Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Fu-ch'üan

FU-ch'üan 福全, Sept. 6, 1653–1703, Aug. 8, was the second son of Emperor Shih-tsu (Fu-lin, q.v.). His mother, daughter of the chieftain of the Donggo clan, was an imperial concubine of the third rank (庶妃 shu-fei) when her son was born. In 1667 Fu-ch'üan was given the rank of Prince Yü (裕親王 Yü Ch'in-wang) by his half-brother, Emperor Sheng-tsu (Hsüan-yeh, q.v.), who had succeeded to the throne six years before. In 1674 the emperor conferred on Fu-ch'üan's mother the title Huang-fu Ning-chüeh Fei 皇父寧慤妃.

News reached Peking in 1690 that Galdan [q. v.], who with his Eleuth 厄魯特 subjects had been harassing the Khalkas 喀爾喀of Outer Mongolia for two years, was now heading southward from Kulun Nor (Lake Hu-lun 呼倫) along the Khalka River into the pasturage of the Ujumucin 烏珠穆沁 tribe and had already won a victory, on July 26, 1690, over Manchu and Mongolian outposts south of the Seyelki 索岳爾濟 mountains. Galdan pretended that his advance southward was only for the purpose of avenging himself on the Tushetu Khan and the Mongolian Lama (see under Galdan) who were then given refuge in China. Eut Emperor Shêng-tsu, having had long experience with Galdan's shrewdness, ambition, and treachery, prepared for action. On August 6, 1690, he gave Fu-ch'üan the rank of Fu-yüan Ta Chiang-chün 撫遠大將軍 (Generalissimo for the Pacification of Distant Lands) with the em­peror's eldest son, Yin-t'i [禔, q. v.], as his assistant; and sent them with an army through the pass, Ku-pei-k'ou 古北口. The Emperor's younger brother, Ch'ang-ning [q. v.], was ordered at the same time to lead another army through Hsi-fêng-k'ou 喜峯口. Many experienced princes and generals were sent with the two commanders to assist in the operations. The Emperor's plan was to hold the Eleuths where they were by pretending to negotiate for peace while he concentrated troops for a crushing defeat of the invaders. He himself crossed the Great Wall with the intention of directing the campaign, but was compelled by a slight illness to return.

Fu-ch'üan started from Peking on August 10 while Galdan was pushing south, and by September 3 they met near the Ulan-butung Hills 烏蘭布通 (in Ch'ih-fêng 赤峯, Jehol). About two o'clock in the afternoon of that day the Manchus opened fire. Despite the superior artillery of the Manchus, the Eleuths held their position across a great marsh, lining up their camels as a rampart behind which they took shelter. In the evening Duke T'ung Kuo-kang [q. v.] was killed by musket fire. According to the French Jesuit, Jean F. Gerbillon (see under Songgotu), an eye-witness, the fighting ceased at night-fall, each party retiring to its camp. But Fu-ch'uan reported it as a great victory. Unsuccessful in further operations, he was compelled in the next few days to agree to a truce (arranged by a high lama) by which Galdan might retreat unmolested after taking an oath before his war-god that he would never invade the Emperor's territory again. On hearing of the truce the Emperor and the council of princes and high officials at Peking, who had been relying on Fu-ch'üan's earlier report of victory, were infuriated, pointing out that Galdan's oath was worthless. As the latter had already gone, the Emperor ordered Fu-ch'üan to stay at his post, while he sent an envoy in pursuit of Galdan to make sure that he was moving westward. After a satisfactory report had been received from Galdan Fu-ch'üan was recalled. Reaching the capital on December 22 he and the other generals were ordered to wait outside the city while a court-martial was held. He was punished by dismissal from the council of princes and high officials, a fine of three years' salary, and loss of the command over three companies (佐領 tso-ling) of Bannermen. The other officers were degraded or fined.

Six years later (1696) when Emperor Shêngtsu personally led an expedition against Galdan, Fu-ch'uan took part in the campaign, but except for this, the rest of his life was spent tranquilly at his home on the present site known as T'ai-chi ch'ang 台基廠 in the Legation Quarter, Peking. He entertained many a man of literary fame in his garden, known as Mu-kêng yüan 目耕園. He died in 1703, loaded with honors by his brother, the Emperor, and was given the posthumous name Hsien 憲. His eldest son, Pao-t'ai 保泰, who in the previous year had been made his heir (世子 shih-tzŭ), succeeded him as the second Prince Yü, and was ordered to guard Yin-t'i, his cousin, when the latter was placed in confinement. Pao-t'ai was deprived of all rank by the next emperor, Shih-tsung, in 1724, for complicity with Yin-ssŭ [q. v.]. The third prince, Kuang-ning 廣寧, nephew of Pao-t'ai, held his title for less than two years, being deprived of it on the charge of disrespect to the Emperor in the latter's presence. The hereditary rank then fell on Kuang-lu 廣禄 after whose death in 1785 the rank was successively reduced according to the written law of the Imperial House.

[1/225/6a; Tung-hua lu, K'ang-hsi 29: 7.8.9; Howorth, History of the Mongols (1876) part I, pp. 628–9; Ch'ing Huang-shih ssŭ-p'u (see under Fu-lung-an) 2/9b; 3/11a; 承德府志 Ch'êng-lê-fu chih (1887) 17/1a; 順天府志 Shun-t'ien-fu chih (1884) 13/14a; Gerbillon in J. B. Du Halde, Description de L'Empire de la Chine et de la Tartare Chinoise (1736) IV, pp. 60–61; Tung-hua lu, Yung-chêng 2:10.12; P'ing-ting Shuo-mo fang-lüeh (see under Chang Yü-shu); Hsi-chêng chi-lüeh (see under Sun Ssŭ-k'o).]

Fang Chao-ying