1. (See p. xiii.) The painters of the portraits given in this volume are:

Sales (E.). ?One of the many French émigrés befriended, at Ratisbon, by the Hügels;

Daffinger (Moritz Michel). A Viennese portrait painter, especially famous for his miniatures on ivory. b. Vienna, Jan. 25, 1790, d. Aug. 22, 1849;

Raffet (Denis Auguste Marie). A versatile French artist, by predilection a lithographer. His patron, Prince Anatole de Demidoff enabled him to undertake extended journeys through Europe and in Western Asia, where he accumulated the material for a series of valuable lithographic plates. Raffet, after 1849, lived at Florence and at San Donato. b. Paris 1804, d. Genoa 1860;

Neugebauer (Joseph). A Viennese painter of historical pictures and still life b. Vienna 1810.

Richmond (Thomas). b. London, Sept. 16, 1802, d. Nov. 13, 1874. See Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, London, 1895 ; and Chaplin's Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings, New York, 1887. (A. v. H.)

2. (See p. xvi.) I find the following reference to the death of my Aunt Maria in Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Letters to a Friend": "Ratisbon, 10 Sept. 1829. At the inn where I was staying, a sad event occurred. I was informed on my arrival that a Fräulein von Hügel lay dangerously ill in the house, and in the morning when I rose she was dead. She died at six. She was a daughter of the Baron von Hügel who was Envoy to the Reichstag but who had died many years ago. She may have been some thirty years old. I had known her at Vienna. She was beautiful, most loveable, and had a very fine voice combined with a great gift for music. She had been at Carlsbad with her mother, her younger sister, and a brother, who is a Captain in the Austrian service, and she died on her homeward journey. Such a death must have much bitterness." Briefe Wilhelm von Humboldt's an eine Freudin. 4th ed. Leipzig, 1874, page 317. (A. v. H.)

3. (See p. 6.) My father had a very keen taste for philology and a great gift for languages. His knowledge of his own language and of French was complete. He spoke Italian, Spanish, and English, with fluency and grace, and was conversant with many other European languages. He was a good classical scholar, and knew not a little of several ancient and modern Oriental languages. I well remember in Brussels—in 1866 or 1867—seeing him at his table writing in Chinese characters. He told me that since his visit to Canton in 1835, he had continued in leisure moments to practise what he had then learned of Chinese from a Mandarin, with whom he had ever since kept up a friendly correspondence.

(A. v. H.)

4. (See p. 6.) My father received his three names from his godfather Carl Alexander Anselm, the reigning Prince of Thurn and Taxis, who held the position of Commissarius of the Reichstag. (A. v. H.)

5. (See p. 6.) The Almanach der kaiserlichen Akademie (1871, p. 115) gives 1794, Fullerton, In Memoriam, 1795, and Wurzbach's Biographisches Lexicon, 1796, as the date of Charles von Hügel's birth, but I have ascertained that 1795 is the correct date. (Wiesner.)

6. (See pp. 6, 33.) In 1663 the historical German Reichstag became a permanent Ambassadorial Congress (Gesandtencongress), at which the states of the Empire were represented under various titles: thus Kurmainz sent a Reichsdirectorialgesandter, Brandenburg a Geheimer Rath.

A Chief-Commissioner (Principal Commissär), who had to be a member of the great nobility, was appointed by the Emperor, as well as the Co-Commissioner (Concommissär) on whom all the practical work of the sessions devolved. These two officials formed, jointly, the Imperial Reichstag Commission (Kaiserliche Reichstagcommission), under which was the Chancellory of the Commission (Commissionkanzlei) consisting of a Director and Legation-Secretaries. (A. v. H.)

7. (See p. 6.) Susanna, daughter of Franz, Hofrath von Holthof, Physician to the Elector of Mayence, born Dec. 6, 1768, died May 27, 1837. (Wiesner.)

8. (See pp. xvi, 8.) The following note, which is prefixed to "A Visit to the Himalayas and Cashmere" (a communication sent by my father in 1836 to the Royal Geographical Society of London), gives the itinerary of the journey in his own words.

"Baron Hügel of Vienna, well known as an eminent naturalist, having just returned to this country, after an absence from Europe of six years, chiefly spent in India, has communicated the following account of a journey from the river Sutlej at Bilaspúr, through the lower range of the Himmáleh to Kashmir, from thence to the highest part of the Tibet Panjáhl, then to the Attock and back through the Panjáb to Lud'yana, recrossing the Sutlej; accompanied by a letter, tracing his route during his five years' travels, from which a slight extract is subjoined."

"I left Toulon in May, 1831, visited parts of Greece, Cyprus, Latakia, Syria, and Baalbek; Alexandria, Cairo, and Egypt, to the confines of Nubia; descended the Nile to Ghizeh; crossed to Cosseir, and embarked in the steamer for Bombay, where I arrived in the Spring of 1832. In India I visited Puna, Aurungabad, Ellora, Sultara, Bijapnúr, Belgám, Goa, Darwar, Bellari, Bangalore, Seringapatam, the Nilgheries, Kochin, Cape Komorin, Palamcotta, and by Ramisaram to Manár in Ceylon. In this island I visited both the East and West Coasts, the highest point of Petradallegalla, near Nur Ellia, and the little known interior and the stupendous monuments of the religion of Buddha. Returning to the Coast of Coromandel, I reached Madras in September 1833, where I embarked in his Britannic Majesty's ship 'Alligator,' Captain Lambert, and visited the Easter Islands, the Friendly and Society Islands, Singhapúr, Sumatra, and Java; the Swan River, King George’s Sound, and Sydney in Australia; Van Diemen's Land, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Manila, and reached Canton in the beginning of 1835. Thence to Madras and Calcutta, by steam to Benares, Luknau, Allahabad, Agra, Bhurtpúr, Delhi; thence to Massúri and Simlah; and after a stay of three months in the British Himmaléh, I crossed the Sutlej at Bilaspúr to Kashmir, Attock; recrossed the Sutlej at Lud'yana, returned to Delhi; thence to Ajmeer, Chittoor, Udipoor, Mount Aboo, Ahmedabad, Surat, and reached Bombay in May 1836." Journal R. G. S., Vol. IV, p. 343. (A. v. H.)

9. (See p. 10.) Elizabeth, only child of General (Francis) Farquharson, of the Bombay Army, a son of the Rev. Robert Farquharson of Allargue, and of Margaret Outram (a sister of Sir James Outram), born at Surat, India. Oct. 22, 1831. (A. v. H.)

10. (See p. 12.) According to Fenzl, there were in Austria, in the year 1780, no conservatories other than those of the royal residence of Schönbrunn (Darstellung der Enstehens und Wirkens der k. k. Gartenbaugesellschaft in Wein 1864.). The earliest of these houses, as the Director of the Royal Gardens, Herr Umlauf, informs me, were erected in 1754, under the direction of the celebrated Dutch cultivator Steckhoven, who was summoned to Austria at the suggestion of Van Swietens. (Wiesner.)

11. (See p. 13.) The most prominent exhibitions were those of pelargoniums by Jakola Klier and Hofrath Kernhofer, and of pinks and carnations by the painter Hirschler and Regierungsrath Krebner. These exhibitions in the year 1827 preceded the first large Vienna flower exhibition, which was held May 12, 1827, in the Schwartzenberg Garden on the Rennweg (Geschicte der Gartenbaugesellschaft) (Wiesner.)

12. (See p. 15.) Johann Heller was the son-in-law of Ludwig Abel senior, who for a considerable period was head-gardener to Hügel: but he was not, as has often been stated, the founder of the well-known family of gardeners of that name, as he came himself—I learn this from Herr Friedrich Abel, Director of the k. k. Gartenbaugesellschaft of Vienna—from a gardener family. A son of Heller (Dr Karl Bartholomäus Heller), who became known through his travels in Mexico, was afterwards Professor at the Vienna Theresianum. I learn from Director Friedrich Abel, that the means for these travels were found by Hügel, who was always at pains to help and support capable and trustworthy persons. (W.)

13. (See p. 16.) Professor Dr Ladislaus Čelakowský of Prague, informs me that the Roezl Monument which stands in the Karlsplatz of Prague was erected Sept. 15, 1897, and was formally made over to the care of the city on Sept. 28, 1898. This full-length statue represents Roezl holding a book in his right hand and an orchid in his left. It was modelled by Zoula, one of the pupils of the sculptor Myselbeck, and was erected by the Roezl Gardeners' Union. (Wiesner.)

14. (See p. 18.) When Hügel left Vienna in 1849 to take up his residence as Ambassador in Florence, his nursery passed into the hands of Hoibrenk, and the pleasure-grounds were purchased by Princess Wrede. The latter were subsequently taken over by the Duke of Brunswick, and, on account of their beauty, continued to enjoy a great renown. After his death the gardens came into the possession of the Duke of Cumberland, who, however, immediately sold them. Of the Hügel Gardens but one portion, the property of Doctor Ehrenfeld, is still preserved, a considerable part of the estate having been covered with houses. The street-names, in Hietzing, of Hügel Road and Brunswick Road recall the memory of the ancient, now much diminished, glories of Hügel's creation. (Wiesner.)

15. (See p. 24.) Hofrath Professor Dr Karabaczek, Director of the Hofbibliothek, has kindly furnished me with an inventory of all the presents given to the Library by Baron von Hügel. Unfortunately space prevents me from giving details about this rich collection. The benefaction includes numerous books and manuscripts in the most diverse Oriental languages, including Persian, Chinese, Cinghalese, Burmese, Sanskrit, Tagal, together with inscriptions, coats-of-arms, seals, pictures, and portraits, from the countries which he had visited. In the exhibition of miniatures, at present [1901] the admiration of visitors to the Royal Library, there are valuable objects from Hügel's Collection. (Wiesner.)

Professor Dr Julius Wiesner has kindly sent me the above-mentioned list, from which I gather that my father’s donations to the Library of the Hofburg are to be found under the following numbers: 7, 74—79, 81—107, 109—121, 129, 237, 238, 322, 334, 343, 390, 395, 498, 499, 502, 507, 526, 528, 534, 537—546, 579, 625, 650—653, 657, 671—677, 681—691, 716, 778 (1—56), 812—824, 877, 879. (A. v. H.)

16. (See p. 26.) In 1845 Hügel's great work on Cashmere was translated, in an abridged form, into English, by Major T. B. Jervis, F.R.S., and published, as appears on the title page, "under the patronage of the Honourable the Court of Directors of the East India Company." The translator speaks of the great respect with which Hügel was regarded in England as a writer on geographical questions. (Wiesner.)

A review of Kaschmir will be found in the Royal Geographical Society’s Journal Vol. 10, p. 562. (A. v. H.)

17. (See p. 27.) Numerous species of animals and plants, most of them discovered by Hügel, were named after him; and some new genera of plants were dedicated to him by prominent botanists. Thus Reichenbach, in 1828, named a genus of umbelliferoua plants after him, and George Bentham in 1830, a polemonium genus; but as, in botanical nomenclature, each genus has to be distinguished by an individual name, the last of these two Hügelia genera—with which the genus now called Gilia nearly

coincides—could not stand. For similar reasons also, the genus Hügelia created in 1840, by Robert Brown, has had to find its place among synonyms. (Wiesner.)

18. (See pp. 30, 46.) Extract from the Preface to Hügel’s Der Stille Ocean written at Florence, November 4, 1858: "Das langsame Voranschreiten eines Werkes[1], dessen Herausgabe von so vielen vereinten Kräften abhängig gemacht war, und welches dennoch nur einen kleinen Theil des grossen Ganzen meiner Reise betraf, hatte mich bewogen, den ursprünglichen Plan für die Herausgabe meiner sämmtlichen Wanderungen durch die Welt aufzugeben, und ich war eben damit beschäftigt, eine einfachere Form dafür zu wählen, als die Ereignisse des Jahres 1848 meinem Leben eine andere Richtung gaben.

"Der Augenblick schien mir in der That damals zu ernst, um zu erlauben, dass sich irgend eine geistige Befähigung oder körperliche Kraft, von welcher Grösse oder Geringfügigkeit sie sei, dem öffentlichen Dienste entziehe; es handelte sich darum einen Damm gegen die Auf lösung der Gesellschaft zu bilden, das Zusammenbrechen alles Grossen und Edlen durch Jahrhunderte gebildeten und geheiligten zu verhindern das ist: dem Rechte und Ordnung, mit einem Worte dem Kaiser zu dienen. Diese Erfüllung einer Pflicht liess mich meinem Eigenthume bei Wien, der nach meiner Neigung geschaffenen Villa Lebewohl sagen. Dort hatte ich gehofft, umgeben von den grossen Erinnerungen meines vielbewegten Lebens und von den reizenden Zeugen meiner Wanderungen, den heimgebrachten Pflanzen, meine Tage in ruhiger Arbeit zu beschliessen. Allein es galt aufs Neue handelnd aufzutreten, meine Erfahrungen auf dem praktischen Felde zu verwerthen und statt in Zurückgezogenheit die verschiedenen Zweige meines Wissens im ernsten Studium auszubilden, neuerdings in die Welt der Geschäfte zurückzukehren, die ich seit 25 Jahren verlassen hatte.

"Dass nun die letzten zehn Jahre für den österreichischen Soldaten und Diplomaten in Italien keine Zeit der Musse für freie Speculation des Geistes gewesen ist, bedarf wohl keiner Auseinandersetzung, und es war wohl mir, eben so wenig wie Andern in meiner Lage, Zeit oder Neigung geblieben, die Erlebnisse lang verflossener Jahre zu besprechen; dazu war die Gegenwart zu mächtig, die Vergangenheit zu fern." (A. v. H.)

19. (See p. xvii.) In diplomacy my father had the offer of the Embassies at Constantinople and at St Petersburg, but want of private means with which to meet the heavy expenses of these posts prevented him from accepting either of them. It is interesting to remember that a distinctly scientific, instead of a diplomatic, turn might have been given to this later half of my father's life; for it was in contemplation after his return from his travels to entrust to his care the Directorship of the Royal Museums and Gardens of Vienna. It was only the outbreak of the revolution in 1848 which put an end for him to the prospect of this brilliant scientific position. See Hamilton, p. 68. (A. v. H.)


  1. Kaschmir, the first volume of which appeared in 1840, and the fourth and last in December 1844. A. v. H.