Captain Cook's Journal During His First Voyage Round the World/Chapter 7
CHAPTER 7. PASSAGE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO NEW HOLLAND.Edit
[April 1770. From New Zealand to Australia.]
SUNDAY, 1st April. In the P.M. had a moderate breeze at East, which in the Night Veer'd to the North-East, and was attended with hazey, rainy weather. I have before made mention of our quitting New Zeland with an intention to steer to the Westward, which we accordingly did, taking our departure from Cape Farewell in the Latitude of 40 degrees 30 minutes South and Longitude 185 degrees 58 minutes West from Greenwich, which bore from us at 5 p.m. West 18 degrees North, distance 12 Miles. After this we steer'd North-West and West-North-West, in order to give it a good berth, until 8 o'Clock a.m., at which time we steered West, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale at North by East. At Noon our Latitude by account was 40 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 1 degree 11 minutes West.
Monday, 2nd. In the P.M. had a moderate Gale at North, with thick hazey weather, attended with rain. At 8 it fell little wind, and Veer'd to West-South-West, at which time we Tack'd. At Midnight the wind came to South-South-West, and increased to a brisk gale with fair Cloudy weather, which we made the most of as soon as it was daylight. At Noon our Latitude, by Observation, was 40 degrees 0 minutes, and Longitude made from Cape Farewell 2 degrees 31 minutes West.
Tuesday, 3rd. Cloudy weather; Winds at South-West and South-South-West, a fresh Gale, with which we made our Course good North-West by West, and distance run from Yesterday at Noon to this day at Noon 38 1/2 Leagues. Latitude, by observation, 38 degrees 56 minutes South; Longitude made from Cape Farewell 4 degrees 36 minutes West.
Wednesday, 4th. Had a steady brisk Gale at South-South-West with some flying showers of rain and large hollow Sea from the Southward. In the P.M. unbent the Maintopsail to repair, and brought another to the Yard and set it close reefed. At Noon our Latitude, by Observation, was 37 degrees 56 minutes South; Course and distance since Yesterday at Noon North 60 degrees West, 122 Miles; Longitude made from Cape Farewell 6 degrees 54 minutes West.
Thursday, 5th. Fresh Gales at South, which in the A.M. veer'd to South-East by South. At Noon our Latitude, by observation, was 37 degrees 23 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 9 degrees 10 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 73 degrees 15 minutes West, 37 Leagues.
Friday, 6th. Winds between the South by East and South-East, with a Continued swell from the South-South-West. At Noon our Latitude in per Observation 37 degrees 18 minutes South; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 85 degrees West, 58 Miles. Longitude made from Cape Farewell 10 degrees 35 minutes West.
Saturday, 7th. Gentle breezes at North-East, which in the A.M. Veer'd to North-West. In the P.M. found the Variation by the Mean of several Azimuths to be 13 degrees 50 minutes East, being then in the Latitude of 37 degrees 23 minutes South, and Longitude 196 degrees 44 minutes West. In the A.M. Punished Jno. Bowles, Marine, with 12 lashes for refusing to do his duty when order'd by the Boatswain's Mate and Serjeant of Marines. At Noon Latitude per Observation 37 degrees 35 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 11 degrees 34 minutes West; Course and distance run since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 50 Miles.
Sunday, 8th. Gentle breezes from the North-West and North. In the P.M. found the Variation to be 13 degrees 56 minutes East. At Noon Latitude in per Observation 38 degrees 0 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 13 degrees 2 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 74 Miles.
Monday, 9th. Gentle breezes at North-West; pleasant weather and a Smooth Sea. In the A.M. saw a Tropic Bird, which, I believe, is uncommon in such high Latitudes. At Noon Latitude observ'd 38 degrees 29 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 14 degrees 45 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 86 Miles.
Tuesday, 10th. Gentle breezes at North-West by North, and clear settled weather. In the A.M. found the Variation, by the Amplitude, to be 11 degrees 25 minutes East, and by Azimuth 11 degrees 20 minutes. At Noon the observed Latitude was 38 degrees 51 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Farewell 16 degrees 45 minutes; Longitude in 202 degrees 43 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 76 degrees 45 minutes West, 96 Miles.
Wednesday, 11th. Gentle breezes from the North-West, and pleasant weather, with some few showers of rain. In the A.M. found the Variation to be 13 degrees 48 minutes East, which is 2 1/2 degrees more than it was yesterday, altho' I should have expected to have found it less, for the observations were equally good. At Noon Latitude in 39 degrees 7 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 17 degrees 23 minutes; and Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 62 degrees West, 34 Miles.
Thursday, 12th. Calm, with now and then light Airs from the North-East and North-West; cloudy weather, but remarkably warm, an d so it hath been for some days past. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 39 degrees 11 minutes, and Longitude from Cape Farewell 17 degrees 35 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 66 degrees West, 10 Miles.
Friday, 13th. Light Airs next to a Calm, with Clear pleasant weather; what little wind we had was from the North-West quarter. In the Course of this day found the Variation to be 12 degrees 27 minutes East, being at Noon, by observation, in the Latitude of 39 degrees 23 minutes South, and Longitude 204 degrees 2 minutes West; Course and distance since Yesterday noon South 62 degrees West, 26 Miles, and Longitude made from Cape Farewell 18 degrees 4 minutes West.
Saturday, 14th. Calm serene weather, with sometimes light Airs from the Northward. At sun set found the Variation to be 11 degrees 28 minutes East, and in the Morning to be 11 degrees 30 minutes East. The Spritsail Topsail being wore to rags, it was condemn'd as not fit for its proper use, and Converted to repair the 2 Top Gallant Sails, they being of themselves so bad as not to be worth the Expence of new Canvas, but with the help of this sail may be made to last some time longer. At Noon Latitude in 39 degrees 25 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 18 degrees 21 minutes West; Course and distance since Yesterday noon South 18 degrees West, 13 Miles.
Sunday, 15th. In the P.M. had light Airs at North, which in the A.M. increased to a fresh Gale, with which we made the best of our way to the Westward, and by noon had run since yesterday upon a South 86 degrees 15 minutes West Course, 79 Miles. Latitude in, by Observation, 39 degrees 30 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Farewell 20 degrees 2 minutes West. Some flying fish seen this day.
Monday, 16th. Fresh Gales at North-North-West, with Cloudy, hazey weather. In the P.M. saw an Egg Bird, and yesterday a Gannet was seen; these are Birds that we reckon never to go far from land. We kept the lead going all night, but found no soundings with 100 and 130 fathoms line. At noon we were in the Latitude of 39 degrees 40 minutes South, and had made 22 degrees 2 minutes of Longitude from Cape Farewell; course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon South 82 degrees West, 108 Miles.
Tuesday, 17th. At 2 p.m. the wind came to West-South-West, at which time we Tack'd and stood to the North-West. Before 5 o'Clock we were obliged to close reef our Topsails, having a Strong gale, with very heavy squalls; about this time a Small land bird was seen to pearch upon the rigging. We sounded, but had no ground with 120 fathoms of line. At 8 o'Clock we wore and stood to the Southward until 12 at Night, then wore and stood to the North-West until 4 a.m., when we again stood to the Southward, having a fresh Gale at West-South-West, attended with Squalls and dark hazey unsettled weather until 9; at which time it fell little wind, and the weather soon after Clear'd up, which, a little after 11, gave us an Opportunity of taking several observations of the Sun and Moon, t he Mean result of which gave 207 degrees 56 minutes West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich. From these observations the Longitude of the Ship at Noon was 207 degrees 58 minutes, and by the Log 208 degrees 20 minutes, the difference being only 22 minutes; and this Error may as well be in the one as the other. Our Latitude at Noon was 39 degrees 36 minutes South, the Longitude made from Cape Farewell 22 degrees 22 minutes West.
Wednesday, 18th. Winds Southerly, a hard gale, with heavy squalls, attended with Showers of rain and a great Sea from the same Quarter. At 3 p.m. Close reeft the Topsails, handed the Main and Mizen Topsail, and got down Top Gallant Yards. At 6 the Gale increased to such a height as to oblige us to take in the Foretopsail and Mainsail, and to run under the Foresail and Mizen all night; Sounding every 2 hours, but found no ground with 120 fathoms. At 6 a.m. set the Mainsail, and soon after the Foretopsail, and before Noon the Maintopsail, both close reeft. At Noon our Latitude by observation was 38 degrees 45 minutes South, Longitude from Cape Farewell 23 degrees 43 minutes West; and Course and distance run since Yesterday noon North 51 degrees West, 82 Miles. Last night we saw a Port Egmont Hen, and this morning 2 More, a Pintado bird, several Albetrosses, and black sheer Waters. The first of these birds are Certain signs of the nearness of land; indeed we cannot be far from it. By our Longitude we are a degree to the Westward of the East side of Van Diemen's Land, according to Tasman, the first discoverer's, Longitude of it, who could not err much in so short a run as from this land to New Zeland; and by our Latitude we could not be above 50 or 55 Leagues to the Northward of the place where he took his departure from.