Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Jangtai

JANGTAI 彰泰, 1636–1690, general, was a member of the Imperial Family. He was a great-grandson of Nurhaci [q. v.], a grandson of Abatai [q. v.], and a son of Bohoto (see under Abatai). After Bohoto died (1648) Jangtai inherited the reduced rank of a prince of the fifth degree which, however, was soon raised one degree to beise 貝子. In 1674, when Shang-shan 尚善 (beile, or prince of the third degree, d. 1678), a grandson of Šurhaci [q. v.], was made commander-in-chief of the armies sent to Hunan to suppress the rebellion of Wu San-kuei [q. v.], Jangtai was appointed assistant commander. While in Hupeh Jangtai and Shang-shan were several times reprimanded for their inactivity and were urged to advance southward on Changsha. In 1676 they reported a naval victory on Lake Tung-t'ing, but were unable to dislodge Wu's men from northern Hunan.

In 1678 Shang-shan died and Cani 察尼 (d. 1688, posthumous name 恪僖, fourth son of Dodo, q.v.) succeeded to the rank of commander-in-chief. Jangtai was given the title of Fu-yüan Chiang-chün 撫遠將軍. In 1679 when Wu's forces in Hunan collapsed, Jangtai recovered several cities in northern Hunan while his uncle, Yolo [q. v.], took Changsha; and a cousin, Labu [q. v.], took Hengchow. Late in 1679, after they had joined forces at Hengchow, Yolo was recalled to Peking while Jangtai succeeded him as commander-in-chief with the title Ting-yüan p'ing-k'ou Ta Chiang-chün (see under Yolo). After conquering Hunan, Jangtai and Ts'ai Yü-jung [q. v.] together advanced on Kweichow (1680).

In 1681 Jangtai entered Yunnan where Wu's forces had retreated. Combining his forces with the army from Kwangsi under Laita (see under Gubadai), and the men from Szechwan under Chao Liang-tung [q. v.], he won many battles and entered the capital of Yunnan on December 8. After the province was pacified he and Laita returned to Peking (November 1682) and were greeted by the emperor personally outside the south gate. However, when the merits and demerits of the generals were weighed in 1683, he had against him the charge of having failed to make progress in the first years of the war. Owing to his later achievements the charge was cancelled, but he received only a monetary reward. He died seven years later and his third son, Tunju 屯珠 (T. 拙齋, H. 髯翁, posthumous name 恪敏, 1658–1718), inherited the rank of a prince of the fifth degree. After Tunju died the latter's adopted grandson (son of Wên-chao, see below) inherited a princedom of the sixth degree which remained in the family until the close of the dynasty. The ancestral residence, however, fell into decay and the family moved to other quarters. In 1860 that residence was allotted to the use of the French Legation.

Jangtai's eldest son, Pai-shou 百綬, was in 1668 made a prince of the fifth degree, but was degraded in 1686 and was deprived of all ranks in 1688. A son of Pai-shou named Wên-chao 文昭 (T. 子晉, H. 香嬰, 薌嬰, 北柴山人, 檜棲居士, Feb. 13, 1681–1732), was a poet. In the hope of improving his technique in poetry he became a disciple of Wang Shih-chên [q. v.] in 1697, and with the encouragement of his grand-uncle, Yün-tuan (see under Yolo), he devoted his life to this accomplishment. In 1714 he pleaded illness and was exempted from service in the Imperial Clan Court. He spent most of his summers at his country villa located about fifty li southwest of Peking—the remainder of the time he lived in the ancestral home (see above). He often made trips to the hills and loved to gather about him scholars of like mind to write verse or to plant flowers. He left 21 collections of poems, in 32 chüan, printed from time to time and known collectively as 紫幢軒詩 Tzŭ-ch'uang hsüan shih, or 薌嬰居士集 Hsiang-ying chü-shih chi. The Library of Congress possesses an incomplete manuscript copy containing 14 of the 21 collections. Since in it the character li 歷 is not altered to 歴 in conformity with the taboo of Emperor Kao-tsung's personal name (Hung-li, q.v.), it is likely that the manuscript was made before 1735. Moreover, the handwriting and the alterations in the text suggest that it was the author's personal copy.

Wên-chao also produced several anthologies. One of these, entitled 宸萼集 Ch'ên-o-chi, 3 chüan, was compiled in 1710. It contains verse by poets belonging to the Imperial Clan, and is probably no longer extant. The original manuscripts of another anthology, 詩管 Shih kuan, in 14 volumes, were once in the possession of Wêng T'ung-ho [q. v.] who gave them to Shêng-yü [q. v.] in 1898.

[1/223/7a; 1/489/27b; Hsüeh-ch'iao shih-hua (see under Shêng-yü) 3/55b–63a; ibid, hsü-chi 3/3a, 52b, 106a, 4/37a; 順天府志 Shun-t'ien fu-chih (1885) 13/14a; Ch'ou-pan I-wu shih-mo (see under I-hsin), Hsien-fêng 70/33a-34b; on verse of Wên-chao see: Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress (1939) p. 267–68.]

Fang Chao-ying