Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Jalangga

JALANGGA 查郎阿 (T. 松莊), d. 1747, official, came from the Ula Nara Clan and belonged to the Manchu Bordered White Banner. His ancestor, Çangju 常住 was a grandson of Buyan (see under Bujantai), beile of the Ula tribe. It seems that after Nurhaci [q. v.] conquered the Ula tribe in 1613 Çangju surrendered to the founder of the Ch'ing dynasty and was given the hereditary captaincy of the company into which his family was organized. His descendants served in many wars of conquest and his great-grandson, Sestei 色思特 (d. 1689), was killed in the battle of Ulan butung against the Eleuths (see under Fu-ch'üan). Sestei was the father of Jalangga and left him the hereditary rank of Ch'ing-ch'ê tu-yü and the captaincy of the company. In 1721 Jalangga was made a colonel. His talents were appreciated by Emperor Shih-tsung who in 1723 named him a department director in the Board of Civil Offices, and a year later gave him the unusual promotion to vice-president of the same Board. In 1727 he was appointed president of the Censorate and late in the same year was ordered to Tibet to quell an uprising there.

Tibet was conquered in 1720 when the armies under Yin-t'i [禵, q.v.] drove out the Eleuths (see under Yen-hsin). But in 1723 Emperor Shih-tsung, who was hostile to Yin-t'i, ordered the latter to Peking and placed him in confinement. The armies in Tibet were soon withdrawn, either because the emperor did not wish to credit Yin-t'i with the conquest or because he feared that some of the soldiers loyal to that prince might cause trouble. In 1725 it was decided to keep the Kham region under the jurisdiction of Szechwan and to leave the rest of Tibet to the rule of the Dalai Lama, with the civil government under the control of several Tibetan chiefs, particularly Sonam gyäpo of Khang-Ch'ên (d. 1727, in Chinese accounts, K'ang-chi-nai 康濟鼐) who was named governor of Anterior Tibet. Another chief, Sonam stöbgyal of P'o-lha (d. 1747, in Chinese accounts, P'o-lo-nai 頗羅鼐), was appointed governor of Ulterior Tibet. But soon it was reported that several chiefs in Anterior Tibet could not cooperate with Sonam gyäpo. While two officials were sent to Lhasa in 1727 to solve the dispute, Sonam gyäpo was murdered by his enemies (August 5, 1727). Late in 1727 Emperor Shih-tsung decided to send an expedition to Tibet. Jalangga was appointed commander with a force of more than 15,000 men. But early in August 1728, before Jalangga could arrive, Sonam stöbgyal had led his men from Ulterior Tibet, had taken Lhasa, and had apprehended the murderers whose execution Jalangga ordered when he arrived in September. The Dalai Lama was transferred to Litang in the Kham region where he remained till 1735. Jalangga withdrew from Lhasa late in 1728, leaving behind two thousand soldiers as guard to the Imperial Resident. In January 1729 Sonam stöbgyal was made temporary administrator of all Tibet, and in 1739 was made a prince of the second degree. In 1747 he was succeeded by his son, Jurmet Namjar (see under Fu-ch'ing).

When Jalangga was preparing to go to Tibet, in 1728, he was given the concurrent post of president of the Board of Civil Appointments. In 1729, after he had left Tibet, he was ordered to Sian to help Yüeh Chung-ch'i [q. v.] manage the distribution of supplies to the armies then fighting the Eleuths. In May 1729 he was appointed acting governor-general of Shensi and Szechwan and in 1732 was made acting commander-in-chief of the armies in Kansu in place of Yüeh Chung-ch'i. Against the latter Jalangga lodged some damaging charges, and some of Yueh's lieutenants were also condemned by him. Thereafter Jalangga co-operated with Chang Kuang-ssŭ [q. v.] in strengthening the border defenses. Though the two were unable to progress in the war against the Eleuths, they were supported by the powerful Grand Secretary, O-êr-t'ai [q. v.], and so were permitted to remain at their posts. In 1735, when the peace conference with the Eleuths was in progress, the outposts were withdrawn and the soldiers were sent back to the provinces. In the meantime Jalangga was made concurrently a Grand Secretary. In 1736, after the military activities had ceased, he was again given the post of governor-general of Shensi and Szechwan. When, in 1738, the Tibetans demanded the restoration of their Kham territory Jalangga advised Emperor Kao-tsung to retain it under the jurisdiction of Szechwan in order to maintain the communication lines to Lhasa. To compensate the Dalai and the Pan-ch'an Lamas for their loss of revenue, a certain amount of silver was to be given them annually. This sound and farsighted suggestion of Jalangga was accepted by the emperor and was carried out accordingly.

Late in 1738 there was a serious earthquake at Ninghsia, and Jalangga promptly went there to oversee relief, dispatching at the same time a military contingent to maintain order. For this act he was commended by the emperor. He was recalled in 1738, but did not leave his post until the following year when his successor arrived at Sian. Upon his arrival at Peking he was given the title of Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent. In April 1747 he was accused of having received bribes from his subordinates eight years previously. Emperor Kao-tsung commented that he could not order the persecution or punishment of an old minister who had served his father well, but that he had other ways of dealing with him. It seems that his property was at one time confiscated. Within a month Jalangga was allowed to retire on account of old age. About six months later he died.

[1/303/1a; 2/16/27a; 3/19/12a; Pa-ch'i Man-chou shih-tsu t'ung-p'u (see under Anfiyanggû) chüan 23; P'ing-ting Chun-ko-êr fang-lüeh ch'ien-pien (see under Fu-hêng); Rockhill, W. W., The Dalai Lamas of Lhasa (1910); Ch'i Yün-shih [q. v.], Huang-ch'ao Fan-pu yao-lüeh, chüan 18.]

Fang Chao-ying