Captain Cook's Journal During His First Voyage Round the World/Chapter 6
CHAPTER 6. EXPLORATION OF MIDDLE ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND.
[January 1770. In Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand.]
TUESDAY, 16th. Variable light Airs and Clear settled weather. At 1 p.m. hauled close round the South-West end of the Island, on which stands the Village before mention'd, the inhabitants of which were all in Arms. At 2 o'Clock we anchor'd in a very Snug Cove, which is on the North-West side of the Bay facing the South-West end of the Island in 11 fathoms; soft Ground, and moor'd with the Stream Anchor. By this time several of the Natives had come off to the Ship in their Canoes, and after heaving a few stones at us and having some Conversation with Tupia, some of them Ventur'd on board, where they made but a very short stay before they went into their Canoes again, and soon after left us altogether. I then went ashore in the bottom of the Cove, accompanied by most of the Gentlemen on board. We found a fine Stream of Excellent Water, and as to wood the land is here one intire forest. Having the Sean with us we made a few hauls and caught 300 pounds weight of different sorts of fish, which were equally distributed to the Ship's Company. A.M., Careen'd the Ship, scrubb'd and pay'd the Larboard side. Several of the Natives Visited us this Morning, and brought with them some stinking fish, which, however, I order'd to be bought up to encourage them in this kind of Traffick, but Trade at this time seem'd not to be their Object, but were more inclinable to Quarrel, and as the Ship was upon the Carreen I thought they might give us some Trouble, and perhaps hurt some of our people that were in the Boats alongside. For this reason I fir'd some small shott at one of the first Offenders; this made them keep at a proper distance while they stay'd, which was not long before they all went away. These people declared to us this morning, that they never either saw or heard of a Ship like ours being upon this Coast before. From this it appears that they have no Tradition among them of Tasman being here, for I believe Murtherers bay, the place where he anchor'd, not to be far from this place; but this cannot be it from the Latitude, for I find by an Observation made this day at Noon that we are at an Anchor in 41 degrees 5 minutes 32 seconds South, which is 15 miles to the Southward of Murtherers Bay.
Wednesday, 17th. Light Airs, Calm and pleasant weather. P.M., righted ship and got the other Side ready for heeling out, and in the Evening Haul'd the Sean and caught a few fish. While this was doing some of us went in the pinnace into another Cove, not far from where the Ship lays; in going thither we meet with a Woman floating upon the Water, who to all appearance had not been dead many days. Soon after we landed we meet with 2 or 3 of the Natives who not long before must have been regaling themselves upon human flesh, for I got from one of them the bone of the Fore arm of a Man or Woman which was quite fresh, and the flesh had been but lately picked off, which they told us they had eat; they gave us to understand that but a few days before they had taken, Kill'd, and Eat a Boats Crew of their Enemies or strangers, for I believe they look upon all strangers as Enemies. From what we could learn the woman we had seen floating upon the Water was in this Boat and had been drowned in the fray. There was not one of us that had the least doubt but what these people were cannibals; but the finding this bone with part of the sinews fresh upon it was a stronger proof than any we had yet met with, and, in order to be fully satisfied of the truth of what they had told us, we told one of them that it was not the bone of a man, but that of a dog; but he, with great fervency, took hold of his Fore Arm, and told us again that it was that bone: and to convince us that they had eat the flesh he took hold of the flesh of his own Arm with his teeth and made Signs of Eating. A.M., Careen'd, Scrub'd, and pay'd the Starboard side of the Ship; while this was doing some of the Natives came alongside seemingly only to look at us. There was a woman among them who had her Arms, thighs, and Legs cut in several place's; this was done by way of Mourning for her Husband who had very lately been Kill'd and Eat by some of their Enemies as they told us and pointed towards' the place where it was done, which lay somewhere to the Eastward. Mr. Banks got from one of them a Bone of the fore Arm, much in the same state as the one before mentioned; and to show us that they eat the flesh, they bit and Naw'd the bone and draw'd it through their Mouths, and this in such a manner as plainly Shew'd that the flesh to them was a Dainty Bit.
Thursday, 18th. Winds mostly from the South-West; a gentle breeze and Clear settled weather. P.M., righted the Ship and sent on shore all or most of our empty Casks, and in the Morning the Coopers went about Trimming them, and the Carpenters went to work to Caulk the sides and to repair other defects in the Ship, while the seamen are Employ'd in the hold Cutting Wood, etc., etc. I made a little Excursion in the pinnace in order to take a View of the Bay, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We met with nothing remarkable, and as we were on the West side of the Bay where the land is so closely cover'd with wood that we could not penetrate into the country.
Friday, 19th. Winds and weather as yesterday, and the employment of the people the same. In the P.M. some of our people found in the Skirts of the Wood 3 hip Bones of Men; they lay near to a Hole or Oven, that is a place where the Natives dress their Victuals; this Circumstance, trifling as it is, is still a further proof that these people eat human flesh. In the A.M. set up the Forge to repair the Braces of the Tiller and such other Iron work as was wanting. The Natives came alongside and sold us a quantity of large Mackrell for Nails, pieces of Cloth and paper, and in this Traffick they never once attempted to defraud us of any one thing but dealt as fair as people could do.
Saturday, 20th. Winds Southerly and fair, pleasant weather. Employ'd wooding, Watering, etc., and in the A.M. sent part of the Powder ashore to be Air'd. Some of the Natives brought alongside in one of their Canoes 4 of the heads of the Men they had lately kill'd; both the Hairy Scalps and Skin of the faces were on. Mr. Banks bought one of the 4, but they would not part with any of the other on any account whatever. The one Mr. Banks got had received a blow on the Temple that had broke the Skull. This morning I set out in the Pinnace accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, in order to Survey the West Coast of the Bay; we took our rout towards the head of the Bay, but it was near noon before we had got beyond the place we had been before.
Sunday, 21st. P.M., a Gentle breeze of Wind Southerly, the remainder light Airs and Calm with clear, settled weather. P.M., the people employ'd as usual, and at 8 o'Clock we return'd on board the Pinnace from surveying the bay, in the doing of which I met with an Excellent Harbour, but saw no inhabitants or any Cultivated land. In the A.M. after hauling the Sean for fish, I gave every body leave to go ashore at the Watering place to amuse themselves as they thought proper.
Monday, 22nd. P.M., and in the night had variable light Airs and Calms. A.M., had a fresh breeze Southerly and Cloudy weather. In the morning the people were set about the necessary business of the Ship, and I set out in the Pinnace accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, with a view of examining the head of the inlet, but after rowing between 4 and 5 Leagues up it, and finding no probability of reaching it, or even seeing the end, the wind being against us and the day already half spent; we landed at Noon on the South-East side in order to try to get upon one of the Hills, to view the inlet from thence.
Tuesday, 23rd. P.M., Winds Southerly, a fresh breeze. Agreeable to what is mentioned above I took one hand with me and Climbed up to the Top of one of the Hills, but when I came there I was hindered from seeing up the inlet by higher hills, which I could not come at for impenetrable woods, but I was abundantly recompensed for the trouble I had in assending the Hill, for from it I saw what I took to be the Eastern Sea, and a Strait or passage from it into the Western Sea; a little to the Eastward of the Entrance of the inlet in which we now lay with the Ship. The Main land which lies on the South-East side of this inlet appeared to me to be a narrow ridge of very high hills, and to form a part of the South-West side of the Strait; the land on the opposite side seem'd to tend away East, as far as the Eye could see. To the South-East appeared an Open Sea, and this I took to be the Eastern. I likewise saw some Islands lying on the East side of the inlet, which before I had taken to be a part of the main land. As soon as I had desended the hill and we had refreshed ourselves, we set out in order to return to the Ship, and in our way passed through and Examin'd the Harbours, Coves, etc., that lay behind the Islands above mentioned. In this rout we met with an old Village in which were a good many Houses, but no Body had lived in them lately; we likewise saw another that was inhabited, but the day being so far spent, that we had not time to go to it, but made the best of our way to the Ship, which we reached between 8 and 9 o'Clock. In the night had much rain with Cloudy, Hazey weather, which continued by intervals until Noon.
Wednesday, 24th. P.M., had a fresh breeze southerly and cloudy weather. After dinner I employ'd myself in carrying on the survey of the place, and upon one of the Islands where I landed were a number of houses but no inhabitants, neither had any been there lately. In the morning the Gunner was sent ashore with the remainder of the powder to-day, and the Long boat was sent with a Gang of hands to one of the Islands to cut Grass for our Sheep, and the rest of the people were employ'd about the usual work of the Ship. This forenoon some of us visited the Hippa which is situated on the point of the Island mentioned on our first arrival; the inhabitants of this place shew'd not the least dislike at our coming, but, on the contrary, with a great deal of seeming good nature shew'd us all over the place. We found among them some human bones, the flesh of which they told us they had eat; they likewise informed us that there was no passage into the Sea thro' this inlet, as I had imagined their was, because above where I was in the Boat it turn'd away to the Westward. Leaving these people, we Travelled to the other end of the Island, and there took Water and Crossed over upon the Main, where we met with several Houses that were at present, or had very lately been, inhabited, but we saw but very few of the inhabitants, and these were in their Boats fishing; after Viewing this place we returned on board to Dinner.
Thursday, 25th. Winds at North West, a Gentle breeze and fair weather. P.M. the Long boat having return'd with a Load of Grass, she was employ'd bringing on board Wood and Water, and the Caulkers having finished Caulking the Ship's sides (a thing they have been employ'd upon ever since we came here), they were pay'd with Tar. Early in the A.M. the Long boat was sent again for Grass, and return'd at Noon with a Load.
Friday, 26th. Gentle breezes and pleasant weather. In the P.M. I made a little Excursion in the pinnace along shore towards the Mouth of the inlet, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We found in a small Cove several of the Natives, of whom we purchased a quantity of fresh fish; and upon our return to the Ship found that the Sean had been equally as Successfull, which we generally haul morning and evening, and seldom fail of getting fish sufficient for all hands. In the A.M. I made an Excursion into one of the Bays which lye on the East side of the inlet, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. Upon our landing we assended a very high hill, from which we had a full View of the passage I had before discovered, and the land on the opposite shore, which appeared to be about 4 Leagues from us; but as it was hazey near the Horizon we could not see far to the South-East. However, I had now seen enough of this passage to Convince me that there was the Greatest probability in the World of its running into the Eastern Sea, as the distance of that Sea from this place cannot Exceed 20 Leagues even to where we where. Upon this I resolved after putting to Sea to Search this passage with the Ship. We found on the Top of the Hill a parcel of loose stones, of which we built a Pyramid, and left in it some Musquet balls, small Shott, beads, and whatever we had about us that was likely to stand the test of Time; after this we descended the hill, and found along with Tupia and the boat's Crew several of the Natives, setting in the most free and friendly manner imaginable. Tupia always accompanies us in every Excursion we make, and proves of infinate Service. In our return to the Ship we visited the Hippa we had seen on Tuesday last, which is situated on a small Island, or rather a Rock. The inhabitants of this place invited us ashore with their usual Marks of Friendship, and shew'd us all over the place; which indeed was soon done, for it was very small, yet it contain'd a good number of people, and they had in it, Split and hanging up to dry, a prodidgious quantity of various sorts of small fish, a part of which they sold to us for such Trifles as we had about us.
Saturday, 27th. Fresh gales, Westerly. This day we got the Tiller properly secured, which hath been the Employment of the Armourers and part of the Carpenters since we Anchor'd at this place; the former in repairing and making new Iron work, and the Latter in fixing a Transom, for the want of which the Tiller has often been in danger of being broke; the Iron braces that supply'd the want of a Transom have broke every time they have been repair'd. Coopers still employ'd repairing the Casks; some hands with the Long boat getting on board Stones to put into the bottom of the bread room to bring the Ship more by the Stern; while others were employ'd cutting wood, repairing the rigging, and fishing.
Sunday, 28th. Strong Gales westerly. P.M. fair and Cloudy, the remainder thick, hazey weather, with much rain.
Monday, 29th. Winds as yesterday. P.M. rainy weather, the remainder fair and Cloudy. Pretty early in the A.M. an old man, who had made us several visits upon our first Arrival here, came on board, and told us that one of our boats had fir'd upon and wounded 2 of their people, one of which was dead of his wounds. This affair hapned on Sunday was a week, and never before now came to my Knowledge; on that day the Master and 5 Petty officers desir'd to have a small boat to go a fishing; but instead of Keeping within the usual bounds and under the protection of the Ship, they went over to the Hippa on the Island, from which some of the inhabitants put off in 2 Canoes, as they thought to attack them; this Caused the Master to fire, and, according to the report of the old Man, wounded 2, one of which is since dead; but this last circumstance was soon after contradicted by another of the Natives, who Mr. Green and Tupia saw ashore, and I wish this last report may be true, because I find the reasons for firing upon them are not very Justifiable. This morning I went out to the Mouth of the Inlet and landed upon the West point, and from the Top of a pretty high hill which is there I had a view of this Coast to the North-West. The farthest land I could see in that Quarter was an Island about 10 Leagues off, and lying pretty near the Main, and is the same as hath been before mentioned. Between this Island and the place where I was lay some other Islands close under the Shore, which forms several Bays, where there appears to be safe Anchorage for Shipping. After I had set the different points, etc., we Erected upon the Top of the Hill a Tower or Pile of Stones, in which we left a Piece of Silver Coin, some Musquet Balls, Beads, etc., and left flying upon it a piece of an old Pendant. After this we return'd to the Boat, and in our way to the Ship visited some of the Natives we met with along shore, and purchased of them a small quantity of fish.
Tuesday, 30th. Winds at North-West, Gentle breezes, and fair weather. Early in the A.M. a boat was sent to one of the Islands to get Sellery to boil for the People's breakfasts. While our people were gathering it near some empty huts about 20 of the Natives landed there — Men, Women, and Children. They had no sooner got out of their Canoe than 5 or 6 Women set down together, and cut and sacrificed themselves — viz., their Legs, Shins, Arms, and Faces, some with Shells, and others with pieces of Jaspar. So far as our people could understand them, this was done on account of their husbands being lately killed and devoured by their Enemies. While the women was performing this Ceremony, the Men went about repairing the Huts without showing the least Concern. The Carpenter went with part of his people into the Woods to cut and Square some Timber to saw into boards for the use of the Ship, and to prepare two Posts to be set up with inscriptions on them.
Wednesday, 31st. Little wind and Variable. In the P.M. the Carpenters having prepared the 2 Posts with inscriptions upon them, setting forth the Ship's Name, Month, and Year, one of them was set up at the Watering Place, on which was hoisted the Union flag; and in the Morning I took the other over to the Island which is known by the name of Motuouru, and is the one that lies nearest to the Sea; but before I attempted to set up the Post I went first to the Hippa, having Dr. Monkhouse and Tupia along with me. We here met with the old Man I have before spoke of. The first thing I did was to inquire after the Man said to be kill'd by our people, and the one that was wounded at the same time, when it did not appear to me that any such accidents had happened. I next (by means of Tupia) explain'd to the old Man and several others that we were Come to set up a Mark upon the Island, in order to shew to any ship that might put into this place that we had been here before. They not only gave their free Consent to set it up, but promised never to pull it down. I then gave every one a present of one thing or another; to the old man I gave Silver, three penny pieces dated 1763, and Spike Nails with the King's Broad Arrow cut deep in them; things that I thought were most likely to remain long among them. After I had thus prepared the way for setting up the post, we took it up to the highest part of the Island, and after fixing it fast in the ground, hoisted thereon the Union flag, and I dignified this Inlet with the name of Queen Charlotte's Sound, and took formal possession of it and the Adjacent lands in the Name and for the use of his Majesty. We then drank her Majesty's health in a Bottle of wine, and gave the Empty bottle to the old man (who had attended us up the hill), with which he was highly pleased. Whilst the Post was setting up we asked the old man about the Strait or Passage into the Eastern sea, and he very plainly told us there was a Passage, and as I had some Conjectures that the lands to the South-West of this Strait (which we are now at) was an Island, and not a Continent, we questioned the old Man about it, who said it consisted of two Wannuas, that is 2 lands or Islands that might be Circumnavigated in a few days, even in 4. This man spoke of 3 lands, the 2 above mentioned which he called Tovy-poinammu, which Signifies green Talk or Stone, such as they make their Tools or ornaments, etc., and for the third he pointed to the land on the East side of the Strait; this, he said, was a large land, and that it would take up a great many Moons to sail round it; this he called Aeheino Mouwe, a name many others before had called it by. That part which borders on the strait he called Teiria Whitte. After we had done our business upon the Island we returned on board, bringing the old Man along with us, who after dinner went ashore in a Canoe that came to attend upon him.
Thursday, February 1st. P.M. having compleated the Ship with wood, and filled all our water, the Boatswain was sent ashore with a party of Men to cut and make brooms, while others were Employ'd about the rigging, fishing, etc. In the night and the remainder of the day had a Strong Gale from the North-West, attended with very much rain.
Friday, 2nd. In the P.M. the Gale increased to a Storm, attended with rain and squalls, which came down in Excessive heavy gusts from off the high land, in one of which the hawser we had fast to the shore broke; this obliged us to let go another Anchor. Towards midnight the Gale moderated, and in the morning it fell Calm, and we took up the Sheet Anchor, looked at the best bower, and moored the ship again to the Shore. The heavy rain, which both fell and Continues to fall, hath caused the Brook we water'd at to overflow its banks, and carry away 10 small Casks we had Standing there full of Water, and notwithstanding we searched the whole Cove, we could not find one of them.
Saturday, 3rd. Winds Northerly, mostly fair weather. Very early in the A.M. sent the Long boat for Sellery to boil for the Ship's Company's breakfast, and as I intended sailing the first opportunity, I went over to the Hippa, which is on the East side of the sound, and purchased of the inhabitants a quantity of split and half dry'd fish, and such as I could get. While we were at this Hippa, Tupia made farther enquiry about the Lands and Strait, and these people confirm'd everything the old Man had before told us. About noon we took our leave of them, which some seem'd not sorry for; notwithstanding they sold us their fish very freely, there were some few among them who shew'd evident signs of disapprobation.
Sunday, 4th. Winds Northerly, a fresh breeze and fair weather. In the P.M., after returning from the Hippa, some of us made an Excursion along shore to the Northward, in order to Traffic with the Natives for fish, in which we had no great Success. In the evening got everything off from the Shore, designing to sail in the Morning, but the wind not permitting, we amused ourselves in fishing, collecting of shells, etc.
Monday, 5th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. In the A.M. Cast off the Hawser, hove short on the Bower, and carried out the Kedge Anchor, in order to warp the Ship out of the Cove. All the dry fish we have been able to procure from the Natives since we came here were this day divided amongst the Ship's Company.
Tuesday, 6th. At 2 p.m. hove up the Anchor, warped the Ship out of the Cove, and got under Sail, but it soon after falling little wind, and that very Variable, we anchor'd again a little above Motu-ouru. The old man, seeing us under sail, came on board to take his leave of us. Amongst other conversation that passed between him and Tupia, he was asked if either he or any of his Ancestors had ever seen or heard of any Ship li ke this being in these parts; to which question he answer'd in the Negative, but said that his Ancestors had told him that there came once to this place a small Vessel from a distant part, wherein were 4 Men that were all kill'd upon their landing; and being asked where this distant land lay, he pointed to the North, intimating that it would take up a great many days to go thither. Something of this land was mentioned by the People of the Bay of Islands, who said that some of their Ancestors had been there; but it is very clear to us that there knowledge of this land is only traditionary. Had it Calm all night until 6 o'clock in the Morning, when a light breeze sprung up at North, and we got again under sail; but as the wind proved very unsteady, we got no farther than just without Motu-ouru by noon, but had a fair prospect of getting clear out of the Sound, which I shall next describe.
DESCRIPTION OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S SOUND.
The entrance of this Sound is situated in the Latitude of 41 degrees South and Longitude 184 degrees 45 minutes West, and near the middle of the South-West side of the Strait before mentioned. The land off the South-East head of the Sound called by the Natives, Koamaroo (off which lies 2 Small Islands and some rocks) makes the Narrowest part of the Strait. There stretcheth out 2 Miles North-East by North from the North-West head a reef of rocks, a part of which is above Water. This account of the 2 Heads will be found sufficient guide to know this sound, which is 3 Leagues broad at the Entrance, and lies in South-West by South-South-West, and West-South-West at least 10 Leagues, and is a collection of some of the finest harbours in the world, as will evidently appear from the plan which was taken with all the accuracy that time and Circumstances would admit. The Harbour or Cove in which we lay, called Ship Cove, is not inferior to any in the Sound, both in point of Security and other Conveniences. It lies on the West side of the Sound, and is the Southermost of 3 Coves lying within Motu-ouru, which Island bears East from it. You may sail into this Cove either between this last mentioned Island and the Isle Hamote, or Long Island, or between Motuouru and the West shore; in this last Channell are 2 Ledges of Rocks 3 fathoms under water, but they may be known by the Sea Weed which grows upon them. In sailing in or out of this sound with little wind attention must be had to the Tides, which flow 9 or 10 o'Clock full and Change of the Moon, and rises and falls upon a Perpendicular 7 or 8 feet. The flood comes in through the Strait from the South-East, and sets strong over upon the North-West Head and the reef laying off it; the Ebb sets with great rapidity to the South-East over upon the Islands and Rocks lying off the South-East Head. The Variation of the Compass from good observations we found to be 13 degrees 5 minutes East. The land about this Sound is of such height that we first saw it at the distance of 20 Leagues. It consists wholy of high hills and deep Valleys, well stored with a variety of excellent Timber, fit for all purposes except Ships' Masts, for which use it is too hard and heavy. The Sea abounds with a variety of fish, and in such plenty that, without going out of the Cove where we lay, we caught daily, what with the Sean, Hook, and Lines, quite sufficient for all hands, and upon our first arrival we found plenty of Shags and some few other Wild Fowls, which to people in our situation was fresh food not to be dispised. The Number of Inhabitants hardly exceeds 300 or 400 People. They live dispers'd along the Shore in search of their daily bread, which is fish and firn roots, for they Cultivate no part of the lands. Upon the appearance of danger they Retire to their Hippas or strongholds, for in this situation we found them, and they remain'd so for some days after. This people are poor when compared to many we have seen, and their Canoes are mean and without ornament. The little Traffick we had with them was wholy for fish, for we saw little else they had to dispose of. They had some knowledge of Iron, for they very readily took Nails in Exchange for fish, and sometimes Prefer'd them to anything else, which was more than the people of any other place would do. They were at first fond of Paper, but when they found it spoile by being wet they would not take it; nor did they set much value upon the cloth we got at George's Island, but shew'd an extraordinary fondness for English broad cloth and red Kersey, which shew'd them to be a more sensible People than many of their Neighbours. Besides the common dress, many of these People wore on their Heads round Caps made of Birds' feathers, which were far from being unbecoming.
[In Cook's Strait, New Zealand.]
Wednesday, 7th. In the P.M. had a light breeze at North by West, with which we got out of the Sound and stood over to the Eastward, in order to get the Strait well open before the tide of Ebb Made. At 7 the 2 Small Islands which lies off Cape Koamaroo, or the South-East head of Queen Charlotte's Sound, bore East, distant 4 miles. At this time we had it nearly Calm, and the tide of Ebb making out, we were Carried by the Rapidity of the Stream in a very short time close upon one of the Islands, where we narrowly escaped being dashed against the Rocks by bringing the Ship to an Anchor in 75 fathoms Water, with 150 fathoms of Cable out. Even this would not have saved us had not the Tide, which first set South by East, by meeting with the Island changed its direction to South-East, and carried us past the first point. When the Ship was brought up she was about 2 Cables' Lengths of the Rocks and in the Strength of the Stream, which set South-East at least 4 or 5 Knotts or miles per Hour. A little before 12 o'Clock the Tide abated, and we began to heave; by 3 the Anchor was at the bows, and having a light breeze at North-West, we made sail over for the Eastern Shore; but having the tide against us we made but little way. The wind afterwards freshned, and Came to North and North-East, with which and the tide of Ebb we were in a short time hurried thro' the narrowest part of the Strait, and then stood away for the Southermost land we had in sight, which bore from us South by West. Over this land appeared a Prodigious high Mountain, the Summit of which was covered with snow. The narrowest part of the Strait we have passed lies between Cape Koamaroo on Tovy-poinammu and Cape Teerawhitte on Aeheino-mouwe; the distance from the one to the other I judged to be between 4 and 5 Leagues. And notwithstanding the strength of the Tides, now that is known, there is no great danger in passing it; in the doing of which I am of opinion that the North-East Shore is the safest to keep upon, for upon that side there appeared no danger, whereas on the other shore there are not only the Islands and Rocks lying off Cape Koamaroo, for I discover'd from the hill from which I had the Second View of the Strait, a Reef of Rocks stretching from these Islands 6 or 7 Miles to the Southward, and lay about 2 or 3 Miles off from the Shore. I shall not pretend here to assign limits to the length of this Strait; a view of the Chart will best illustrate that. About North 9 Leagues from Cape Teerawhitte, under the same shore, is a high remarkable Island, that may be distinctly seen from Queen Charlotte Sound, from which it lies North-East by East 1/4 East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. I have called it Entry Isle, and was taken Notice of when we first past it on Sunday 14th of last Month. On the East side of Cape Teerawhitte the Land Trends away South-East by East about 8 Leagues, where it ends in a point, and is the Southermost land on Aeheinomouwe, which I have named Cape Pallisser in Honour of my worthy friend Capt. Pallisser. Latitude 41 degrees 34 minutes, Longitude 183 degrees 58 minutes, it bore from us this day at Noon South 79 degrees East, distant 12 or 13 Leagues, being then in the Latitude of 41 degrees 27 minutes South; at the same time Cape Koamaroo bore North 1/2 East, distant 7 or 8 Leagues. The Southermost point of land in sight bore South 16 degrees West, and the snowy Mountain South-West being about 3 Leagues from the shore and abreast of a Deep Bay or inlet called Cloudy bay, in the bottom of which appear'd low land cover'd with tall Trees.
Thursday, 8th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-North-East and Cloudy weather. At 3 o'Clock was abreast of the Southermost point of land set at Noon, which I named Cape Campbell, Latitude 41 degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 184 degrees 47 minutes West, it lies South by West, distant 12 or 13 Leagues from Cape Koamaroo, and together with Cape Pallisser forms the Southern Entrance of the Straits; the Distance of the one to the other is 13 or 14 Leagues West by South and East by North. From this Cape we steer'd along Shore South-West by South until 8 o'Clock, when the wind died away; but an Hour after a fresh breeze sprung up at South-West, and we put the Ship right before it. The reason of my doing this was owing to a notion, which some of the Officers had just started, that Aeheinomouwe was not an Island; founding their opinion on a supposition that the land might extend away to the South-East from between Cape Turnagain and Cape Pallisser, there being a space of about 12 or 13 leagues which we had not seen. For my own part, I had seen so far into this Sea the first time I discover'd the Strait, together with many other Concurrent testimonies of its being an Island, that no such supposition ever enter'd my thoughts; but being resolved to clear up every doubt that might Arise on so important an Object, I took the opportunity of the Shifting of the Wind to Stand to the Eastward, and accordingly steer'd North-East by East all night. At 9 o'Clock A.M. we were abreast of Cape Pallisser, where we found the Land trend away North-East towards Cape Turnagain, which I reckon'd to be distant from us about 26 Leagues, but as the weather was hazey so that we could not see above 4 or 5 Leagues ahead, we Still kept standing to the North-East, with a light breeze at South. At Noon Cape Pallisser bore North 72 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues; our Latitude by account is 41 degrees 30 minutes South.
[Complete the Circuit of North Island, New Zealand.]
Friday, 9th. Gentle breezes at South and South-South-East, hazey Cloudy weather. In the P.M. 3 Canoes came off to the Ship, wherein were between 30 and 40 of the Natives, who had been pulling after us sometime. It appeared from the behaviour of these people that they had heard of our being upon the Coast, for they came alongside, and some of them on board the Ship, without shewing the least signs of fear. They were no sooner on board than they asked for Nails, but when Nails was given them they asked Tupia what they were, which was plain that they had never seen any before; yet they not only knowed how to ask for them, but know'd what use to make of them, and therefore must have heard of Nails, which they call Whow, the name of a Tool among them made generally of bone, which they use as a Chisel in making Holes, etc. These people asking so readily for Nails proves that their connections must extend as far North as Cape Kidnapper, which is 45 Leagues, for that was the Southermost place on this side the coast we had any Traffick with the Natives; and it is most probable that the inhabitants of Queen Charlotte's sound got the little knowledge they seem'd to have of Iron by the Connections they may have with the Teerawhitteans bordering upon them; for we have no reason to think that the inhabitants of any part of this land had the least knowledge of Iron before we came amongst them. After a short stay these people were dismissed with proper presents, and we continued our Course along shore to the North-East until 11 o'Clock A.M., when the weather clear'd up, and we saw Cape Turnagain bearing North by East 1/4 East, distant 7 Leagues. I then called the Officers upon deck, and asked them if they were now satisfied that this land was an Island; to which they answer'd in the Affirmative, and we hauled our wind to the Eastward. At Noon our Latitude by observation was 40 degrees 55 minutes South, which is 21 Miles to the Southward of Cape Turnagain, it bearing North by East, and Cape Pallisser by this day's run bears South 43 degrees West, 19 or 20 Leagues.
Saturday, 10th. Gentle breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. At 4 P.M. Tack'd and stood South-West until 8 A.M., when being not above 3 or 4 Miles from the Shore we Tack'd, and stood off 2 hours, and then stood again to the South-West until noon, when being in the Latitude of 41 degrees 13 minutes South, and about 2 Miles from the Shore, the land of Cape Pallisser bearing South 53 degrees West, had 26 fathoms of water.
Sunday, 11th. P.M. had light breeze from the South-East. In the night it was Calm until 9 a.m., when a Gentle breeze sprung up at East-North-East, with which we made sail to the Southward, having a large swell rolling in from that Quarter. At Noon was in the Latitude of 41 degrees 6 minutes South, distant from the Shore 1 1/2 Leagues; a remarkable hillock, which stands close to the Sea, bore North 1/2 East, distance 4 Leagues. At this time 2 Canoes came alongside the Ship, with whom we had some little Traffic, and then dismissed them.
Monday, 12th. Most part of P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-East, which by sunset carried us the length of Cape Pallisser, and as the weather was clear I had an opportunity of Viewing the land of this Cape, which is of a height Sufficient to be seen in clear weather 12 or 14 Leagues, and is of a broken and hilly surface. Between the foot of the high land and the Sea is a border of low, flat land, off which lies some rocks, that appear above water. Between this Cape and Cape Turnagain the land near the shore is in many places low and flatt, and appear'd green and pleasant; but inland are many Hills. From Cape Pallisser to Cape Teerawhitte the land is tollerable high, making in Table-points, and the Shore forms 2 Bays; at least it appear'd so, for we were always too far off this part of the Coast to be particular. The wind continued at North-East until 12 at Night, when it died away, and veer'd round to the West, and afterwards to South and South-South-East little wind, so that by noon we had advanced no farther than 41 degrees 52 minutes South Latitude. Cape Pallisser bearing North, distant 5 Leagues, and the Snowy mountain bore South 83 degrees West.
Tuesday, 13th. P.M. light Airs at South-East, the remainder Calm. At Noon found ourselves in the Latitude of 42 degrees 2 minutes South, Cape Pallisser bearing North 20 degrees East, distant 8 Leagues.
Wednesday, 14th. P.M. a fresh breeze sprung up at North-East, and we Steer'd South-West by West for the Southermost land we had in sight, which bore from us at sunset South 74 degrees West. At this time we found the Variation to be 15 degrees 4 minutes East. At 8 A.M. it fell Calm; at this time we had run 21 Leagues South 58 degrees West since Yesterday at noon, which brought us abreast of the high Snowy mountain, it bearing from us North-West in this direction. It lay behind a Mountainous ridge of nearly the same height, which riseth directly from the Sea, and runs Parrallel with the Shore, which lies North-East 1/2 North and South-West 1/2 South. The North-East end of the ridge takes its rise but a little way inland from Cape Campbell. These mountains are distinctly seen both from Cape Koamaroo and Cape Pallisser, being distant from the former South-West 1/2 South 22 Leagues, and from the Latter West-South-West 30 Leagues: but they are of a height sufficient to be seen at a much greater distance. By some on board they are thought to be much higher than the Peak of Teneriffe, which I cannot agree to; neither do I think them so high as Mount Egmont, on the South-West Coast of Aeheinomouwe, founding my opinion on the summit of the Latter being almost wholy covered with Snow, whereas it only lies upon these in patches. At noon was in the Latitude of 42 degrees 34 minutes South; the Southermost land we had in sight bore South-West 1/2 West, and some low land that made like an Island lying close under the foot of the Ridge North-West by North, distant about 5 or 6 Leagues.
Thursday, 15th. In the P.M. 4 Double Canoes, in which were 57 Men, came off to the Ship; they kept at the distance of about a Stone's throw from us, and would not be prevailed upon to put alongside by all that Tupia could say to them. From this we concluded that they never had heard of our being upon the coast. At 8 p.m. a breeze sprung up at South-South-West, with which we Stretched off South-East, because some on board thought they saw land in that Quarter. We continued on this course until 6 A.M., at which time we had run 11 Leagues, but saw no land but that which we had left. Soon after this it fell calm, and continued so for an hour; then a light breeze sprung up at West, which afterwards veer'd to the North, and we stood to the Westward. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 42 degrees 56 minutes South, and the High Land we were abreast of yesterday at Noon, North-North-West 1/2 West.
Friday, 16th. In the P.M. had a light breeze North-East, with which we steer'd West, edging in for the land, which was distant from us about 8 Leagues. At 7 o'Clock the Southermost Extream of the land in sight bore West-South-West, being about 6 Leagues from the Shore; soon after this it fell Calm, and continued so most part of the night, with sometimes light Airs from the land. At daylight we discover'd land bearing South by West, and seemingly detached from the Coast we were upon; at 8 o'Clock a breeze sprung up at North by East, and we steer'd directly for it. At Noon was in the Latitude of 43 degrees 19 minutes South; the Peak on the Snowy Mountains bore North 20 degrees East, distant 27 Leagues; the Southern Extremity we could see of that land bore West, and the land discover'd in the morning, making like an Island, extending from South-South-West to South-West by West 1/2 West, distant about 8 Leagues; our Course and distance sail'd since yesterday at Noon South-West by West, 43 Miles; Variation by this Morning's Amplitude 14 degrees 39 minutes East.
[Off Banks Peninsula, New Zealand.]
Saturday, 17th. P.M. stood to the Southward for the land above mention'd, with the wind at North, a fresh breeze and Clear weather. At 8 o'Clock we had run 11 Leagues since Noon, when the land extended from South-West by West to North by West, being distant from the nearest shore about 3 or 4 Leagues; in this situation had 50 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. Soon after this it fell Calm, and continued so until 6 A.M., when a light breeze sprung up at North-West, which afterwards veer'd to North-East. At sun rise, being very Clear, we plainly discover'd that the last mentioned land was an Island by seeing part of the Land of Tovy-poenammu open to the Westward of it, extending as far as West by South. At 8 o'Clock the Extreams of the Island bore North 76 degrees West and North-North-East 1/2 East, and an opening that had the Appearance of a Bay or Harbour, lying near the South point North 20 degrees West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues, being in 38 fathoms, a brown Sandy bottom. This Island, which I have named after Mr. Banks, lies about 5 Leagues from the Coast of Tovy poenammu; the South point bears South 21 degrees West from the higher peak on the Snowy Mountain so often mention'd, and lies in the Latitude of 43 degrees 52 minutes South and in the Longitude of 186 degrees 30 minutes West, by observations made of the Sun and Moon this morning. It is of a circular figure, and may be about 24 Leagues in Compass; the land is of a height sufficient to be seen 12 or 15 Leagues, and of a very broken, uneven Surface, and hath more the appearance of barrenness than fertility. Last night we saw smoke up it, and this morning some people, and therefore must be inhabited. Yesterday Lieutenant Gore, having the Morning Watch at the time we first saw this Island, thought he saw land bearing South-South-East and South-East by East; but I, who was upon Deck at the same time, was very Certain that it was only Clouds, which dissipated as the Sun rose. But neither this, nor the running 14 Leagues to the South, nor the seeing no land to the Eastward of us in the Evening, could Satisfy Mr. Gore but what he saw in the morning was, or might be, land; altho' there was hardly a possibility of its being so, because we must have been more than double the distance from it at that time to what we were either last night or this morning, at both of which times the weather was Exceeding Clear, and yet we could see no land either to the Eastward or Southward of us. Notwithstanding all this, Mr. Gore was of the same opinion this morning; upon this I order'd the Ship to be wore, and to be steer'd East-South-East by Compass on the other Tack, the point on which he said the land bore at this time from us. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 44 degrees 7 minutes South; the South point of Banks Island bore North, distant 5 Leagues.
Sunday, 18th. Gentle breezes at North and fair weather. P.M. stood East-South-East in search of Mr. Gore's imaginary land until 7 o'clock, at which time we had run 28 Miles since Noon; but seeing no land but that we had left, or signs of any, we bore away South by West, and continued upon that Course until Noon, when we found ourselves in the Latitude of 45 degrees 16 minutes South. Our Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday is South 8 minutes East, 70 Miles; the South point of Banks Island North 6 degrees 30 minutes West, distant 28 Leagues; Variation per Amplitude this Morning 15 degrees 30 minutes. Seeing no signs of Land, I thought it to no purpose standing any farther to the Southward, and therefore hauled to the Westward, thinking we were far enough to the Southward to weather all the land we had left; but this opinion was only founded on the information we had had from the Natives of Queen Charlotte's sound.
Monday, 19th. P.M. had a Moderate breeze at North-North-West and North until 8 o'clock, when it fell little wind, and was very unsettled until 10, at which time it fix'd at South, and freshen'd in such a manner that before the morning it brought us under our close reeft Topsails. At 8 a.m. having run 28 Leagues upon a West by North 1/2 North Course, and now judging ourselves to be to the Westward of the Land of Tovy Poenammu, we bore away North-West with a fresh Gale at South. At 10 o'clock, having run 11 Miles upon this Course, we saw land extending from the South-West to the North-West at the distance of about 10 Leagues from us, which we hauled up for. At Noon our Latitude per observation was 44 degrees 38 minutes South; the South-East point of Banks Island bore North 59 degrees 30 minutes East, distant 30 Leagues, and the Main body of the land in sight West by North. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon is North 66 degrees 45 minutes West, 96 Miles.
[Off Timaru, Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Tuesday, 20th. All P.M. had little wind, which veer'd round from South by East to North-North-East. Steer'd South-South-West, but got very little to the Southward on account of a head Sea. At 2 o'Clock sounded in 35 fathoms, fine sandy Bottom, being about 6 Leagues from the land. At 7 o'Clock the Extreams of the land extending from South-West by South to North by West, distant from the nearest shore 6 Leagues, depth of water 32 fathoms. At 12 o'Clock it fell Calm, and continued so until 4 A.M., when a fresh breeze sprung up at South by West, with which we stood in shore West by South, 4 Leagues, our Depth of Water from 32 to 13 fathoms. In this last Depth we Tack'd and Stood off, being about 3 Miles from the Shore, which lies nearly North and South, and is here very low and flatt, and continues so up to the skirts of the hills, which are at least 4 or 5 Miles inland. The whole face of the Country appears barren, nor did we see any signs of inhabitants. Latitude at Noon 44 degrees 44 minutes South; Longitude made from Banks' Island to this land 2 degrees 22 minutes West.
Wednesday, 21st. Wind at South. A fresh Gale at 2 p.m., being in 50 fathoms, and 12 Leagues from the land, we tack'd and stood in Shore until 8 o'Clock, when we Tack'd and Stood off until 4 a.m.; then Tack'd and Stood in, at 8 o'Clock being 10 Leagues from the Land; had 57 fathoms. At Noon, being in the Latitude 44 degrees 35 minutes, and 5 or 6 Leagues from the land, had 36 fathoms; notwithstanding we have Carried as much sail as the Ship could bear, it is apparent from the observed Latitudes that we have been drove 3 Leagues to leeward since Yesterday.
Thursday, 22nd. Moderate breezes between the South-East and South by West, and dark gloomy weather, with a Swell from the South-East plying to windward, keeping between 4 and 12 Leagues from the land; depth of water from 35 to 53 fathoms, fine sandy bottom. A great many Sea fowl and Grampusses about the Ship. In the A.M. Condemn'd 60 fathoms of the B.B. Cable, and converted it into Junk; at Noon had no Observation, but by the land judged ourselves to be about 3 Leagues farther North than Yesterday.
Friday, 23rd. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze, and for the most part Cloudy weather. At sunset, the weather clearing up, presented to our View a high peaked Mountain bearing North-West by North, and at the same time we saw the Land more Distincter than at any time we had before, extending from North to South-West by South, the inland parts of which appear'd to be high and Mountainous. We cannot tell yet whether or no this land joins to, or makes a part of, the land we have left; from the accounts received from the Natives of Queen Charlotte's sound it ought not, because if it did it must have been impossible for us to have sail'd round it in 4 Days; besides, the Mountains inland and the soundings off the Coast seem to indicate this Country to be more extensive than any they spoke of lying to the Southward. Having a large hollow swell from the South-East, which made me expect the Wind from the same quarter, we keept plying from 7 to 15 Leagues from the land, depth of Water 44 to 70 fathoms; at Noon our Latitude, by Observation, was 44 degrees 40 minutes South; Longitude made from Banks's Island 1 degree 31 minutes West.
Saturday, 24th. Calm until 6 p.m., at which time a light breeze sprung up at East-North-East, with which we steer'd South-South-East all night, edging off from the Land because of a hollow swell which we had from the South-East; depth of water from 60 to 75 fathoms. At daylight the wind began to freshen, and before noon blowed a fresh Gale, and veer'd to North-North-East; at 8 a.m. Saw the land extending as far as South-West by South, which we steer'd directly for, and at Noon we were in the Latitude of 45 degrees 22 minutes South; the land in sight extending from South-West 1/2 South to North-North-West making high and hilly. Course and distance run since Yesterday at Noon is South 15 degrees West, 47 Miles. In the P.M., while we lay becalm'd, Mr. Banks, in a small Boat, shott 2 Port Egmont Hens, which were in every respect the same sort of Birds as are found in great Numbers upon the Island of Faro; they are of a very dark brown plumage, with a little white about the under side of their wings, and are as large as a Muscovy Duck. These were the first that we have seen since we arrived upon the Coast of this Country, but we saw of them for some days before we made land.
[Off Otago, Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Sunday, 25th. In the P.M. Steer'd South-West by South and South-West, edging in for the land, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale at North, which I was over desirous of making the most of, and by that means carried away the Maintop Gallant Mast and Foretopmast Steering Sail Boom; but these were soon replaced by others. Altho' we keept at no great Distance from the Shore, yet the weather was so Hazey that we could see nothing distinct upon the land, only that there were a ridge of Pretty high Hills lying Parrallel with, and but a little way from, the Sea Coast, which lies South by West and North by East, and seem'd to End in a high Bluff point to the Southward, which we run the length of by 8 o'Clock, when, being dark, and not knowing which way the Land Trended, we brought too for the night, having run 15 Leagues upon a South-West 1/2 West Course since Noon. The point bore at this time West, distant about 5 Miles, depth of Water 37 fathoms, the bottom small pebble stones. At 4 A.M. we made Sail, but by this time the Northerly wind was gone, and was succeeded by one from the Southward, which proved very Var'ble and unsteady. At day light the point above mention'd bore North, distant 3 Leagues, and we found that the land trended away from it South-West by West, as far as we could see. This point of land I have Named Cape Saunders, in Honour of Sir Charles (Latitude 45 degrees 55 minutes South; Longitude 189 degrees 4 minutes West). It requires no discription to know it by, the Latitude and the Angle made here by the Coast will be found quite sufficient; however, there is a remarkable saddle hill laying near the Shore, 3 or 4 Leagues South-West of the Cape. From 1 to 4 Leagues North of the Cape the Shore seem'd to form 2 or 3 Bays, wherein there appear'd to be Anchorage and Shelter from South-West, Westerly, and North-West winds. I had some thoughts of bearing up for one of these places in the morning when the Wind came to South-West, but the fear of loosing time and the desire I had of pushing to the Southward, in order to see as much of the Coast as possible, or, if this land should prove to be an Island, to get round it, prevented me. Being not far from the Shore all this morning, we had an Opportunity of Viewing the Land pretty distinctly; it is of a Moderate height, full of Hills, which appear'd green and Woody, but we saw not the least signs of inhabitants. At Noon Cape Saunders bore North 30 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. Latitude per Log, for we had no Observation, 46 degrees 0 minutes South.
Monday, 26th. In the P.M. had the wind Whifling all round the Compass, sometimes blowing a fresh Gale, and at other times almost Calm. At 5 o'Clock it fixed at West-South-West, and soon blow'd so hard as to put us past our Topsails, and to split the foresail all to pieces. After getting another to the Yard, we continued standing to the Southward under 2 Courses. At 1 A.M. the wind Moderating, set the Topsails with one Reef out; but soon after day light the Gale increased to a Storm, with heavy Squalls, attended with rain. This brought us again under our Courses, and the Main Topsail being Split we unbent it and bent another. At 6 o'Clock the Southermost land in sight bore West by North, and Cape Saunders bore North by West, distant 8 Leagues; at Noon it bore North 20 minutes West, distant 14 Leagues. Latitude observed 46 degrees 35 minutes.
Tuesday, 27th. A very hard gale at South-West by West, and West-South-West, with heavy squalls attended with Showers of rain, and a large hollow sea, without the least intermission the whole of this 24 Hours. We continued under our Courses from Noon until 7 P.M., when we handed the Mainsail, and lay too under the Foresail with the head to the Southward. Latitude at Noon 46 degrees 54 minutes; Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1 degree 24 minutes East.
Wednesday, 28th. Strong Gale at South-West, with a large Sea from the Same quarter. At 7 p.m. made sail under the Courses; at 8 a.m. set the Topsails close reefed. At Noon, being in the Latitude of 47 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude East from Cape Saunders 2 degrees 10 minutes, wore and stood to the Northward.
Thursday, March 1st. Winds between the South-West and North-North-West, a fresh gale. In the P.M. found the Variation to be 16 degrees 34 minutes East. At 8 Tack'd and Stood to the Southward, with the wind at West, which before the morning veer'd to North-West, accompanied with hazey weather and drizzling rain; at day light loosed a reef out of Each Topsail, and set some of the small sails. At Noon our Latitude by account was 47 degrees 52 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1 degree 8 minutes East.
Friday, 2nd. Strong Gales from the West, with heavy Squalls, attended with showers of rain. In the P.M. Stood to the Southward till half-past 3, when being in the Latitude 48 degrees 0 minutes South and Longitude 188 degrees 00 minutes West, and seeing no Visible signs of Land, we Tack'd and Stood to the Northward, having a very large swell from the South-West by West. Soon after we tack'd we close reef'd the Topsails, and in the night were obliged to hand them, but at day light set them again. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 46 degrees 42 minutes South, Cape Saunders bearing North 46 degrees West, distant 68 Miles.
Saturday, 3rd. P.M. Wind and weather as Yesterday. A.M. quite Moderate, yet the South-West swell continues, which makes me conjecture that there is no land near in that quarter. At Noon our Latitude was 46 degrees 42 minutes South, being East of Cape Saunders 1 degree 30 minutes.
Sunday, 4th. At 4 p.m. the Wind coming to the Northward we stood to the Westward with all the sail we could make. In the morning got up Topgallant yards, and set the sails; found the Variation to be 16 degrees 16 minutes East. Saw several Whales, Seals, and one Penguin; this bird was but Small of the sort, but seem'd to be such a one as we had never seen before. We have seen several Seals since we passed the Straits, but never saw one upon the whole Coast of Aeheinomouwe. We sounded both in the Night and the morning, but found no bottom with 150 fathoms Line; at Noon we saw Cape Saunders bearing North 1/2 West; our Latitude by observation was 46 degrees 31 minutes South.
[Off South Part of Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Monday, 5th. Most part of P.M. had a fresh breeze at North by East. Half past 1 saw Land bearing West by South, which we steer'd for; before dark we were within 3 or 4 Leagues of it, and seeing no land farther to the South we were in hopes this would prove the Southern point. At 7 shortned sail, and kept under an easy sail all night, standing to the West-South-West, having the wind at North-West, and North-North-West until 2 a.m., when it fell Calm, and soon after a breeze sprung up at South-East by South, and daylight coming on we made sail. During the whole night we saw a large fire upon the land; a certain sign of its being inhabited. At 7 the Extreams of the land bore from North 38 degrees East to West 6 minutes South, being distant from the Shore about 3 Leagues. The land appear'd of a Moderate height, and not hilly. At 1/2 past 10 o'Clock the westermost land in sight bore West 1/2 North, distant 7 Leagues; at Noon had fresh Gales at South-South-East, and thick hazey weather with rain. Our Latitude by account was 46 degrees 50 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1 degree 56 minutes West.
Tuesday, 6th. P.M. Winds at South by East and South-East, and thick hazey weather until 3 o'clock, when it clear'd up, and we saw the land extending from North-East by North to North-West 1/2 North, and soon after low land, making like an Island, bearing West 1/2 South. Keeping on our Course to the West by South, we in 2 hours' time saw high land over the low, extending to the Southward as far as South-West by South; we could not see this land join to that to the Northward of us, there either being a total seperation, a deep Bay, or low land between them. At 8 o'Clock, being within 3 Leagues of the low land (which we now took to be an Island), we Tack'd and stood to the Eastward, having the wind at South, which proved very unsettled all night; by which means, and a little bad management, I found the Ship in the morning considerably farther to the Eastward than I expected, and the wind afterwards coming to South-West and West-South-West, so that at noon we found ourselves much about the same place as we were Yesterday, our Latitude by observation being 46 degrees 50 minutes South, the land extending from North-East by East to West by North 1/2 North, the nearest part bearing North, distance 3 Leagues; the land to the South-West just in sight.
Wednesday, 7th. Light Airs in the South-West quarter. P.M. Clear weather, remainder dark and Cloudy. In the P.M. found the Variation per several Azimuths, and the Amplitude to be 15 degrees 10 minutes East, and by the Amplitude in the morning to be 15 degrees 56 minutes East. Stood to the South-East until 8 a.m., then tack'd and stood to the North-West; but it soon after fell Calm, and continued so until noon, when by our account we were in the Latitude of 47 degrees 6 minutes South, and had made 12 Miles Easting since Yesterday at Noon.
Thursday, 8th. Light Airs next to a Calm from South-South-East to North-East, with which we kept Steering to the South-West, but made but little way because of a swell which took us right ahead. At daylight A.M. we saw, or thought we saw, from the Masthead, the land which we have left to the Northward of us joined to that to the South-West of us; and at the same time we imagined we saw the land extend to the Southward as far as South-South-West; but after steering this Course until noon we discovered our Mistake, for there was no land to be seen to the Southward of West, which Course we now steer'd, being by observation in the Latitude of 47 degrees 12 minutes; Longitude made from Cape Saunders 2 degrees 2 minutes West.
[Off South Cape of New Zealand.]
Friday, 9th. P.M. Winds at North, a Gentle breeze and Clear weather. Stood to the Westward until sunset, at which time the Extreams of the land bore from North by East to West, distant about 7 or 8 Leagues; Depth of Water 55 fathoms; Variation by the Amplitude 16 degrees 29 minutes East. The wind now veer'd to the Westward, and as the weather was fine and Moonlight we kept standing close upon a Wind to the South-West all night. At 4 a.m. Sounded, and had 60 fathoms; at daylight we discover'd under our lee bow Ledges of Rocks, on which the Sea broke very high, extending from South by West to West by South, and not above 3/4 of a Mile from us; yet upon sounding we had 45 fathoms, a Rocky bottom. The wind being at North-West we could not weather the Ledge, and as I did not care to run to leeward, we tackt and made a Trip to the Eastward; but the wind soon after coming to the North enabled us to go clear of all. Our soundings in passing within the Ledge was from 35 to 47 fathoms, a rocky bottom. This Ledge lies South-East, 6 Leagues from the Southermost part of the Land, and South-East by South from some remarkable hills which stand near the Shore. These rocks are not the only dangers that lay here, for about 3 Leagues to the Northward of them is another Ledge of Rocks, laying full 3 Leagues from the land, whereon the Sea broke very high. As we passed these rocks in the night at no great distance, and discover'd the others close under our Lee at daylight, it is apparent that we had a very fortunate Escape. I have named them the Traps, because they lay as such to catch unweary Strangers. At Noon our Latitude per obser vation was 47 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude made from Cape Saunders 3 degrees 4 minutes West, the land in sight — which has very much the appearance of an Island — extending North-East by North to North-West by West, distant from the Shore about 4 or 5 Leagues; the Eastermost ledge of rocks bore South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Leagues; and Northermost North-East 1/2 East, 3 Leagues. This land is of a moderate height, and has a very barren Aspect; not a Tree to be seen upon it, only a few Small Shrubs. There were several white patches, on which the sun's rays reflected very strongly, which I take to be a kind of Marble such as we have seen in many places of this Country, particularly to the Northward.
Saturday, 10th. P.M. Moderate breezes at North-West by North and North with which we stood close upon a Wind to the Westward. At sunset the Southermost point of land, which I afterwards named South Cape, and which lies in the Latitude of 47 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 12 minutes West from Greenwich, bore North 38 degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore North 2 degrees East. This last was a small Island, lying off the point of the Main. I began now to think that this was the Southermost land, and that we should be able to get round it by the West, for we have had a large hollow swell from the South-West ever since we had the last gale of wind from that Quarter, which makes one think there is no land in that direction. In the Night it began to blow, so that at or before daylight we were brought under our 2 Courses; but at 8 a.m. it fell moderate, and we set the Topsails close Reeft, and the Mizn and Mizn Staysail being split, we unbent them and bent others. At Noon, the wind Coming at West, we Tackt and stood to the Northward, having no land in sight; our Latitude by observation was 47 degrees 33 minutes South, Longitude West from the South Cape 0 degrees 59 minutes.
Sunday, 11th. Winds between the West and North-West, a fresh Gale, and Clear weather. Stood away North-North-East close upon a wind without seeing any land until 2 A.M., when we discover'd an Island bearing North-West by North, distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Two hours after this we saw the Land ahead, upon which we Tackt and stood off until 6 o'Clock; then stood in, in order to take a nearer View of it. At 11, being about 3 Leagues from the land, and the wind seem'd to incline on Shore, we Tackt and stood off to the Southward. And now we thought that the land to the Southward, or that we have been sailing round these 2 days past, was an Island, because there appeared an Open Channell between the North part of that land and the South part of the other in which we thought we saw the Small Island we were in with the 6th Instant; but when I came to lay this land down upon paper from the several bearings I had taken, it appeared that there was but little reason to suppose it an Island. On the contrary, I hardly have a doubt but what it joins to, and makes a part of, the Mainland, the Western extremity of which bore at Noon North 59 degrees West, and the Island seen in the Morning South 59 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues. Latitude observed 46 degrees 24 minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 49 minutes West. It is nothing but a barren rock of about a Mile in Circuit, remarkably high, and lies full 5 Leagues from the Main. The shore of the Main lies nearest East by South and West by North, and forms a large open bay, in which there is no appearance of a Harbour or other place of safety for shipping against South-West and Southerly winds. The face of the Country bears a very rugged Aspect, being full of high craggy hills, on the Summits of which were several patches of Snow. However, the land is not wholy barren; we could see wood, not only in the Valleys, but on several of the Hills; but we saw no signs of inhabitants.
Monday, 12th. Fresh Gales between the West and North-West; latter part squally, with rain. Stood to the South-West by South until 11 a.m., at which time the wind shifted to the South-West by West. We wore, and stood to the North-North-West, being then in the Latitude of 47 degrees 40 minutes South, and Longitude 193 degrees 50 minutes West, having a Hollow Sea from the South-West.
Tuesday, 13th. Strong Gale between the South-West by West and South-South-West, with a large Hollow sea from the same Quarter. In the P.M. had frequent Squalls, with Showers of rain; in the night had several very heavy squalls, attended with Showers of Hail, which obliged us to take in our Topsails. During the night steer'd North-North-West until 6 a.m., when, seeing no land, we steer'd North by East, and set the Main Topsail, single reeft. At 8 set the Foretopsail, single reeft, and loosed all the Reefs out of the Maintopsail, and Steer'd North-East by East 1/2 East in order to make the land. At 10 saw it bearing East-North-East, and appeared to be very high; but, being hazey over it, we could see nothing distinct neither now nor at Noon, when, by Observation, we were in the Latitude of 46 degrees 0 minutes South. Course and distance Sailed since Yesterday North 5 degrees West, 96 Miles. Longitude made from the South Cape 1 degree 40 minutes West.
[Off the New Zealand Sounds.]
Wednesday, 14th. In the P.M. had a fresh Gale from the Southward, attended with Squalls. At 2 it Clear'd up over the land, which appeared high and Mountainous. At 1/2 past 3 double reeft the Topsails, and hauld in for a Bay, wherein their appear'd to be good Anchorage, and into which I had thought of going with the Ship; but after standing in an hour, we found the distance too great to run before dark, and it blow'd too hard to attempt it in the night, or even to keep to Windward; for these reasons we gave it up, and bore away along shore. This bay I have named Dusky Bay. It lies in the Latitude of 45 degrees 47 minutes South; it is about 3 or 4 Miles broad at the Entrance, and seems to be full as deep. In it are several Islands, behind which there must be Shelter from all winds, provided there is a Sufficient Depth of Water. The North point of this bay, when it bears South-East by South, is very remarkable, there being off it 5 high peaked rocks, standing up like the 4 fingers and thumb of a Man's hand; on which account I have named it Point Five Fingers. The land of this point is farther remarkable by being the only Level land near it, and extends near 2 Leagues to the Northward. It is pretty high, wholy cover'd with wood, and hath very much the Appearance of an Island, by its aspect being so very different from the Land behind it, which is nothing but barren rocky Mountains. At Sunset the Southermost Land in sight bore due South, distant 5 or 6 Leagues; and as this is the Westermost point of land upon the whole Coast I have called it West Cape. It lies about 3 Leagues to the Southward of the bay above-mentioned, in the Latitude of 45 degrees 54 minutes South, and Longitude 193 degrees 17 minutes West. The land of this Cape seems to be of a moderate height next the Sea, and hath Nothing remarkable about it that we could see, Except a very White Clift 2 or 3 Leagues to the Southward of it. The land to the Southward of Cape West trends away towards the South-East; to the Northward of it it Trends North-North-East and North-East. At 7 o'Clock brought the Ship too under the Foresail, with her head off Shore, having a fresh Gale at South by East. At Midnight it moderated, and we wore and lay her head in shore until 4 a.m.; then made Sail, and Steer'd along shore North-East 1/2 North, having a moderate breeze at South-South-East. At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude 45 degrees 13 minutes South; Course and distance sailed since Yesterday North 41 degrees East, 62 Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 0 degrees 29 minutes East, being at this time about 1 1/2 Leagues from Shore. Sounded, and had no ground with 70 fathoms Line. A little before Noon we passed a little Narrow opening in the land, where there appear'd to be a very Snug Harbour, form'd by an Island, in the Latitude of 45 degrees 16 minutes South; inland, behind this Opening, were Mountains, the summits of which were Cover'd with Snow that seem'd to have fallen lately, and this is not to be wondered at, for we have found it very cold for these 2 days past. The land on each side the Entrance of this Harbour riseth almost perpendicular from the Sea to a very considerable Height; and this was the reason why I did not attempt to go in with the Ship, because I saw clearly that no winds could blow there but what was right in or right out, that is, Westerly or Easterly; and it certainly would have been highly imprudent in me to have put into a place where we could not have got out but with a wind that we have lately found to blow but one day in a Month. I mention this because there was some on board that wanted me to harbour at any rate, without in the least Considering either the present or future Consequences.
Thursday, 15th. Clear weather, Winds at South-West and South-West by South, a Gentle breeze, except in the night, when we had variable light Airs and Calm. In the evening, being about 2 Leagues from the land, we sounded, but had no ground with 103 fathoms. Variation per Azimuth 14 degrees East, per Amplitude 15 degrees 2 minutes East. With what wind we had we made the best of our way along shore to the North-East, keeping at the distance of 2 or 3 Leagues off from the Land. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 44 degrees 47 minutes, having run only 12 Leagues upon a North-East 1/4 North Course since Yesterday at Noon; Longitude made from Cape West 1 degree 3 minutes East.
Friday, 16th. Winds at South-West; a fresh breeze and Clear. Steer'd along shore North-East 1/4 East until 6 p.m., when we Shortned Sail, and brought too for the Night. Variation per Azimuth 13 degrees 48 minutes East. At 4 A.M. made sail, and Stood in for the land. At daylight saw the appearance of an inlet into the land; but upon a nearer approach found that it was only a deep Valley, bounded on each side by high lands, upon which we bore away North-East 1/4 East along shore, keeping about 4 or 5 miles off. At Noon the Northermost point of land in sight bore North 60 degrees East, distant 10 Miles; Latitude per Observation 44 degrees 5 minutes; Longitude made from Cape West 2 degrees 8 minutes East.
Saturday, 17th. Continued our Course along shore, having in the P.M. the advantage of a fresh Gale at South-West. At 2, past by the point afore-mentioned, which is of a Moderate height, with deep Red Clifts, down which falls 4 Small streams of Water, on which account it is named Cascades Point. Latitude 44 degrees 0 minutes South; Longitude 2 degrees 20 minutes East from Cape West. From this point the land at first Trends North 76 degrees East, but afterwards more to the Northward East-North-East, 8 Leagues. From this point and near the Shore lies a small low Island, which bore from us South by East, distant 1 1/2 Leagues. At 7 o'Clock we Shortned sail, and brought too under the Topsails, with her head off Shore, having 33 fathoms, and fine sandy bottom. At 10, had 50 fathoms, and at 12, wore in 65 fathoms, having drove about 5 Miles North-North-West since we brought too. Two hours after this had no ground with 140 fathoms; which shews that the soundings extend but a little way from the land. From 2 to 8 a.m. had it Calm and hazey, with drizzling rain, at which time a breeze sprung up at South-West, with which we steer'd along shore North-East by East 1/4 East, keeping about 3 Leagues from the land. At Noon had no Observation, being Hazey with rain. Our run since Yesterday at Noon is North-East by East, 55 Miles; Longitude from Cape West 3 degrees 12 minutes East.
[Off West Coast of Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Sunday, 18th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at South-West by West, attended with drizzling rain. At 8, being about 3 Leagues from the land, shortned sail, and brought too, having run 10 Leagues North-East by East since noon; at this time had 44 fathoms, and 2 hours before had 17 fathoms, fine sandy bottom, being then about 1 League from the land. Had it Calm the most part of the Night, and until 10 a.m., when a light breeze sprung up at South-West by West. We Made sail along shore North-East by North, having a large swell from the West-South-West, which had risen in the Night. At Noon Latitude in per Observation 43 degrees 4 minutes South; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday is North 54 degrees East, 54 Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 4 degrees 12 minutes East. The Mountains and some of the Vallies we observed this morning were wholy cover'd with Snow, part of which we suppos'd to have fallen in the P.M. and fore part of the Night, at the time that we had rain — and yet the weather is not Cold.
Monday, 19th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at South-West by West and West-South-West, which we made the most of until 6, when we shortned sail, and at 10 brought too, and sounded 115 fathoms, judging ourselves to be about 5 Leagues from the land. At midnight it fell little wind, on which account we made sail. At 8 a.m. the wind veer'd to the North-West by North, with which we stood to the North-East close upon a wind until noon, at which time we Tack'd, being about 3 Leagues from the land, and by Observation in the Latitude of 42 degrees 8 minutes and Longitude from Cape West 5 degrees 5 minutes East Course and distance run since Yesterday at Noon North 35 degrees East, 68 Miles; Depth of Water 65 fathoms, the land extending from North-East by North to South-South-West.
Tuesday, 20th. Fresh Gales at North-West by North and North by West. P.M. fair weather; the remainder hazey, with rain, and Squall, which brought us under close Reeft Topsails. Stood to the Westward until 2 a.m., when we made a Trip to the Eastward, and afterwards stood to the Westward until Noon, when, by our reckoning, we were in the Latitude of 42 degrees 23 minutes South. Course and distance sail'd South 74 degrees West, 54 Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 5 degrees 55 minutes East. Tack'd and stood to the Eastward.
Wednesday, 21st. In the P.M. had a fresh Gale at North by West, attended with rain until 6, when the Wind shifted to South and South-South-West, and continued to blow a fresh Gale, with which we steer'd North-East by North until 6 A.M., at which time we haul'd in East by North in order to make the land which we saw soon after. At Noon our Latitude per Account was 41 degrees 37 minutes, and Longitude from Cape West 5 degrees 42 minutes East; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday North 60 degrees East, 92 miles. At this time we were not above 3 or 4 Leagues from the land, but being very foggy upon it we could see nothing distinct, and as we had not much wind, and a prodigious swell rowling in upon the Shore from the West-South-West, I did not think it safe to go nearer.
Thursday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze from the South-South-West, with which we steer'd along shore North-East until 8, when being about 2 or 3 Leagues from shore we sounded, and had 34 fathoms, upon which we haul'd off North-West by North until 11, then brought too, having at this time 64 fathoms. At 4 a.m. made sail to the North-East, wind at South-South-West, a light breeze. At 8 the wind veer'd to the Westward, and soon after fell Calm; at this time we were about 3 or 4 Miles from the Shore, and in 54 fathoms, having a large swell from the West-South-West rowling Obliquely upon the Shore, which put me under a good deal of Apprehension that we should be obliged to Anchor; but by the help of a light Air now and then from the South-West quarter we were Enabled to keep the Ship from driving much nearer the shore. At Noon the Northermost land in sight bore North-East by East 1/4 East, distant 8 or 10 Leagues; our Latitude by account was 40 degrees 55 minutes South, Longitude from Cape West 6 degrees 35 minutes East; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 36 degrees East, 42 Miles; very foggy over the Land.
[Off Cape Farewell, Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Friday, 23rd. Light Airs from the Southward, at intervals Calm, the fore part hazey, the remainder clear, pleasant weather. At Noon our Latitude, by observation, 40 degrees 36 minutes 30 seconds South, Longitude from Cape West 6 degrees 52 minutes East; the Eastermost point of Land in sight bore East 10 degrees North, distant 7 Leagues, and a bluff head or point we were abreast of yesterday at Noon, off which lay some rocks above Water, bore South 18 degrees West, distant 6 Leagues. This point I have named Rocks Point, Latitude 40 degrees 55 minutes South. Having now nearly run down the whole of this North-West Coast of Tovy Poenammu, it is time I should describe the face of the Country as it hath at different times appeared to us. I have mentioned on the 11th Instant, at which time we were off the Southern part of the Island, that the land seen then was rugged and mountainous; and there is great reason to believe that the same ridge of Mountains extends nearly the whole length of the Island from between the Westermost Land seen that day and the Eastermost seen on the 13th. There is a space of about 6 or 8 Leagues of the sea Coast unexplored, but the Mountains inland were Visible enough. The land near the Shore about Cape West is rather low, and riseth with a gradual assent up to the foot of the Mountains, and appear'd to be mostly covered with wood. From Point Five Fingers down to the Latitude of 44 degrees 20 minutes there is a narrow ridge of Hills rising directly from the Sea, which are Cloathed with wood; close behind these hills lies the ridge of Mountains, which are of a Prodidgious height, and appear to consist of nothing but barren rocks, covered in many places with large patches of Snow, which perhaps have lain there since the Creation. No country upon Earth can appear with a more rugged and barren Aspect than this doth; from the Sea for as far inland as the Eye can reach nothing is to be seen but the Summits of these rocky Mountains, which seem to lay so near one another as not to admit any Vallies between them. From the Latitude of 44 degrees 20 minutes to the Latitude 42 degrees 8 minutes these mountains lay farther inland; the Country between them and the Sea consists of woody Hills and Vallies of Various extent, both for height and Depth, and hath much the Appearance of Fertility. Many of the Vallies are large, low, and flatt, and appeared to be wholy covered with Wood; but it is very probable that great part of the land is taken up in Lakes, Ponds, etc., as is very common in such like places. From the last mentioned Latitude to Cape Farewell, afterwards so Called, the land is not distinguished by anything remarkable; it rises into hills directly from the Sea, and is covered with wood. While we were upon this part of the Coast the weather was foggy, in so much that we could see but a very little way inland; however, we sometimes saw the Summits of the Mountains above the fogg and Clouds, which plainly shew'd that the inland parts were high and Mountainous, and gave me great reason to think that there is a Continued Chain of Mountains from the one End of the Island to the other.
Saturday, 24th. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-West, which by Dark run us the length of the Eastern Point set at Noon, and not knowing what Course the land took on the other side, we brought too in 34 fathoms about one League from the land. At 8, it falling little wind, we fill'd and stood on until 12, at which time we brought too until 4 a.m., then made Sail. At daylight we saw low land extending from the above point to the East-South-East as far as the Eye could reach, the Eastern Extremity of which appear'd in round Hillocks; by this time the wind had veer'd to the Eastward, which obliged us to ply to windward. At Noon the point above mention'd bore South-West by South, distant 16 miles; Latitude observ'd 40 degrees 19 minutes South. This point I afterwards named Cape Farewell, for reasons which will be given in their proper place.
Sunday, 25th. Winds Easterly; towards Noon had little winds and hazey, with rain. Made several trips, but gain'd nothing to Windward, so that at Noon our Situation was nearly as Yesterday.
Monday, 26th. At 3 p.m. the wind came to North, and we Steer'd East-South-East with all the Sail we could set until dark, when we shortned sail until the morning, having thick Misty weather. All Night we keept the lead going continually, and had from 37 to 48 fathoms. At day light we saw the land bearing South-East by East, and an Island laying near it bearing East-South-East, distant 5 Leagues. This I knew to be the Island seen from the Entrance of Queen Charlotte's sound, from which it bears North-West by North, Distant 9 Leagues. At Noon it bore South-East, distant 4 or 5 miles, and the North-West head of Queen Charlotte's sound bore South-East by South, distant 10 1/2 Leagues; Latitude ohserv'd 43 degrees 33 minutes South.
[In Admiralty Bay, Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Tuesday, 27th. Fresh breeze of Wind Westerly, and hazey, Misty weather, with Drizling rain. As we have now Circumnavigated the whole of this Country, it is time for me to think of quitting it; but before I do this it will be necessary to compleat our Water first, especially as we have on board above 30 Tons of Casks empty, and knowing that there is a Bay between the above-mentioned Island and Queen Charlotte's sound, wherein no doubt there is Anchorage and convenient Watering places. Accordingly, in the P.M. we hauled round the Island and into the bay, leaving 3 more Islands on our Starboard hand, which lay close under the West Shore 3 or 4 Miles within the Entrance. As we run in we keept the lead going, and had from 40 to 12 fathoms. At 6 we Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, Muddy bottom, under the West Shore, in the Second Cove within the fore-mentioned Island. At daylight I took a Boat and went to look for a Watering place, and a proper birth to moor the Ship in, both of which I found convenient enough. After the Ship was moor'd I sent an Officer ashore to Superintend the Watering, and the Carpenter with his Crew to cut wood, while the Long boat was employed carrying on shore Empty Casks.
Wednesday, 28th. Winds Westerly, which in the A.M. blow'd a fresh Gale, attended with rain. Employ'd getting on board Wood and Water and fishing; in the Latter we were pretty Successfull.
Thursday, 29th. In the P.M. had a Strong Gale from the Westward. A.M. Variable light Airs from the Eastward and hazey rainy weather the whole day; which, however, did not prevent us getting on board Wood and Water.
Friday, 30th. Winds at South-East, a moderate breeze; the first and middle part dark, Hazey weather, with rain; the latter, fair. In the A.M., as the wind seem'd to be settled at South-East, and having nearly compleated our Water, we warped the Ship out of the Cove in order to have room to get under Sail. Before this was done it was Noon, at which time I went away in the Pinnace, in order to examine the Bay, and to Explore as much of it as the little time I had would Admit.
Saturday, 31st. In the P.M., after rowing a League and a half or 2 Leagues up the Bay, I Landed upon a point of Land on the West side, where, from an Eminency, I could see this Western Arm of the Bay run in South-West by West, about 5 Leagues farther, yet did not see the Head of it. There appeared to be several other inlets, or at least small bays, between this and the North-West head of Queen Charlotte's sound, in every one of which I make no doubt but what there is Anchorage and Shelter for Shipping, as they are partly cover'd from the Sea wind by these Islands that lay without them. The land about this bay, at least what I could see of it, is of a very hilly, uneven Surface, and appears to be mostly cover'd with wood, Shrubs, Firns, etc., which renders Travelling both difficult and Fatiguing. I saw no inhabitants, neither have we seen any since we have been in this bay, but met with several of their Huts, all of which appear'd to have been at least 12 Months deserted.
Upon my return to the Ship, in the Evening, I found the Water, etc., all on board, and the Ship ready for Sea; and being now resolv'd to quit this Country altogether, and to bend my thought towards returning home by such a rout as might Conduce most to the Advantage of the Service I am upon, I consulted with the Officers upon the most Eligible way of putting this in Execution. To return by the way of Cape Horn was what I most wished, because by this rout we should have been able to prove the Existance or Non-Existance of a Southern Continent, which yet remains Doubtfull; but in order to Ascertain this we must have kept in a higher Latitude in the very Depth of Winter, but the Condition of the Ship, in every respect, was not thought sufficient for such an undertaking. For the same reason the thoughts of proceeding directly to the Cape of Good Hope was laid aside, especially as no discovery of any Moment could be hoped for in that rout. It was therefore resolved to return by way of the East Indies by the following rout: upon Leaving this Coast to steer to the Westward until we fall in with the East Coast of New Holland, and then to follow the direction of that Coast to the Northward, or what other direction it might take us, until we arrive at its Northern extremity; and if this should be found impracticable, then to Endeavour to fall in with the Land or Islands discovered by Quiros.
With this view, at daylight we got under Sail and put to Sea, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale at South-East and Clear weather. At Noon the Island, which lies off the North-West point of the Bay, bore East 9 degrees South, distant 10 Miles; our Latitude, by Observation, was 40 degrees 35 minutes South. This bay I have named Admiralty Bay; the North-West point Cape Stephens, and the East Point Jackson, after the 2 Secretarys. It may always be known by the Island above mentioned, which is pretty high, and lies North-East, 2 Miles from Cape Stephens; Latitude 40 degrees 37 minutes South; Longitude 185 degrees 6 minutes West. Between this Island and Cape Farewell, which is West by North and East by South, distant 14 or 15 Leagues from each other, the Shore forms a large deep Bay, the bottom of which we could hardly see in sailing in a Strait line from the one Cape to the other; but it is not at all improbable but what it is all lowland next the Sea, as we have met with less water here than on any other part of the Coast at the same distance from Land; however, a Bay there is, and is known on the Chart by the Name of Blind Bay, but I have reason to believe it to be Tasman's Murderers' Bay.
Before I quit this land altogether I shall give a short general discription of the Country, its inhabitants, their manners, Customs, etc., in which it is necessary to observe that many things are founded only on Conjecture, for we were too short a time in any one place to learn much of their interior policy, and therefore could only draw conclusions from what we saw at different times.
[Description of New Zealand.]
SOME ACCOUNT OF NEW ZEALAND.
Part of the East Coast of this Country was first discovered by Abel Tasman in 1642, and by him called New Zeland; he, however, never landed upon it; probably he was discouraged from it by the Natives killing 3 or 4 of his People at the first and only place he Anchor'd at. This country, which before now was thought to be a part of the imaginary Southern Continent, consists of 2 large Islands, divided from each other by a Strait or Passage of 4 or 5 Leagues broad. They are situated between the Latitude of 34 and 48 degrees South, and between the Longitude of 181 and 194 degrees West from the Meridian of Greenwich. The situation of few parts of the world are better determin'd than these Islands are, being settled by some hundreds of Observations of the Sun and Moon, and one of the Transit of Mercury made by Mr. Green, who was sent out by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus.
The Northermost of these Islands, as I have before observed, is called by the Natives Aeheinomouwe and the Southermost Tovy Poenammu. The former name, we were well assured, comprehends the whole of the Northern Island; but we were not so well satisfied with the latter whether it comprehended the whole of the Southern Islands or only a part of it. This last, according to the Natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound, ought to consist of 2 Islands, one of which at least we were to have sail'd round in a few days; but this was not verify'd by our own Observations. I am inclinable to think that they know'd no more of this land than what came within the Limits of their sight. The Chart which I have drawn will best point out the figure and Extent of these Islands, the situation of the Bays and Harbours they contain, and the lesser Islands lay about them.
And now I have mentioned the Chart, I shall point out such places as are drawn with sufficient accuracy to be depended upon and such as are not, beginning at Cape Pallisser and proceed round Aeheinomouwe by the East Cape, etc. The Coast between these 2 Capes I believe to be laid down pretty accurate, both in its figure and the Course and distance from point to point; the opportunities I had and the methods I made use on to obtain these requisites were such as could hardly admit of an Error. From the East Cape to Cape Maria Van Diemen, altho' it cannot be perfectly true, yet it is without any very Material error; some few places, however, must be excepted, and these are very Doubtfull, and are not only here, but in every other part of the Chart pointed out by a Pricked or broken line. From Cape Maria Van Diemen up as high as the Latitude of 36 degrees 15 minutes we seldom were nearer the Shore than from 5 to 8 Leagues, and therefore the line of the Sea Coast may in some places be erroneous. From the above Latitude to nearly the Length of Entry Island we run along and near the shore all the way, and no circumstance occurd that made me liable to commit any Material error. Excepting Cape Teerawhitte, we never came near the Shore between Entry Island and Cape Pallisser, and therefore this part of the coast may be found to differ something from the truth; in Short, I believe that this Island will never be found to differ Materially from the figure I have given it, and that the Coast Affords few or no Harbours but what are either taken notice of in this Journal, or in some Measure pointed out in the Chart; but I cannot say so much for Tovy Poenammu. The Season of the Year and Circumstance of the Voyage would not permit me to spend so much time about this Island as I had done at the other, and the blowing weather we frequently met with made it both dangerous and difficult to keep upon the Coast. However, I shall point out the places that may be Erroneous in this as I have done in the other. From Queen Charlotte's sound to Cape Campbell, and as far to the South-West as the Latitude 43 degrees, will be found to be pretty Accurate; between this Latitude and the Latitude 44 degrees 20 minutes the coast is very Doubtfully laid down, a part of which we hardly, if at all, saw. From this last mentioned Latitude to Cape Saunders we were generally at too great a distance to be Particular, and the weather at the same time was unfavourable. The Coast, as it is laid down from Cape Saunders to Cape South, and even to Cape West, is no doubt in many places very erroneous, as we hardly were ever able to keep near the Shore, and were sometimes blown off altogether. From the West Cape down to Cape Farewell, and even to Queen Charlotte's sound, will in most places be found to differ not much from the truth.
[Animals, Timber, etc., New Zealand.]
Mention is likewise made in the Chart of the appearance or aspect of the face of the Country. With respect to Tovy Poenammu, it is for the most part very Mountainous, and to all appearance a barren Country. The people in Queen Charlotte's sound — those that came off to us from under the Snowy Mountain, and the five we saw to the South-West of Cape Saunders — were all the inhabitants, or Signs of inhabitants, we saw upon the whole Island; but most part of the Sea Coast of Aeheinomouwe, except the South-West side, is well inhabited; and although it is a hilly, Mountainous Country, yet the very Hills and Mountains are many of them cover'd with wood, and the Soil of the plains and Valleys appear'd to be very rich and fertile, and such as we had an opportunity to examine we found to be so, and not very much incumber'd with woods.
It was the Opinion of every body on board that all sorts of European grain, fruit, Plants, etc., would thrive here; in short, was this Country settled by an industrious people they would very soon be supplied not only with the necessaries, but many of the Luxuries, of Life. The Sea, Bays, and Rivers abound with a great Variety of Excellent Fish, the most of them unknown in England, besides Lobsters, which were allowed by every one to be the best they ever had eat. Oysters and many other sorts of shell fish all Excellent in their kind. Sea and Water Fowls of all sorts are, however, in no great plenty; those known in Europe are Ducks, Shags, Gannets, and Gulls, all of which were Eat by us, and found exceeding good; indeed, hardly anything came Amiss to us that could be Eat by Man. Land fowl are likewise in no great plenty, and all of them, except Quails, are, I believe, unknown in Europe; these are exactly like those we have in England. The Country is certainly destitute of all sorts of beasts, either wild or tame, except dogs and Rats; the former are tame, and lived with the people, who breed and bring them up for no other purpose than to Eat, and rats are so scarce that not only I, but many others in the Ship, never see one. Altho' we have seen some few Seals, and once a Sea Lion upon this Coast, yet I believe they are not only very scarce, but seldom or ever come ashore; for if they did the Natives would certainly find out some Method of Killing them, the Skins of which they no doubt would preserve for Cloathing, as well as the Skins of Dogs and birds, the only Skins we ever saw among them. But they must sometimes get Whales, because many of the Patta Pattoas are made of the bones of some such fish, and an Ornament they wear at their breast (on which they set great Value), which are supposed to be made of the Tooth of a Whale; and yet we know of no method or instrument they have to kill these Animals.
In the woods are plenty of Excellent Timber, fit for all purposes except Ships' Masts; and perhaps upon a Close Examination some might be found not improper for that purpose. There grows spontainously everywhere a kind of very broad-bladed grass, like flags of the Nature of Hemp, of which might be made the very best of Cordage and Canvas, etc. There are 2 sorts, one finer than the other; of these the Natives make Cloth, rope, Lines, netts, etc. Iron Ore is undoubtedly to be found here, particularly about Mercury Bays, where we found great quantities of Iron sand; however, we met with no Ore of any Sort, neither did we ever see any sort of Metal with the Natives. We met with some stones at Admiralty Bay that appear'd to be Mineral in some degree, but Dr. Solander was of Opinion that they contain'd no Sort of Metal The white stone we saw near the South Cape and some other parts to the Southward, which I took to be a kind of Marble, such as I had seen on one of the Hills I was upon in Mercury Bay, Mr. Banks — I afterwards found — was of Opinion that they were Mineral to the highest degree; he is certainly a much better Judge of these things than I am, and therefore I might be mistaken in my opinion, which was only founded on what I had before seen not only in this Country, but in other parts where I have been; and at the same time I must observe we were not less than 6 or 8 Leagues from the Land, and nearer it was not possible for us at that time to come without running the Ship into Apparent Danger. However, I am no Judge how far Mineral can be distinguished as such; certain it is that in Southern parts of this Country there are whole Mountains of Nothing Else but stone, some of which, no doubt, may be found to contain Metal.
Should it ever become an object of settling this Country, the best place for the first fixing of a Colony would be either in the River Thames or the Bay of Islands; for at either of these places they would have the advantage of a good Harbour, and by means of the former an Easy Communication would be had, and settlements might be extended into the inland parts of the Country. For a very little trouble and Expence small Vessels might be built in the River proper for the Navigation thereof. It is too much for me to assert how little water a Vessel ought to draw to Navigate this River, even so far up as I was in the Boat; this depends intirely upon the Depth of Water that is upon the bar or flat that lay before the narrow part of the River, which I had not an opportunity of making myself acquainted with, but I am of Opinion that a Vessel that draws not above 10 or 12 feet may do it with Ease. So far as I have been able to Judge of the Genius of these people it does not appear to me to be at all difficult for Strangers to form a settlement in this Country; they seem to be too much divided among themselves to unite in opposing, by which means, and kind and Gentle usage, the Colonists would be able to form strong parties among them.
The Natives of this Country are a Strong, rawboned, well made, Active People, rather above than under the common size, especially the Men; they are of a very dark brown colour, with black hair, thin black beards, and white teeth, and such as do not disfigure their faces by tattowing, etc., have in general very good features. The Men generally were their Hair long, Coomb'd up, and tied upon the Crown of their Heads; some of the women were it long and loose upon their Shoulders, old women especially; others again were it crop'd short. Their coombs are made some of bones, and others of Wood; they sometimes Wear them as an Ornament stuck upright in their Hair. They seem to enjoy a good state of Health, and many of them live to a good old Age. Many of the old and some of the Middle aged Men have their faces mark'd or tattow'd with black, and some few we have seen who have had their buttocks, thighs, and other parts of their bodies marked, but this is less common. The figures they mostly use are spirals, drawn and connected together with great nicety and judgement. They are so exact in the application of these Figures that no difference can be found between the one side of the face and the other, if the whole is marked, for some have only one side, and some a little on both sides; hardly any but the old Men have the whole tattow'd. From this I conclude that it takes up some time, perhaps Years, to finish the Operation, which all Who have begun may not have perseverance enough to go through, as the manner in which it must be done must certainly cause intollerable pain, and may be the reason why so few are Marked at all — at least I know no other. The Women inlay the Colour of Black under the skins of their lips, and both sexes paint their faces and bodies at times more or less with red Oker, mixed with fish Oil.
[Clothing of New Zealanders.]
Their common Cloathing are very much like square Thrumb'd Matts, that are made of rope Yarns, to lay at the doors or passages into houses to clean ones shoes upon. These they tie round their necks, the Thrumb'd side out, and are generally large enough to cover the body as low as the knee; they are made with very little Preparation of the broad Grass plant before mentioned. Beside the Thrumb'd Matts, as I call them, they have other much finer cloathing, made of the same plant after it is bleached and prepared in such a Manner that it is as white and almost as soft as flax, but much stronger. Of this they make pieces of cloth about 5 feet long and 4 broad; these are wove some pieces close and others very open; the former are as stout as the strongest sail cloth, and not unlike it, and yet it is all work'd or made by hand with no other Instrument than a Needle or Bodkin. To one end of every piece is generally work'd a very neat border of different colours of 4 or 6 inches broad, and they very often Trim them with pieces of Dog Skin or birds' feathers. These pieces of Cloth they wear as they do the other, tying one End round their Necks with a piece of string, to one end of which is fixed a Needle or Bodkin made of Bone, by means of which they can easily fasten, or put the string through any part of the Cloth; they sometimes wear pieces of this kind of Cloth round their Middles, as well as over their Shoulders. But this is not common, especially with the Men, who hardly ever wear anything round their Middles, observing no sort of Decency in that respect; neither is it at all uncommon for them to go quite Naked without any one thing about them besides a belt round their waists, to which is generally fastened a small string, which they tye round the prepuse; in this manner I have seen hundreds of them come off to and on board the Ship, but they generally had their proper Cloathing in the boat along with them to put on if it rain'd, etc. The Women, on the other hand, always wear something round their Middle; generally a short, thrumbd Matt, which reaches as low as their Knees. Sometimes, indeed, I have seen them with only a Bunch of grass or plants before, tyed on with a piece of fine platting made of sweet-scented grass; they likewise wear a piece of cloth over their Shoulders as the Men do; this is generally of the Thrum kind. I hardly ever saw a Woman wear a piece of fine cloth. One day at Talago I saw a strong proof that the Women never appear naked, at least before strangers. Some of us hapned to land upon a small Island where several of them were Naked in the Water, gathering of Lobsters and shell fish; as soon as they saw us some of them hid themselves among the Rocks, and the rest remain'd in the Sea until they had made themselves Aprons of the Sea Weed; and even then, when they came out to us, they shew'd Manifest signs of Shame, and those who had no method of hiding their nakedness would by no means appear before us.
The Women have all very soft Voices, and may by that alone be known from the Men. The Making of cloth and all other Domestick work is, I believe, wholy done by them, and the more Labourious work, such as building Boats, Houses, Tilling the ground, etc., by the Men. Both men and women wear ornaments at their Ears and about their Necks; these are made of stone, bone, Shells, etc., and are variously shaped; and some I have seen wear human Teeth and finger Nails, and I think we were told that they did belong to their deceased friends. The Men, when they are dressed, generally wear 2 or 3 long white feathers stuck upright in their Hair, and at Queen Charlotte's sound many, both men and women, wore Round Caps made of black feathers.
[War Practices of New Zealanders.]
The old men are much respected by the younger, who seem to be govern'd and directed by them on most Occasions. We at first thought that they were united under one head or Chief, whose Name is Teeratu; we first heard of him in Poverty Bay, and he was own'd as Chief by every one we met with from Cape Kidnappers to the Northward and Westward as far as the Bay of Plenty, which is a great extent of territories for an Indian Prince. When we were upon the East Coast they always pointed inland to the Westward for the place of his residence, which I believe to be in the Bay of Plenty, and that those Hippas or fortified Towns are Barrier Towns either for or against him; but most likely the former, and if so, may be the utmost Extent of his Dominions to the Westwards, for at Mercury bay they did not own him as their Prince, nor no where else either to the Westward or Southward, or any other single person; for at whatever place we put in at, or whatever people we spoke with upon the Coast, they generally told us that those that were at a little distance from them were their Enemies; from which it appear'd to me that they were very much divided into Parties, which make war one with another, and all their Actions and behaviour towards us tended to prove that they are a brave, open, war-like people, and void of Treachery.
Whenever we were Visited by any number of them that had never heard or seen anything of us before they generally came off in the largest Canoe they had, some of which will carry 60, 80, or 100 people. They always brought their best Cloaths along with them, which they put on as soon as they came near the Ship. In each Canoe were generally an old Man, in some 2 or 3; these used always to direct the others, were better Cloathed, and generally carried a Halbard or Battle Axe in their hands, or some such like thing that distinguished them from the others. As soon as they came within about a Stone's throw of the Ship they would there lay, and call out, "Haromoi harenta a patoo ago!" that is, "Come here, come ashore with us, and we will kill you with our patoo patoos!" and at the same time would shake them at us. At times they would dance the War dance, and other times they would trade with and talk to us, and Answer such Questions as were put to them with all the Calmness imaginable, and then again begin the War Dance, shaking their Paddles, Patoo patoos, etc., and make strange contortions at the same time. As soon as they had worked themselves up to a proper pitch they would begin to attack us with Stones and darts, and oblige us, wether we would or no, to fire upon them. Musquetry they never regarded unless they felt the Effect; but great Guns they did, because they threw stones farther than they could Comprehend. After they found that our Arms were so much superior to theirs, and that we took no advantage of that superiority, and a little time given them to reflect upon it, they ever after were our very good friends; and we never had an instance of their attempting to surprize or cut off any of our people when they were ashore; opportunity for so doing they must have had at one time or another.
It is hard to account for what we have every where been told, of their Eating their Enemies killed in Battle, which they most Certainly do; Circumstances enough we have seen to Convince us of the Truth of this. Tupia, who holds this Custom in great aversion, hath very often Argued with them against it, but they have always as streniously supported it, and never would own that it was wrong. It is reasonable to suppose that men with whom this custom is found, seldom, if ever, give Quarter to those they overcome in battle; and if so, they must fight desperately to the very last. A strong proof of this supposition we had from the People of Queen Charlotte's sound, who told us, but a few days before we Arrived that they had kill'd and Eat a whole boat's crew. Surely a single boat's crew, or at least a part of them, when they found themselves beset and overpowered by numbers would have surrender'd themselves prisoners was such a thing practised among them. The heads of these unfortunate people they preserved as Trophies; 4 or 5 of them they brought off to shew to us, one of which Mr. Banks bought, or rather forced them to sell, for they parted with it with the utmost reluctancy, and afterwards would not so much as let us see one more for any thing we could offer them.
In the Article of Food these People have no great Variety; Fern roots, Dogs, Fish, and wild fowl is their Chief diet, for Cocos, Yams, and Sweet Potatoes is not Cultivated every where. They dress their Victuals in the same Manner as the people in the South Sea Islands; that is, dogs and Large fish they bake in a hole in the ground, and small fish, birds, and Shell fish, etc., they broil on the fire. Fern roots they likewise heat over the fire, then beat them out flat upon a stone with a wooden Mallet; after this they are fit for Eating, in the doing of which they suck out the Moist and Glutinous part, and Spit out the Fibrous parts. These ferns are much like, if not the same as, the mountain ferns in England.
They catch fish with Seans, Hooks and line, but more commonly with hooped netts very ingeniously made; in the middle of these they tie the bait, such as Sea Ears, fish Gutts, etc., then sink the Nett to the bottom with a stone; after it lays there a little time they haul it Gently up, and hardly ever without fish, and very often a large quantity. All their netts are made of the broad Grass plant before mentioned; generally with no other preparation than by Splitting the blade of the plant into threads. Their fish hooks are made of Crooked pieces of Wood, bones, and Shells.
[New Zealand Canoes, Houses, etc.]
The people shew great ingenuity and good workmanship in the building and framing their boats or Canoes. They are long and Narrow, and shaped very much like a New England Whale boat. Their large Canoes are, I believe, built wholy for war, and will carry from 40 to 80 or 100 Men with their Arms, etc. I shall give the Dimensions of one which I measured that lay ashore at Tolago. Length 68 1/2 feet, breadth 5 feet, and Depths 3 1/2, the bottom sharp, inclining to a wedge, and was made of 3 pieces hollow'd out to about 2 Inches or an Inch and a half thick, and well fastned together with strong platting. Each side consisted of one Plank only, which was 63 feet long and 10 or 12 Inches broad, and about 1 1/4 Inch thick, and these were well fitted and lashed to the bottom part. There were a number of Thwarts laid a Cross and Lashed to each Gunwale as a strengthening to the boat. The head Ornament projected 5 or 6 feetwithout the body of the B 4 feet high; the Stern Ornament was
14 feet high, about 2 feet broad, and about 1 1/2 inch thick; it was fixed upon the Stern of the Canoe like the Stern post of a Ship upon her Keel. The Ornaments of both head and Stern and the 2 side boards were of Carved Work, and, in my opinion, neither ill design'd nor executed. All their Canoes are built after this plan, and few are less than 20 feet long. Some of the small ones we have seen with Outriggers, but this is not Common. In their War Canoes they generally have a quantity of Birds' feathers hung in Strings, and tied about the Head and stern as Additional Ornament. They are as various in the heads of their Canoes as we are in those of our Shipping; but what is most Common is an odd Design'd Figure of a man, with as ugly a face as can be conceived, a very large Tongue sticking out of his Mouth, and Large white Eyes made of the Shells of Sea Ears. Their paddles are small, light, and neatly made; they hardly ever make use of sails, at least that we saw, and those they have are but ill contrived, being generally a piece of netting spread between 2 poles, which serve for both Masts and Yards.
The Houses of these People are better calculated for a Cold than a Hot Climate; they are built low, and in the form of an oblong square. The framing is of wood or small sticks, and the sides and Covering of thatch made of long Grass. The door is generally at one end, and no bigger than to admit of a man to Creep in and out; just within the door is the fire place, and over the door, or on one side, is a small hole to let out the Smoke. These houses are 20 or 30 feet long, others not above half as long; this depends upon the largeness of the Family they are to contain, for I believe few familys are without such a House as these, altho' they do not always live in them, especially in the summer season, when many of them live dispers'd up and down in little Temporary Hutts, that are not sufficient to shelter them from the weather.
The Tools which they work with in building their Canoes, Houses, etc., are adzes or Axes, some made of a hard black stone, and others of green Talk. They have Chiszels made of the same, but these are more commonly made of Human Bones. In working small work and carving I believe they use mostly peices of Jasper, breaking small pieces from a large Lump they have for that purpose; as soon as the small peice is blunted they throw it away and take another. To till or turn up the ground they have wooden spades (if I may so call them), made like stout pickets, with a piece of wood tied a Cross near the lower end, to put the foot upon to force them into the Ground. These Green Talk Axes that are whole and good they set much Value upon, and never would part with them for anything we could offer. I offer'd one day for one, One of the best Axes I had in the Ship, besides a number of Other things, but nothing would induce the owner to part with it; from this I infer'd that good ones were scarce among them.
Diversions and Musical instruments they have but few; the latter Consists of 2 or 3 sorts of Trumpets and a small Pipe or Whistle, and the former in singing and Dancing. Their songs are Harmonious enough, but very doleful to a European ear. In most of their dances they appear like mad men, Jumping and Stamping with their feet, making strange Contorsions with every part of the body, and a hideous noise at the same time; and if they happen to be in their Canoes they flourish with great Agility their Paddles, Pattoo Pattoos, various ways, in the doing of which, if there are ever so many boats and People, they all keep time and Motion together to a surprizing degree. It was in this manner that they work themselves to a proper Pitch of Courage before they used to attack us; and it was only from their after behaviour that we could tell whether they were in jest or in Earnest when they gave these Heivas, as they call them, of their own accord, especially at our first coming into a place. Their signs of Friendship is the waving the hand or a piece of Cloth, etc.
We were never able to learn with any degree of certainty in what manner they bury their dead; we were generally told that they put them in the ground; if so it must be in some secret or by place, for we never saw the least signs of a burying place in the whole Country. Their Custom of mourning for a friend or relation is by cutting and Scarifying their bodys, particularly their Arms and breasts, in such a manner that the Scars remain indelible, and, I believe, have some signification such as to shew how near related the deceased was to them.
[Maori and Tahiti Words.]
With respect to religion, I believe these people trouble themselves very little about it; they, however, believe that there is one Supream God, whom they call Tawney, and likewise a number of other inferior deities; but whether or no they worship or Pray to either one or the other we know not with any degree of certainty. It is reasonable to suppose that they do, and I believe it; yet I never saw the least Action or thing among them that tended to prove it. They have the same Notions of the Creation of the World, Mankind, etc., as the people of the South Sea Islands have; indeed, many of their notions and Customs are the very same. But nothing is so great a proof of their all having had one Source as their Language, which differ but in a very few words the one from the other, as will appear from the following specimens, which I had from Mr. Banks, who understands their Language as well, or better than, any one on board.
|English||New Zealand||South Sea Islands|
|What do you call this or that?||Owy Terra||Owy Terra|
[Speculations on a Southern Continent.]
There are some small differance in the Language spoke by the Aeheinomoweans and those of Tovy Poenammu; but this differance seem'd to me to be only in the pronunciation, and is no more than what we find between one part of England and another. What is here inserted as a Specimen is that spoke by the People of Aeheinomouwe. What is meant by the South Sea Islands are those Islands we ourselves Touched at; but I gave it that title because we have always been told that the same Language is universally spoke by all the Islanders, and that this is a Sufficient proof that both they and the New Zelanders have had one Origin or Source, but where this is even time perhaps may never discover.
It certainly is neither to the Southward nor Eastward, for I cannot perswaide myself that ever they came from America; and as to a Southern Continent, I do not believe any such thing exist, unless in a high Latitude. But as the Contrary opinion hath for many Years prevail'd, and may yet prevail, it is necessary I should say something in support of mine more than what will be directly pointed out by the Track of this Ship in those Seas; for from that alone it will evidently appear that there is a large space extending quite to the Tropick in which we were not, or any other before us that we can ever learn for certain. In our route to the Northward, after doubling Cape Horn, when in the Latitude of 40 degrees, we were in the Longitude of 110 degrees; and in our return to the Southward, after leaving Ulietea, when in the same Latitude, we were in the Longitude of 145 degrees; the differance in this Latitude is 35 degrees of Longitude. In the Latitude of 30 degrees the differance of the 2 Tracks is 21 degrees, and that differance continues as low as 20 degrees; but a view of the Chart will best illustrate this.
Here is now room enough for the North Cape of the Southern Continent to extend to the Northward, even to a pretty low Latitude. But what foundation have we for such a supposition? None, that I know of, but this, that it must either be here or no where. Geographers have indeed laid down part of Quiros' discoveries in this Longitude, and have told us that he had these signs of a Continent, a part of which they have Actually laid down in the Maps; but by what Authority I know not. Quiros, in the Latitude of 25 or 26 degrees South, discover'd 2 Islands, which, I suppose, may lay between the Longitude of 130 and 140 degrees West. Dalrymple lays them down in 146 degrees West, and says that Quiros saw to the Southward very large hanging Clouds and a very thick Horizon, with other known signs of a Continent. Other accounts of their Voyage says not a word about this; but supposing this to be true, hanging Clouds and a thick Horizon are certainly no signs of a Continent — I have had many proofs to the Contrary in the Course of this Voyage; neither do I believe that Quiros looked upon such things as known signs of land, for if he had he certainly would have stood to the Southward, in order to have satisfied himself before he had gone to the Northward, for no man seems to have had discoveries more at heart than he had. Besides this, this was the ultimate object of his Voyage. If Quiros was in the Latitude of 26 degrees and Longitude 146 degrees West, then I am certain that no part of the Southern Continent can no where extend so far to the Northward as the above mentioned Latitude. But the Voyage which seems to thrust it farthest back in the Longitude I am speaking of, viz., between 130 and 150 degrees West, is that of Admiral Roggeween, a Dutchman, made in 1722, who, after leaving Juan Fernandes, went in search of Davis's Island; but not finding it, he ran 12 degrees more to the West, and in the Latitude of 28 1/2 degrees discover'd Easter Island. Dalrymple and some others have laid it down in 27 degrees South and 106 degrees 30 minutes West, and supposes it to be the same as Davis's Isle, which I think cannot be from the Circumstance of the Voyage; on the other hand Mr. Pingre, in his Treatise concerning the Transit of Venus, gives an extract of Roggeween's Voyage and a map of the South Seas, wherein he places Easter Island in the Latitude of 28 1/2 degrees South, and in the Longitude of 123 degrees West his reason for so doing may be seen at large in the said Treatise. He likewise lays down Roggeween's rout through those South Seas very different from any other Author I have seen; for after leaving Easter Island he makes him to steer South-West to the height of 34 degrees South, and afterwards West-North-West. If Roggeween really took this rout, then it is not probable that there is any Main land to the Northward of 35 degrees South. However, Mr. Dalrymple and some Geographers have laid down Roggeween's track very different from Mr. Pingre. From Easter Isle they have laid down his Track to the North-West, and afterwards very little different from that of La Maire; and this I think is not probable, that a man who, at his own request, was sent to discover the Southern Continent should take the same rout thro' these Seas as others had done before who had the same thing in View; by so doing he must be Morally certain of not finding what he was in search of, and of course must fail as they had done. Be this as it may, it is a point that cannot be clear'd up from the published accounts of the Voyage, which, so far from taking proper notice of their Longitude, have not even mentioned the Latitude of several of the Islands they discover'd, so that I find it impossible to lay down Roggeween's rout with the least degree of accuracy.
But to return to our own Voyage, which must be allowed to have set aside the most, if not all, the Arguments and proofs that have been advanced by different Authors to prove that there must be a Southern Continent; I mean to the Northward of 40 degrees South, for what may lie to the Southward of that Latitude I know not. Certain it is that we saw no Visible signs of Land, according to my Opinion, neither in our rout to the Northward, Southward, or Westward, until a few days before we made the Coast of New Zeland. It is true we have often seen large flocks of Birds, but they were generally such as are always seen at a very great distance from land; we likewise saw frequently peices of Sea or Rock Weed, but how is one to know how far this may drive to Sea. I am told, and that from undoubted Authority, that there is Yearly thrown up upon the Coast of Ireland and Scotland a sort of Beans called Oxe Eyes, which are known to grow no where but in the West Indies; and yet these 2 places are not less than 1200 Leagues asunder. Was such things found floating upon the Water in the South Seas one would hardly be perswaided that one was even out of sight of Land, so apt are we to Catch at everything that may at least point out to us the favourite Object we are in persuit of; and yet experiance shews that we may be as far from it as ever.
Thus I have given my Opinion freely and without prejudice, not with any View to discourage any future attempts being made towards discovering the Southern Continent; on the Contrary, as I think this Voyage will evidently make it appear that there is left but a small space to the Northward of 40 degrees where the grand object can lay. I think it would be a great pity that this thing, which at times has been the Object of many Ages and Nations, should not now be wholy be clear'd up; which might very Easily be done in one Voyage without either much trouble or danger or fear of Miscarrying, as the Navigator would know where to go to look for it; but if, after all, no Continent was to be found, then he might turn his thoughts towards the discovery of those Multitude of Islands which, we are told, lay within the Tropical regions to the South of the Line, and this we have from very good Authority, as I have before hinted. This he will always have in his power; for, unless he be directed to search for the Southern lands in a high Latitude, he will not, as we were, be obliged to go farther to the Westward in the Latitude of 40 degrees than 140 or 145 degrees West, and therefore will always have it in his power to go to George's Island, where he will be sure of meeting with refreshments to recruit his people before he sets out upon the discovery of the Islands. But should it be thought proper to send a Ship out upon this Service while Tupia lives, and he to come out in her, in that case she would have a prodidgious Advantage over every ship that hath been upon discoveries in those Seas before; for by means of Tupia, supposing he did not accompany you himself, you would always get people to direct you from Island to Island, and would be sure of meeting with a friendly reception and refreshment at every Island you came to. This would enable the Navigator to make his discoveries the more perfect and Compleat; at least it would give him time so to do, for he would not be Obliged to hurry through those Seas thro' any apprehentions of wanting Provisions.
[Tupia's List of Islands.]
I shall now add a list of those Islands which Tupia and Several others have given us an account of, and Endeavour to point out the respective Situations from Otaheite, or George's Island; but this, with respect to many of them, cannot be depended upon. Those marked thus (*) Tupia himself has been at, and we have no reason to doubt his Veracity in this, by which it will appear that his Geographical knowledge of those Seas is pretty Extensive; and yet I must observe that before he came with us he hardly had an Idea of any land being larger than Otaheite.
|Name of the Islands||Bearings from Otaheite.|
|Oopate||Between the N. and N.N.W.|
|Otaah||N.N.E. to N.E. by N.|
|Ohevatoutua||E. by N.|
|Moutou||S. to S.E.|
|‡Mytea or Oznaburg Isld.||E.S.E. and E.|
|‡Imao or York Island||W. by S. and W.S.W.|
|‡Tapooamanue or Saunders Island|
|‡Manua||Between the S. and S.W.|
|Oheavie||Between the S.W. and W.S.W.|
|‡Tethuroa||N. by W.|
|‡Huiheine||Between the N. and W.|
|‡Maurua||Between the N. and W.|
|‡Whennuaouda||Between the N. and W. and W.|
The above list was taken from a Chart of the Islands drawn by Tupia's own hands. He at one time gave us an account of near 130 Islands, but in his Chart he laid down only 74; and this is about the number that some others of the Natives of Otaheite gave us an account of; but the account taken by and from different people differ sencibly one from another both in names and numbers. The first is owing to the want of rightly knowing how to pronounce the names of the Islands after them; but be this as it may, it is very certain that there are these number of Islands, and very Probably a great many more, laying some where in the Great South Sea, the greatest part of which have never been seen by any European.
[Historical Notes on New Zealand.]
NOTES ON NEW ZEALAND.
As already stated by Cook in the Journal, New Zealand was first discovered by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in the year 1642. Sailing from Tasmania, he sighted the northern part of the Middle island, and anchored a little east of Cape Farewell in Massacre (Golden) Bay, so called by him because the Maoris cut off one of his boats, and killed three of the crew.
Tasman never landed anywhere, but coasted from Massacre Bay along the western side of the North Island to the north point. He passed outside the Three Kings, and thence away into the Pacific, to discover the Frien dly Group.
No European eye again sighted New Zealand until Cook circumnavigated and mapped the islands.
The warlike character of the natives is well shown in this Journal. On nearly every occasion they either made, or attempted to make, an attack, even on the ships, and in self-defence firearms had constantly to be used. Nevertheless, Cook's judgment enabled him to inaugurate friendly relations in most places where he stopped long enough to enable the natives to become acquainted with the strangers.
It was not so with other voyagers. De Surville, a Frenchman, who called at Doubtless Bay very shortly after Cook left it, destroyed a village, and carried off a chief. Marion de Fresne was, in 1772, in the Bay of Islands, killed by the natives, with sixteen of his people, and eaten, for violation of some of their customs, and illtreatment of some individuals.
Other outrages followed, committed on both sides, and it is no wonder that, though Cook represented the advantages of the island for colonization, it was not considered a desirable place in which to settle. The cannibalism of the Maoris especially made people shy of the country.
Intermittent communication took place between New Zealand and the new Colony of New South Wales, and at last, in 1814, Samuel Marsden, a clergyman of the Church of England, who had seen Maoris in New South Wales, landed in the Bay of Islands with other missionaries. This fearless and noble-minded man obtained the confidence of the Maoris, and a commencement of colonization was made.
It was not, however, until 1840 that the New Zealand Company was formed to definitely colonize. They made their station at Wellington.
In the same year Captain Hobson, R.N., was sent as Lieutenant-Governor. Landing first at the Bay of Islands, he transferred his headquarters to the Hauraki Gulf in September 1840, where he founded Auckland, which remained the capital until 1876, when the seat of Government was transferred to Wellington.
The North Island, in which all these occurrences took place, contained by far the greater number of the natives, and it seems strange now that the first efforts to settle were not made in the Middle Island, which has proved equally suitable for Europeans, and where the difficulties of settlement, from the existence of a less numerous native population, were not so great. It is not necessary here to follow the complicated history of New Zealand in later years, which unfortunately comprises several bloody wars with the Maoris.
The present prosperous condition of this great colony is well known, but it has not been effected without the rapid diminution of the natives, who have met with the fate of most aborigines in contact with Europeans, especially when the former were naturally bold and warlike.
The Maoris have retained the tradition of the original arrival of their race in a fleet of canoes from a country called Hawaiki, which is by some supposed to be Hawaii in the Sandwich Group. As we have seen, the language was practically the same as that of Tahiti, and there is no doubt that they came from some of the Polynesian islands. The date of the immigration is supposed to be the fifteenth century.
Each canoe's crew settled in different parts of the North Island, and were the founders of the different great tribes into which the New Zealanders were divided. The more celebrated canoes were the Arawa, Tainui, Aotea, Kuruhaupo, Takitumu, and others.
The Arawa claimed the first landing, and the principal idols came in her. One of these is now in the possession of Sir George Grey. A large tribe on the east coast still bears the name of Arawa, and her name, that o f the Tainui, and other of the canoes, are now borne by some of the great steamships that run to New Zealand.
Cook, in the voyage with which we have to deal, completely examined the whole group. His pertinacity and determination to follow the whole coast is a fine instance of his thoroughness in exploration. No weather nor delay daunted him, and the accuracy with which he depicted the main features of the outline of the islands is far beyond any of the similar work of other voyagers. It is true that he missed in the south island many of the fine harbours that have played such an important part in the prosperity of the Colony; but when we consider the narrowness of their entrances, and the enormous extent of the coast line which he laid down in such a short time, this is not astonishing.
His observations on the natives and on the country display great acuteness of observation, and had the settlers displayed the same spirit of fair treatment and respect for the customs of the natives, much of the bloody warfare that has stained the annals of the Colony might have been averted; though it is scarcely possible that with such a high-spirited race the occupation of the islands, especially the North island, where the majority of the Maoris were, could have taken place without some disturbances.
New Zealand now contains 630,000 Europeans, and 41,000 Maoris. Its exports are valued at 10,000,000 pounds, and the imports at 6,250,000 pounds. There are 2000 miles of railways open. Such is the result of fifty years of colonization in a fertile and rich island, the climate of which may be described as that of a genial England.
- Ship Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound.
- Tasman's Massacre Bay lies 70 miles to the West-North-West.
- The bay in Queen Charlotte's Sound in which the Endeavour anchored, Ship Cove, lies 7 miles within the entrance on the western shore.
- The head of Queen Charlotte's Sound is 20 miles from where the Endeavour was lying.
- Cook's Strait, which divides the two islands of New Zealand.
- A transom is a curved piece of wood which supports the end of the tiller.
- Stephens Island. Cape Stephens, off which it lies, forms the western termination of the strait, Cook's, between the two islands of New Zealand. The Coast between this and Cape Jackson, where Cook was standing, is thickly indented with inlets of great extent. The two Capes were named after the Secretaries of the Admiralty.
- The two Wannuas were doubtless the peninsulas lying west of Queen Charlotte's Sound. The third was the North Island. Te Wai Pounamu (The Water of the Greenstone, of which the most prized weapons were made) is the native name of the Middle Island; but there must have been some confusion as to the possibility of getting round this in four days. The name of the North Island is Te Ika o Maui (The Fish of Maui), but is given by Cook as Aeheino Mouwe. It has been suggested (Rusden) that the name given to him was Tehinga o Maui (The Fishing of Maui), and imperfectly rendered.
- This was doubtless the tradition current among the Maoris, that their ancestors came from islands to the north. See Note below.
- Cook was not able to explore the whole of Queen Charlotte's Sound, which runs into the land for 25 miles. Towards the southern end is Picton, the port of Blenheim, the capital of the province of Marlborough.
- The Brothers. There is now a lighthouse on this island.
- The Kairoura Range, the summit of which is 9500 feet high.
- Captain Palliser, afterwards Sir Hugh, was Captain of the Eagle, Cook's first ship in the Royal Navy. He discovered Cook's talents, and was his warm friend throughout his life. Between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser is the entrance to Port Nicholson, wherein is situated Wellington, the capital of New Zealand. This entrance is, however, narrow, and Cook was never near enough to the land to discover it.
- The Endeavour had now completely circumnavigated the North Island of New Zealand, having spent four months in the exploration. That Cook had communicated his enthusiasm to his officers is evident; or, knowing his determination to leave nothing doubtful, they would not have started the idea that the North Island might not be really an island. The natural wish after so many months' absence from civilization must have been to get back to it, and to take things for granted that would otherwise delay their progress.
- Castle Point.
- The northern of these was the entrance to Port Nicholson, the harbour of Auckland.
- The highest peak of the Kaikoura Mountains, Mount Tapuaepuka, is 9500 feet high. It is therefore higher than Mount Egmont, but not so high as the Peak of Teneriffe. The snow lies thicker on the western side of New Zealand mountains, so Cook's parallel was fallacious. The Endeavour was now near the Kaikoura Peninsula, where a small town stands at the present day, the shipping port of an agricultural district.
- It is not an island, but a mountainous peninsula, still called after Mr. Banks, but from the lowness of the land it adjoins, looks like an island. On the north side is the fine harbour of Lyttelton, the port of Christchurch, a town of nearly 40,000 inhabitants. The harbour on the south side, that Cook saw, is Akaroa, a magnificent port.
- Another instance of the general desire to leave nothing unexplored.
- The ship was still 250 miles from the south point of New Zealand.
- This is a little south of Timaru, a rising town in a fertile district; so deceptive is appearance from the sea.
- B.B. stands for Best Bower, one of the principal cables. The hempen cables of those days were a continual cause of solicitude, and required great care.
- There are so many lofty mountains in this region that it is impossible to identify this. This ship was now no farther south than she had been five days earlier.
- Admiral Sir Charles Saunders was First Lord of the Admiralty in 1766. He commanded the fleet at the capture of Quebec in 1759, in which Cook served.
- One of these is Otago Harbour, where lies Dunedin, perhaps the most important commercial city in New Zealand.
- The Endeavour had been blown off the land for seven days, and had barely recovered her position.
- The ship was now off the south point of the Middle Island.
- Ruapuke Island.
- The dangerous Traps lie south and east of the South Island of New Zealand. The Endeavour had now at last got to the southward of the land. There is a small but high rock farther south, the Snares, that Cook did not sight this voyage.
- South or Stewart Island.
- South Cape is the southern point of Stewart Island. Cook's position for it is wonderfully exact.
- Long Island, which lies, with others, on the west side of Stewart Island.
- Cook was deceived, as Stewart is an island.
- This was called by Cook Solander Island.
- Dusky Bay is one of the remarkable inlets known now as the New Zealand Sounds. They are very deep, narrow fiords, running into the high mountains, that here come close to the shore, and are much visited now for the sake of the grandeur of the scenery. Cook visited and surveyed Dusky Bay in his next voyage. The Endeavour had nearly as much tempestuous weather in rounding the south end of New Zealand as she had off the North Cape; but Cook managed to get a very fair idea of the coast, notwithstanding, by dint of perseverance.
- Doubtful Sound, another of the fiords mentioned in note above.
- They did not see Mount Cook, 12,300 feet high, and the highest mountain in New Zealand; no doubt the summit was in the clouds.
- The Endeavour had passed the mouth of the Grey River, the district of the great coalfields of New Zealand.
- Cape Farewell, the north point of the Middle Island.
- This is, to a great extent, the case.
- Stephens Island.
- Admiralty Bay.
- Rangitoto Islets.
- There is a maze of inlets and harbours between Admiralty Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound, a distance of 20 miles.
- Quiros, a Spanish navigator, discovered in 1605 Espiritu Santo, the northern island of the New Hebrides, which he supposed to be a part of a great southern continent. Cook, in his second voyage, thoroughly explored the New Hebrides group; and for some of the islands his charts are still the only guide.
- The two secretaries of the Admiralty, Philip Stephens and George Jackson, both of whom showed great appreciation of Cook.
- Blind Bay is now also known as Tasman Bay, and Massacre Bay is supposed to be a smaller bay in it, on the north-western side.
- This should be West Coast.
- As before remarked, the natives at Queen Charlotte's Sound doubtless were speaking of the large peninsula and the islands which lie west of the Sound. There is a spot at the isthmus where canoes could be hauled over.
- See copy of this chart.
- Cook's open and plain statement as to the comparative accuracy of different parts of his chart is much to be commended. It has been too much the fashion with first explorers to leave such matters to be discovered by the student. But the astonishing accuracy of his outline of New Zealand must be the admiration of all who understand the difficulties of laying down a coast; and when it is considered that this coastline is 2400 miles in extent, the magnitude of the task will be realised by everybody. Never has a coast been so well laid down by a first explorer, and it must have required unceasing vigilance and continual observation, in fair weather and foul, to arrive at such a satisfactory conclusion; and with such a dull sailer as the Endeavour was, the six and a half months occupied in the work must be counted as a short interval in which to do it.
- There are a good many seals round the southern part of New Zealand, and a regular fishery is now established on Stewart Island. Cook saw nothing of the few natives that occupied the southern parts of the Island.
- The New Zealand flax (Phormium Tenax) is now a considerable article of commerce. It furnishes a very strong fibre, and is made into rope, etc.
- Gold and coal have been found in New Zealand in large quantities. Gold at Otago and Hokatika in the South Island, and at Thames in the North. The coalfields round the Grey River are enormous, and have no doubt a great future; and this useful mineral is also found in the Bay of Islands, and other places in the North Island. Other metals, as copper, silver, antimony, have also been found and worked.
- The Maoris were remarkable for longevity, and for health and strength in old age.
- The weapons of greenstone, found in the South Islands, were much prized. This hard material required years to shape into a mere, or short club, and these were handed down from father to son as a most valuable possession.
- The burying places were kept secret. The body was temporarily buried, and after some time exhumed; the bones were cleaned, and hidden in some cave or cleft in the rocks. As bones were used by enemies to make implements, it was a point to keep these depositories secret, to prevent such desecration.
- Probably Tane-mahuta, the creator of animal and vegetable life. The Maori does not pray.
- It is conjectured that what Quiros saw was Tahiti, but his track on this voyage is very vague. There are certainly no islands in the latitude given except Pitcairn.
- Easter Island is in longitude 110 degrees West, and is considered identical with Davis' Island.
- Roggeween's track is still unknown.
- Cook carried out this programme in his second voyage, when he set at rest for ever the speculation regarding the Southern Continent.
- This list is hopeless. With the exception of the Society Group (Huiheine, and the names that follow), Imao (Eimeo), Tapooamanuo, Tethuroa, and Ohiteroa, all lying near Tahiti, none can be recognised. Those north and east are no doubt names of the Paumotu Group, low coral islands, disposed in rings round lagoons, whose innumerable names are very little known to this day, and very probably the Tahitians had their own names for them.