Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography/Attaleia

ATTALEIA or ATTALIA (Άττάλεια, Άτταλία: Eth. Άτταλεύα). 1. A city of Pamphylia. After mentioning Phaselis in Lycia, Strabo mentions Olbia as the first town in Pamphylia, then the river Catarrhactes, and then Attalia, a city founded by Attalus II. Philadelphus, king of Pergamum. Accordingly he places the Catarrhactes west of Attalia. Ptolemy mentions Phaselis, Olbia, and Attaleia, and then the Catarrhactes. Pliny mentions Olbia, but not Attalia (v. 27), though he mentions the Catarrhactes. The modern town of Adalia, now the largest place on the south coast of Asia Minor, corresponds in name to Attalia; but it is west of the Catarrhactes, now the Duden Su. Strabo describes the Catarrhactes as falling from a high rock, and the noise of the cataract was heard to a distance. It is generally assumed that Strabo means that it falls over a rock into the sea; but he does not say so, though this may be his meaning. Beaufort (Karamania, p. 135) observes, that on the west side of the town "there are only two small rivers, both of

which glide quietly into the sea through the sandy beach, and can by no means answer the description of the Catarrhactes." But there are many small rivulets which turn the mills near Adalia, and rush directly over the cliff into the sea; and if these rivulets were united, they would form a large body of water. (Beaufort.) The water of these streams is full of calcareous particles, and near some of the mouths stalactites were observed. It is very probable, then, that the lower course of this river may have undergone great changes since Strabo's time, and these changes are still going on. D'Anville considered Adalia to represent Olbia, and Attalia to be further east at a place called Laara and he has been followed by others in identifying Adalia and Olbia; but this erroneous opinion is founded entirely on the order of the names in Strabo, who is contradicted in this matter by Ptolemy and the Stadiasmus. Spratt and his associates visited Adalia. The houses and walls contain many fragments of sculpture and columns: the cemeteries which are outside of the city also contain marble fragments and columns. The style of all the remains, it is said, is invariably Roman. Fourteen inscriptions were found, but not one of them contains the name of the place. As Adalia is now the chief port of the south coast of Asia Minor, it is probable that it was so in former times; and it is an excellent site for a city. Paul and Barnabas after leaving Perga went to Attalia, "and thence sailed to Antioch." (Acts, xiv. 25.) The church of Attalia was afterwards an episcopal see. There are imperial coins of Attalia, with the epigraph Άτταλεων.

Leake, who fixes Attalia at Adalia supposed that Olbia might be found in the plain which extends from Adalia to the foot of Solyma; and it ought to be found here, according to Strabo*s authority. About 3| miles west of Adalia, near the coast, there are the remains of an ancient city, on an elevated flat with three precipitous sides, one side of which is bounded by the Arab Su. This agrees with Strabo's description of Olbia as a "great fbrt." The country between these ruins and Adalia is a rocky tract, incapable of cultivation, but the country west of them to the mountains of Solyma, is very fertile. This, as it is well observed in Spratt's Lycia (vol i.p.2 17), will explain Stephanus (s. v. Όλβία), who finds fault with Philo for saying that Olbia belongs to Pamphylia: he adds, "it is not in Pamphylia, but in the land of the Solymi;" and his remark is conformable to the physical character of the country. He says, also, that the true name is Olba. Mannert's conjecture of Olbia and Attalia being the same place, cannot be admitted. Strabo, in an obscure passage (p. 667), speaks of Corycus and Attalia together. Leake (Asia Minor, p. 192) interprets Strabo, by comparing with his text Stephanus (s. v. Άττάλεια) and Suidas (s. v. Κωρυκαίος), to mean that Attalus fixed Attalia near a small town called Corycus, and that he inclosed Corycus and the new settlement within the same walls. This does not appear to be exactly Strabo's meaning; but Corycus was at last near Attalia, and received a colony and was fortified when Attalia was built.

2. A city of Lydia, originally named Agroeira or Alloeira. (Steph. s. v. Άττάλεια) There is a place called Adala on the river Hermus, but Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. i. p. 143) found no ancient remains there. [Attea.] [ G. L. ]