3633492Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, Volume 1 — Chang YungFang Chao-ying

CHANG Yung 張勇 (T. 非熊), 1616–1684, general, was a native of Hsien-ning, Shensi. He served under the Ming dynasty as colonel, but surrendered in 1645 to the Manchu prince, Ajige [q. v.], at Kiukiang, Kiangsi. Given the lower rank of major, he served in the army under Mêng Ch'iao-fang [q. v.], governor-general of Shensi. He showed his bravery in many battles, was commended by Mêng, and was given in 1653 the minor hereditary rank of Ch'ing-ch'ê tu-yü of the third class. In 1658 he served under Hung Ch'êng-ch'ou [q. v.] as a brigade-general in the conquest of Yunnan, and by 1661 was made provincial commander-in-chief of that province. Transferred to Kansu in 1663, he guarded the northwestern borders from being invaded by the Mongols, the Eleuths, and the aborigines of Kokonor, and commanded their respect. He refused to join Wu San-kuei [q. v.] in the rebellion of 1673–81, and fought against Wang Fu-ch'ên [q. v.] who joined Wu in 1674. For this act of loyalty he was highly honored by the Manchu Court at Peking. In 1675 he was made General Ching-ni (靖逆將軍), given the hereditary rank of Marquis Ching-ni, and invested with power to control the officials of the whole province of Kansu. In 1676 his rank was raised to marquis of the first class with the honorary title of Junior Tutor and Grand Preceptor of the Heir Apparent. After his death (1684) he was given the posthumous rank of Junior Preceptor. He was canonized as Hsiang-chuang 襄壯.

Chang Yung was a powerful military leader in his day who won many battles in spite of the handicap of a disabled right foot. Several generals who later became powerful, such as Chao Liang-tung [q. v.], rose to eminence because of his help. The Khoshotes and aborigines of Kokonor feared him, and when they were pressed eastward by Galdan [q. v.] in 1678 they were kept away from the borders of Kansu by Chang Yung. Later emperors did honor to his memory: in 1732 Emperor Shih-tsung entered his name in the Temple of Eminent Statesmen and in 1767 the rights of perpetual inheritance were added to his hereditary rank.

[1/261/1a; 2/78/31a; 3/273/31a; P'ing-ting San-ni fang-lüeh (see under Han T'an); P'ing-ting Shuo-mo fang-lüeh (see under Chang Yü-shu).]

Fang Chao-ying