhealthy season than usual. The Endeavour lost seven persons while at Batavia, and twenty-three after sailing up to this date.
  3. Natal.
  4. The ship was now in the Agulhas Current.
  5. L'Agulhas.
  6. In the winter months these winds are very strong, and make the anchorage in Table Bay anything but safe.
  7. Since Cook's day large plantations have been made in the vicinity of Capetown.
  8. Simon's Bay, now the naval station, where there is a dockyard.