Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Hofer, Andreas
HOFER, ANDREAS (huh'fer), a Tyrolese patriot; born in St. Leonard, in the valley of Passeyr, in 1767. When the Tyrol, long a part of the Austrian dominions, was given by the treaty of Presburg to the King of Bavaria, then the ally of Napoleon, the Tyrolese revolted, and Andreas Hofer became their leader. Within a week from the outbreak of the insurrection, early in April, 1809, the Bavarian forces were everywhere defeated and the Tyrol freed. Three French armies then invaded the province, and after temporary success on their part, Hofer won the victory of Innspruck, and again freed his country. By the armistice of Znaim, agreed to after the victory of Napoleon at Wagram, the Austrians were compelled to quit the Tyrol. A second French invasion ended in defeat, and the people were a third time freed. For a few weeks Hofer was, virtually, sovereign of his country; but on the renewed invasion of French and Bavarians, he was betrayed to his enemies, condemned by a court-martial at Mantua, and shot Feb. 20, 1810.