Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Chang Ying

CHANG Ying 張英 (T. 敦復, H. 樂圃), Jan. 30, 1638–1708, Oct. 30, official and writer, was a native of T'ung-ch'êng, Anhwei. A chin-shih of 1667, he became a bachelor in the Hanlin Academy (1672) and later a compiler. In 1673 he was ordered to serve as a diarist. As such he not only recorded the acts and sayings of the Emperor, but also assisted Hsiung Tz'ŭ-li [q. v.] to expound the classics to him. At this period in his reign the Emperor often went to the Imperial Hunting Park, Nan-yüan 南苑 south of Peking, or to the hills west, north and east of the city. On these journeys Chang Ying and his colleagues usually accompanied him. In 1677 Chang, then an expositor of the Hanlin Academy, was selected by the emperor to serve in the newly created office known as Nan shu-fang 南書房, or Imperial Study. Another scholar similarly honored was Kao Shih-ch'i [q. v.]. These two scholars executed most of the routine literary tasks of the emperor—composing ceremonial poems and edicts of certain kinds, and writing on scrolls and fans destined as gifts to officials. In the performance of these duties they often stayed with the emperor until late at night, and for their convenience they were each given a residence near the Palace. The Nan shu-fang existed till the close of the dynasty and many officials of note served in it at one time or another in their careers. Only very talented members of the Hanlin Academy were selected and the choice was often made by the emperor personally. Because of their easy access to the throne these scholars were naturally the recipients of many favors.

In 1686 Chang Ying was given the concurrent post of chancellor of the Hanlin Academy. Early in 1687 he was made junior vice-president of the Board of War and in the same year he became senior vice-president of the Board of Ceremonies. Early in 1690 he was first promoted to the post of president of the Board of Works, and then was transferred to the Board of Ceremonies. But later in the same year the emperor found mistakes in the draft of an epitaph eulogizing T'ung Kuo-kang [q. v.] for giving his life in the war against Galdan [q. v.]. Although the epitaph was written by Chang's subordinate—a compiler in the Hanlin Academy—Chang himself was held responsible. He was deprived of his ranks, being permitted to retain only the chancellorship of the Hanlin Academy. In 1692 he was again made president of the Board of Ceremonies. Finally, in December 1699, he was made a Grand Secretary. Nevertheless, he longed for a life of tranquility and repeatedly requested leave to retire—a request that was granted in 1701. He devoted the remaining seven years of his life to the planting of trees, the writing of poetry, and the editing of his own collected works. He was canonized as Wên-tuan 文端. In 1722, when Emperor Shih-tsung ascended the throne, Chang was given the posthumous title of Grand Tutor to the Heir Apparent. Eight years later his name was entered in the Temple of Eminent Statesmen; and when Emperor Kao-tsung ascended the throne, in 1735, his title was raised to that of Grand Tutor. It seems clear, however, that these posthumous honors were conferred on him chiefly in recognition of the services of his son, Chang T'ing-yü [q. v.].

During his life as an official Chang Ying served as one of the director-generals for the compilation of several official works, among them the encyclopaedia, Yüan-chien lei-han (see under Wang Shih-chên). His collected works, entitled Chang Wên-tuan kung chi (公集), 46 chüan, were copied into the Ssŭ-k'u ch'üan-shu (see under Chi Yün). The printed edition of his collected works, entitled Chang Wên-tuan kung ch'üan-shu (全書), contains the following titles: 存誠堂應制詩 Ts'un-ch'êng t'ang ying chih shih (poems written in the style preferred at Court), 5 chüan; Ts'un-ch'êng t'ang shih-chi 詩集 (poems), 25 chüan; 篤素堂詩集 Tu-su t'ang shih-chi (poems), 7 chüan; and Tu-su t'ang wên-chi (文集, short articles in prose), 16 chüan. The blocks for printing this collection were destroyed in the 1850's when the Taiping Rebellion ravaged Anhwei, but the entire collection was reprinted in 1897 by a descendant. About this time also were printed two works by Chang on the classics, entitled: 易經衷論 I-ching chung-lun, 2 chüan; and Shu-ching (書經) chung-lun, 4 chüan. In the Tu-su t'ang wên-chi appears an account of Emperor Shêng-tsu's second tour to South China (1689) and a collection of miscellaneous notes.

Chang Ying's eldest son, Chang T'ing-tsan 張廷瓚 (T. 卣臣, H. 隨齋, 1655–1702), became a chin-shih in 1679, entering the Hanlin Academy with the same rank that his father had achieved twelve years previously. His second son, Chang T'ing-yü, who became a chin-shih and Hanlin bachelor in 1700, was highly trusted by three emperors. Two other sons, Chang T'ing-lu 張廷璐 (T. 寶臣, H. 葯齋, 1675-1715), and Chang T'ing-chüan 張廷瑑 (T. 桓臣, H. 思齋, 1681–1764), also entered the Academy. It is noteworthy that in addition to Chang Ying himself and his four above mentioned sons, four grandsons and one great-grandson received this distinction.


[1/273/4a; 3/9/29a; 74/1a, 6b; Chang Wên-tuan kung chi (1897) of which the section, entitled Ts'un-ch'êng t'ang shih-chi 4/14b, gives date of birth; T'oung Pao (1924), p. 365; 張氏宗譜 Chang-shih tsung-p'u (1890), 4/12b passim.]

Fang Chao-ying