Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Libraries
HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION.
LIBRARIES, in our modern sense of collections of printed or written literature, imply an advanced and elaborate civilization. If the term be extended to any considerable collection of written documents, they must be nearly as old as civilization itself. The earliest use to which the invention of inscribed or written signs was put was probably to record important religious and political transactions. These records would naturally be preserved in sacred places, and accordingly the earliest libraries of the world were probably temples, and the earliest librarians priests. And indeed before the extension of the arts of writing and reading the priests were the only persons who could perform such work as, e.g., the compilation of the Annales Maximi, which was the duty of the pontifices in ancient Rome. The beginnings of literature proper in the shape of ballads and songs may have continued to be conveyed orally only from one generation to another, long after the record of important religious or civil events was regularly committed to writing. The earliest collections of which we know anything therefore were collections of archives. Of this character appear to have been such famous collections as that of the Medians at Ecbatana or the Persians at Susa. It is not until the development of arts and sciences, and the growth of a considerable written literature, and even of a distinct literary class, that we find collections of books which can be called libraries in our modern sense. It is of libraries in the modern sense, and not, except incidentally, of archives that we are to speak.
The researches which have followed the discoveries of Botta and Layard have thrown unexpected light not only upon the history but upon the arts, the sciences, and the literatures of the ancient civilizations of Babylonia and Assyria. In all these wondrous revelations no facts are more interesting than those which show the existence of extensive libraries so many ages ago, and none are more eloquent of the elaborateness of these forgotten civilizations.
from an inch to a foot square. A great number of them were broken, as Layard supposed by the falling in of the roof, but as the late Mr George Smith thought by having fallen from the upper story, upon which he believed the collection to have been placed. These tablets formed the library of the great monarch Assur-bani-pal the Sardanapalus of the Greeks the greatest patron of literature amongst the Assyrians. It is estimated that this library consisted of some ten thousand distinct works and docu ments, some of the works extending over several tablets. The tablets appear to have been methodically arranged and catalogued, and the library seems to have been thrown open for the general use of the king's subjects. A great portion of this library has already been brought to Eng land and deposited in the British Museum, but it is calculated that there still remain some 20,000 fragments to be gathered up. For further details as to Assyrian libraries, and the still earlier Babylonian libraries from which the Assyrians drew their science and literature, see BABYLONIA, vol. iii. p. 191.In the course of his excavations at Nineveh in 1850, Layard came upon some chambers in the south-west palace, the floor of which, as well as of the adjoining rooms, was covered to the depth of a foot with tablets of clay, covered with cuneiform characters, in many cases so small as to require a magnifying glass. These varied in size
B.C. We possess a papyrus manu script which is assigned to the age of Amenophis I. of the 18th dynasty, perhaps about 1600 B.C., and the fabric is so perfect as to point to a much earlier invention. With the invention of papyrus came the age of books. The temples were the centres of literary activity, and to each of them were attached professional scribes who occupied a very respectable position. Their function was regarded as a religious one, for the distinction between religion and science had not yet been made. The sacred books of Thoth—forty-two in number—constituted as it were a com plete encyclopaedia of religion and science. But they did not forbid speculation, or a wider development of the principles contained in them. So there arose a great mass of litera ture in the shape of exposition and commentary. To such an extent did this increase that at the time of th<s Greek conquest of Egypt the Thoth literature is said to have amounted to 36,525 books. Books were collected not only in the temples but also at the tombs of kings. The most famous of these libraries dates from the 14th century B.C., and was the so-called library of King Osymandyas, described by Diodorus Siculus, who relates that it bore an inscription which he renders by the Greek words ΨΥΧΗΣ ΙΑΤPΕΙΟΝ, "the dispensary of the soul." Osymandyas has been identified with the great king Ramses I., and the seat of the library is supposed by Wilkinson to have been the Ramesseum, the magnificent palace temple near Thebes. Lepsius thinks he has found the tombs of two of the librarians of Osymandyas. According to Eustathius there was also a great collection in a temple at Memphis. A heavy blow was dealt to the old Egyptian literature by the Persian invasion, and many of their books were carried away by the conquerors. They were only delivered from the yoke of Persia to succumb to that of Greece, and henceforward their civilization was dominated by foreign influences. Of the libraries of Greece under the Ptolemies we shall there fore speak a little further on.Of the libraries of ancient Egypt our knowledge is much less full and precise. It seems to be ascertained that the oldest hieroglyphic writings now extant run some centuries farther back than 2000
 that he was the first to establish a public library. The authority of Aulus Gellius is hardly sufficient to secure credit for the story that this library was carried away into Persia by Xerxes and subsequently restored to the Athenians by Seleucus Nicator. Plato is known to have been a collector; and Xenophon tells us of the library of Euthydemus. The library of Aristotle was bequeathed by him to his disciple Theophrastus, and by Theophrastus to Neleus, who carried it to Scepsis, where it is said to have been concealed underground to avoid the literary cupidity of the kings of Pergamus. Its subsequent fate has given rise to much controversy, but, according to Strabo (xiii. pp. 608, 609), it was sold to Apellicon of Teos, who carried it to Athens, where after Apellicon's death it fell a prey to the conqueror Sulla, and was transported by him to Rome. The story told by Athenæus (i. 4) is that the library of Neleus was purchased by Ptolemy Philadelphus. The names of a few other libraries in Greece are barely known to us from inscriptions; of their character and contents we know nothing. If indeed we are to trust Strabo entirely, we must believe that Aristotle was the first person who collected a library, and that he communi cated the taste for collecting to the sovereigns of Egypt. It is at all events certain that the libraries of Alexandria were the most important as they were the most celebrated of the ancient world. Under the enlightened rule of the Ptolemies a society of scholars and men of science was at tracted to their capital. It seems pretty certain that Ptolemy Soter had already begun to collect books, but it was in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus that the libraries were properly organized and established in separate buildings. Ptolemy Philadelphus sent into every part of Greece and Asia to secure the most valuable works, and no exertions or expense were spared in enriching the collections. Ptolemy Euergetes, his successor, is said to have caused all books brought into Egypt by foreigners to be seized for the benefit of the library, while the owners had to be content with receiving copies of them in exchange. Nor did the Alexandrian scholars exhibit the usual Hellenic exclusiveness, and many of the treasures of Egyptian and even of Hebrew literature were by their means translated into Greek. There were two libraries at Alexandria; the larger, in the Bruehium quarter, was in connexion with the Museum, a sort of academy, while the smaller was placed in the Serapeum. The number of volumes in these libraries was very large, although it is difficult to attain any certainty as to the real numbers amongst the widely varying accounts. According to a scholium of Tzetzes, who appears to draw his information from the authority of Callimachus and Eratosthenes, who had been librarians at Alexandria, there were 42,800 volumes or rolls in the Serapeum and 490,000 in the Bruehium. This enumeration seems to refer to the librarianship of Callimachus himself under Ptolemy Euergetes. In any case the figures agree tolerably well with those given by Aulus Gellius (700,000) and Seneca (400,000). It should be observed that, as the ancient roll or volume usually contained a much smaller quantity of matter than a modern book,—so that, e.g., the history of Herodotus might form nine "books" or volumes, and the Iliad of Homer twenty-four—these numbers must be discounted for the purposes of comparison with modern collections. The series of the first five librarians at Alexandria appears to be pretty well established as follows:—Zenodotus, Callimachus, Eratosthenes, Apollonius, and Aristophanes; and their activity covers a period of about a century. The first experiments in bibliography appear to have been made in producing catalogues of the Alexandrian libraries. Amongst other lists, two catalogues were prepared by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, one of the tragedies, the other of the comedies contained in the collections. The ILVaKes of Callimachus formed a catalogue of all the principal books arranged in 120 classes. When Cæsar set fire to the fleet in the harbour of Alexandria, the flames accidentally extended to the larger library of the Bruchium, and it was destroyed. Antony endeavoured to repair the loss by presenting to Cleopatra the library from Pergamus. This was very probably placed in the Bruchium, as this continued to be the literary quarter of Alexandria until the time of Aurelian. Thenceforward the Serapeum became the principal library. The usual statement that from the date of the restoration of the Bruchium under Cleopatra the libraries continued in a flourishing condition until they were destroyed after the con quest of Alexandria by the Saracens in 640 A.D. can hardly be supported. It is very possible that one of the libraries perished when the Bruchium quarter was destroyed by Aurelian, 273 A.D. In 389 or 391 an edict of Theodosius ordered the destruction of the Serapeum, and its books were pillaged by the Christians. When we take into ac count the disordered condition of the times, and the neglect into which literature and science had fallen, there can be little difficulty in believing that there were but few books left to be destroyed by the soldiers of Amr. The familiar anecdote of the caliph's message to his general (vol. i. p. 494) rests mainly upon the evidence of Abulfaragius, so that we may be tempted to agree with Gibbon that the report of a stranger who wrote at the end of six hundred years is overbalanced by the silence of earlier and native annalists. It is, however, so far from easy to settle the question that a cloud of names could easily be cited upon either side, while some of the most careful inquirers confess the difficulty of a decision.Of the libraries of ancient Greece we have very little knowledge, and such knowledge as we possess comes to us for the most part from late compilers. Amongst those who are known to have collected books are Pisistratus, Polycrates of Samos, Euclid the Athenian, Nicocrates of Cyprus, Euripides and Aristotle (Athenæus, i. 4). At Cnidus there is said to have been a special collection of works upon medicine. Pisistratus is said to have been the first of the Greeks who collected books on a large scale. Aulus Gellius, indeed, tells us in language perhaps "not well suited to the 6th century B.C.,"
B.C. Antiochus the Great summoned the poet and grammarian Euphorion of Chalcis to be his librarian.The magnificence and renown of the libraries of the Ptolemies excited the rivalry of the kings of Pergamus, who vied with the Egyptian rulers in their encouragement of literature. Despite the obstacles presented by the embargo placed by the Ptolemies upon the export of papyrus, the library of the Attali attained considerable importance, and, as we have seen, when it was transported to Egypt numbered 200,000 volumes. We learn from a notice in Suidas that in 221
B.C.), had no attractions for them; and with the exception of the writings of Mago upon agriculture, which the senate reserved for translation into Latin, they bestowed all the books upon the kinglets of Africa. It is in accordance with the military character of the Romans that the first considerable collections of which we hear in Rome were brought there as the spoils of war. The first of these was that brought by yEmilius Paulus from Macedonia after the conquest of Perseus (167 B.C.). The library of the conquered monarch was all that he reserved from the prizes of victory for himself and his sons, who were fond of letters. Next came the library of Apellicon the Teian, brought from Athens by Sulla (86 B.C.). This passed at his death into the hands of his son, but of its later history nothing is known. The rich stores of literature brought home by Lucullus from his eastern conquests (about 67 B.C.) were freely thrown open to his friends and to men of letters. Accordingly his library and the neighbouring walks were much resorted to, especially by Greeks. It was now becoming fashionable for rich men to furnish their libraries well, and the fashion prevailed until it became the subject of Seneca's scorn and Lucian's wit. The zeal of Cicero and Atticus in adding to their collections is well known to every reader of the classics. Tyrannion is said to have had 30,000 volumes of his own; and that M. Terentius Varro had large collections we may infer from Cicero's writing to him: "Si hortum in bibliotheca habes, nihil deerit." Not to prolong the list of private collectors, Serenus Sammonicus is said to have left to his pupil the younger Gordian no less than 62,000 volumes. Amongst the numerous projects entertained by Caesar was that of presenting Rome with public libraries, though it is doubtful whether any steps were actually taken towards its execution. The task of collecting and arranging the books was entrusted to Varro. This commission, as well as his own fondness for books, may have led Varro to write the book upon libraries of which a few words only have come down to us, preserved by a grammarian. Varro also appears to have been the first to ornament a library with the statues and busts of learned men, though the idea is sometimes attributed to Asinius Pollio. The greater honour of being the first actually to dedicate a library to the public is said by Pliny and Ovid to have fallen to Pollio, who erected a library in the Atrium Libertatis on Mount Aventine, defraying the cost from the spoils of his Illyrian campaign. The library of Pollio was followed by the public libraries established by Augustus. That emperor, who did so much for the embellishment of the city, erected two libraries, the Octavian and the Palatine. The former was founded (33 B.C.) in honour of his sister, and was placed in the Porticus Octavia?, the lower part of which served as a promenade, while the upper part contained the library. The charge of the books was committed to C. Melissus. The other library formed by Augustus was attached to the temple of Apollo on the Palatine hill, and appears from inscriptions to have consisted of two departments, a Greek and a Latin one, which seem to have been separately administered. The charge of the Palatine collections was given to Pompeius Macer, who was succeeded by Julius Hyginus, the grammarian and friend of Ovid. The Octavian library perished in the fire which raged at Rome for three days in the reign of Titus. The Palatine was, at all events in great part, destroyed by fire in the reign of Commodus. The story that its collections were destroyed by order of Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th century is now generally rejected. The successors of Augustus, though they did not equal him in their patronage of learning, maintained the tradition of forming libraries. Tiberius, his immediate successor, established one in his splendid house on the Palatine, to which Gellius refers as the "Tiberian library," and Suetonius relates that he caused the writings and images of his favourite Greek poets to be placed in the public libraries. Vespasian established a library in the Temple of Peace erected after the burning of the city under Nero. Domitian restored the libraries which had been destroyed in the same conflagration, procuring books from every quarter, and even sending to Alexandria to have copies made. He is also said to have founded the Capitoline library, though others give the credit to Hadrian. The most famous and important of the imperial libraries, however, was that created by Ulpius Trajanus, known as the Ulpian library, which was first established in the Forum of Trajan, but was afterwards removed to the baths of Diocletian. In this library were deposited by Trajan the "libri lintei " and "libri elephantini," upon which the senatus consulta and other transactions relating to the emperors were written. The library of Domitian, which had been destroyed by fire in the reign of Commodus, was restored by Gordian, who added to it the books bequeathed to him by Serenus Sammonicus. Altogether in the 4th century there are said to have been twenty-eight public libraries in Rome.The early Romans were far too warlike and practical a people to devote much attention to literature, and it is not until the last century of the republic that we hear of libraries in Rome. The collections of Carthage, which fell into their hands when Scipio sacked that city (146
Nor were public libraries confined to Rome. Besides a library at Tibur, which is twice mentioned by Gellius, and was probably founded by Hadrian, the younger Pliny mentions that he had himself dedicated a library to his fellow-townsmen at Comum; and an inscription discovered at Milan proves that he also contributed a large sum to the support of a library there. Hadrian established a library at Athens; and Strabo mentions the library of Smyrna. Gellius also mentions a library at Patrae. From one of his references (xix. 5) to the Tiburtine library we may infer that it was not unusual for books to be lent out from these libraries. Considerable care was bestowed by the Romans upon the placing of their libraries. The room or building generally had an eastern aspect. The books or rolls were arranged upon the shelves of presses running round the walls, with additional presses placed in the middle of the room. Thus the library discovered at Herculaneum contained 1756 MSS. placed on shelves running round the room to a height of some 6 feet, with a detached central press. These presses in large libraries were numbered. They were often made of precious woods and richly ornamented, while the room was adorned with portraits and statues.
As the number of libraries in Rome increased, the librarian, who was generally a slave or freedman, became a recognized public functionary. The names of several librarians are preserved to us in inscriptions, including that of C. Hymen-jeus, who appears to have fulfilled the double function of physician and librarian to Augustus. The general superintendence of the public libraries was com mitted to a special official. Thus from Nero to Trajan Dionysius, an Alexandrian rhetorician, discharged this function. Under Hadrian it was entrusted to his former tutor C. Julius Vestinus, who afterwards became administrator of the Museum at Alexandria.
When the seat of empire was removed by Constantine to his new capital upon the Bosporus, the emperor established a collection there, in which Christian literature was probably admitted for the first time into an imperial library. Diligent search was made after the Christian books which had been doomed to destruction by Diocletian. Even at the death of Constantine, however, the number of books which had been brought together amounted only to G900. The smallness of the number, it has been suggested, seems to show that Constantine's library was mainly intended as a repository of Christian literature. However this may be, the collection was greatly enlarged by some of Constantine's successors, especially by Julian and Theodosius, at whose death it is said to have increased to 100,000 volumes. Julian, himself a close student and voluminous writer, though he did his best to discourage learning among the Christians, and to destroy their libraries, not only augmented the library at Constantinople, but founded others, including one at Nisibis, which was soon afterwards destroyed by fire. From the Theodosian code we learn that in the time of that emperor a staff of seven copyists was attached to the library at Constantinople under the direction of the librarian. The library was burnt under the emperor Zeno in 477, but was again restored.
Meanwhile, as Christianity made its way and a distinctively Christian literature grew up, the institution of libraries became part of the organization of the church. When the church of Jerusalem was founded in the 3d century a library was added to it, and it became the rule to attach to every church a collection of the books necessary for the inculcation of Christian doctrine. The largest of these libraries, that founded by Pamphilus at Cresarea, and said to have been increased by Eusebius, the historian of the church, to 30,000 volumes, is frequently mentioned by St Jerome. St Augustine bequeathed his collection to the library of the church at Hippo, which was fortunate enough to escape destruction at the hands of the Vandals.
The removal of the capital to Byzantium was in its result a serious blow to literature. Henceforward the science and learning of the East and West were divorced. The libraries of Rome ceased to collect the writings of the Greeks, while the Greek libraries had never cared much to collect Latin literature. The influence of the church became increasingly hostile to the study of pagan letters. The repeated irruptions of the barbarians soon swept the old learning and libraries alike from the soil of Italy. With the close of the Western empire in 476 the ancient history of libraries may be said to cease.
During the finit few centuries after the fall of the Western empire, literary activity at Constantinople had fallen to its lowest ebb. In the West, amidst the general neglect of learning and literature, the collecting of books, though not wholly forgotten, was cared for by few.Sidonius Apollinaris tells us of the libraries of several private collectors in Gaul. Publius Consentius possessed a library at his villa near Narbonne which was due to the labour of three generations. The most notable of these appears to have been the prefect Tonantius Ferreolus, who had formed in his villa of Prusiana, near Nimes, a collection which his friend playfully compares to that of Alexandria, The Goths, who had been introduced to the Scriptures in their own language by Ulfilas in the 4th century, began to . pay some attention to Latin literature. Cassiodorus, the favourite minister of Theodoric, was a collector as well as an author, and on giving up the cares of government retired to a monastery which he founded in Calabria, where he employed his monks in the transcription of books.
Henceforward the charge of books as well as of education fell more and more exclusively into the hands of the church. While the old schools of the rhetoricians died out new monasteries arose everywhere. Knowledge was no longer pursued for its own sake, but became subsidiary to religious and theological teaching. The proscription of the old classical literature, which is symbolized in the fable of the destruction of the Palatine library by Gregory the Great, was only too effectual. The Gregorian tradition of opposition to pagan learning long continued to dominate the literary pursuits of the monastic orders and the labours of the scriptorium.
During the 6th and 7th centuries the learning which had been driven from the Continent took refuge in the British Islands, where it was removed from the political disturbances of the mainland. In the Irish monasteries during this period there appear to have been many books, and the Venerable Bede was superior to any scholar of his age. Theodore of Tarsus brought a considerable number of books to Canterbury from Rome in the 7th century, including several Greek authors. The library of York, which was founded by Archbishop Egbert, was almost more famous than that of Canterbury. The verses are well known in which Alcuin describes the extensive library under his charge, and the long list of authors whom he enumerates is superior to that of any other library possessed by either England or France in the 12th century, when it was unhappily burnt. The inroads of the Northmen in the 9th and 10th centuries had been fatal to the monastic libraries on both sides of the channel. It was from York that Alcuin came to Charlemagne to superintend the school attached to his palace; and it was doubtless inspired by Alcuin that Charles issued the memorable document which enjoined that in the bishoprics and monasteries within his realm care should be taken that there shall be not only a regular manner of life, but also the study of letters. When Alcuin finally retired from the court to the abbacy of Tours, there to carry out his own theory of monastic discipline and instruction, he wrote to Charles for leave to send to York for copies of the books of which they had so much need at Tours. While Alcuin thus increased the library at Tours, Charlemagne enlarged that at Fulda, which had been founded in 774, and which all through the Middle Ages stood in great respect. Lupus Servatus, a pupil of Hrabanus Maurus at Fulda, and afterwards abbot of Ferrieres, was a devoted student of the classics and a great collector of books. His correspondence illustrates the difficulties which then attended the study of literature through the paucity and dearness of books, the declining care for learning, and the increasing troubles of the time. Nor were private collections of books altogether wanting during the period in which Charlemagne and his successors laboured to restore the lost traditions of liberal education and literature. Pepin le Bref had indeed met with scanty response to the request for books which he addressed to the pontiff Paul I. Charlemagne, however, collected a considerable number of choice books for his private use in two places. Although these collections were dispersed at his death, his son Louis formed a library which continued to exist under Charles the Bald. About the same time Everard, count of Friuli, formed a considerable collection which he bequeathed to a monastery. But the greatest private collector of the Middle Ages was doubtless Gerbert, Pope Sylvester II., who showed the utmost zeal and spent large sums in collecting books, not only in Rome and Italy, but from Germany, Belgium, and even from Spain.
The hopes of a revival of secular literature fell with the decline of the schools established by Charles and his successors. The knowledge of letters remained the prerogative of the church, and for the next four or five centuries the collecting and multiplication of books were almost entirely confined to the monasteries. Several of the greater orders made these an express duty; this was especially the case with the Benedictines.It was the first care of St Benedict, we are told, that in each newly founded monastery there should be a library, " et velut curia quaedam illustrium auctorum." Monte Cassino became the starting point of a long line of institutions which were destined to be the centres of religion and of literature. It must indeed be remembered that literature in the sense of Sb Benedict meant Biblical and theological works, the lives of the saints and martyrs, and the lives and writings of the fathers. Of the reformed Benedictine orders the Carthusians and the Cistercians were those most devoted to literary pursuits. The abbeys of Fleury, of Melk, and of St Gall were remarkable for the splendour of their libraries. In a later age the labours of the congregation of St Maur form one of the most striking chapters in the history of learning. The Augustinians and the Dominicans rank next to the Benedictines in their care for literature. The libraries of St Genevieve and St Victor, belonging to the former, were amongst the largest of the monastic collections. Although their poverty might seem to put them at a disadvantage as collectors, the mendicant orders cultivated literature with much assiduity, and were closely connected with the intellectual movement to which the universities owed their rise. In England Richard of Bury praises them for their extraordinary diligence in collecting books. Sir Richard Whittington built a large library for the Grey Friars in London, and they possessed considerable libraries at Oxford.
It would be impossible to attempt here an account of all the libraries established by the monastic orders. We must be content to enumerate a few of the most eminent.
In Italy Monte Cassino is a striking example of the dangers and vicissitudes to which monastic collections were exposed. Ruined by the Lombards in the 6th century, the monastery was rebuilt and a library established to fall a prey to Saracens and to fire in the 9th. The collection then reformed survived many other chances and changes, and still exists. It affords a conspicuous example of monastic industry in the transcription not only of theological but also of classical works. The library of Bobbio was famous for its palimpsests. The collection, of which a catalogue of the 10th century is given by Muratori, was finally transferred to the Ambrosian library at Milan. Of the library of Pomposia, near Ravenna, Montfaucon has printed a catalogue dating from the llth century.
Of the monastic libraries of France the principal were those of Fleury, of Cluny, of St Riquier, and of Corbie. At Fleury Abbot Macharius in 1146 imposed a contribution for library purposes upon the officers of the community and its dependencies, an example which was. followed elsewhere. After many vicissitudes, its MSS., numbering 238, were deposited in 1793 in the town library of Orleans. The library of St Riquier in the time of Louis the Pious contained 256 MSS., with over 500 works. Of the collection at Corbie in Picardy we have also catalogues dating from the 12th and from the 17th centuries. Corbie was famous for the industry of its transcribers, and appears to have stood in active literary intercourse with other monasteries. In 1638, 400 of its choicest manuscripts were removed to St Germain-des-Pre"s. The remainder were removed after 1794, partly to the national library at Paris, partly to the town library of Amiens.
The chief monastic libraries of Germany were at Fulda, Corvey, Reichenau, and Sponheim. The library at Fulda owed much to Charlemagne and to its abbot Hrabanus Maurus. Under Abbot Sturmius four hundred monks were hired as copyists. In 1561 the collection numbered 774 volumes. The library of Corvey on the Weser, after being despoiled of some of its treasures in the Reformation age, was presented to the university of Marburg in 1811. It then contained 109 volumes, with 400 or 500 titles. The library of Reichenau, of which several catalogues are extant, fell a prey to fire and neglect, and its ruin was consummated by the Thirty Years War. The library of Spouheim owes its great renown to John Tritheim, who was abbot at the close of the 15th century. He found it reduced to 10 volumes, and left it with upwards of 2000 at his retirement. The library at St Gall, formed as early as 816 by Gozbert, its second abbot, still exists.
 When the library of Croyland perished by fire in 1091 it contained about 700 volumes. The library at Peterborough was also rich; from a catalogue of about the end of the 14th century it had 344 volumes, with nearly 1700 titles. The catalogues of the library at the monastery of Durham have been printed by the Surtees Society, and form an interesting series.In England the principal collections were those of Canter bury, York, Wearmouth, Whifcby, Glastonbury, Croyland, Peterborough, and Durham. Of the library of the monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, originally founded by Augustine and Theodore, and restored by Lanfranc and Anselm, a catalogue has been preserved dating from the 13th or 14th century, and containing 698 volumes, with about 3000 works. Bennet Biscop, the first abbot of Wearmouth, made five journeys to Rome, and on each occasion returned with a store of books for the library. It was destroyed by the Danes about 867. Of the library at Whitby there is a catalogue dating from the 12th century. The catalogue of Glastonbury has also been printed.
These catalogues with many others afford abundant evidence of the limited character of the monkish collections, whether we look at the number of their volumes or at the nature of their contents. We must remember that the beliefs and discipline imposed upon the monk hardly allowed of his caring for literature for its own sake; we must also remember that the transcription of manuscripts so industriously pursued in the monasteries was a mechanical employment. The scriptoria were manufactories of books and not centres of learning. Indeed the very pains bestowed upon carefulness and neatness of transcription, and especially upon the illustrating and ornamenting of the more beautiful manuscripts, were little calculated to divert the attention of the monks from the vehicle to the thought which it expressed. The pride taken by so many communities in the richness and splendour of their libraries was often doubtless the pride of the collector and not of the scholar. That in spite of the labours of so many transcribers the costliness and scarcity of books remained so great may have been partly, but cannot have been wholly, due to the scarcity of writing materials. It may be suspected that indolence and carelessness were the rule in most monasteries, and that but few of the monks keenly realized the whole force of the sentiment expressed by one of their number in the 12th century " Claustrum sine armario quasi castrum sine arrnamentario." Nevertheless it must be admitted that to the labours of the monkish transcribers we are indebted for the preservation of Latin literature.
The literary and scientific activity of the Arabians appears to have been the cause of a revival of letters amongst the Greeks of the Byzantine empire in the 9th century. Under Leo the Philosopher and Constantino Porphyrogenitus the libraries of Constantinople awoke into renewed life. The compilations of such writers as Stobseus, Photius, and Suidas, as well as the labours of innumerable critics and commentators, bear witness to the activity, if not to the lofty character of the pursuits, of the Byzantine scholars. The labours of transcription were industriously pursued in the libraries and in the monasteries of Mount Athos and the Ægean, and it was from these quarters that the restorers of learning brought into Italy so many Greek manuscripts.In this way many of the treasures of ancient literature had been already conveyed to the West before the fate which overtook the libraries of Constantinople on the fall of the city in 1453.
Meanwhile in the West, with the reviving interest in literature which already marks the 14th century, we find arising outside the monasteries a taste for collecting books. St Louis of France and his successors had formed small collections, none of which survived its possessor. It was reserved for Charles V. to form a considerable library which he intended to be permanent. In 1373 he had amassed 910 volumes, and had a catalogue of them prepared, from which we see that it included a good deal of the new literature. In our own country Guy, earl of Warwick, formed a curious collection of French romances, which he bequeathed to Bordesley Abbey on his death in 1315. Richard d'Aungervyle of Bury, the author of the Philobiblon, amassed a noble collection of books, and had special opportunities of doing so as Edward III. s chancellor and ambassador. He founded Durham College at Oxford, and equipped it with a library a hundred years before Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, made his benefaction of books to the university. The taste for secular literature, and the enthusiasm for the ancient classics, gave a fresh direction to the researches of collectors. A disposition to encourage literature began to show itself amongst the great. This was most notable amongst the Italian princes. Cosimo de' Medici formed a library at Venice while living there in exile in 1433, and on his return to Florence laid the foundation of the great Medicean library. The honour of establishing the first modern public library in Italy had been already secured by Niccolo Niccoli, who left his library of over 800 volumes for the use of the public on his death in 1436. Frederick, duke of Urbino, collected all the writings in Greek and Latin which he could procure, and we have an interesting account of his collection written by his first librarian, Vespasiano. The ardour for classical studies led to those active researches for the Latin writers who were buried in the monastic libraries which are especially identified with the name of Poggio. For some time before the fall of that capital, the perilous state of the Eastern empire had driven many Greek scholars from Constantinople into western Europe, where they had directed the studies and formed the taste of the zealous students of the Greek language and literature. The enthusiasm of the Italian princes extended itself beyond; the Alps. Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, amassed a collection of splendidly executed and magnificently bound manuscripts, which at his death are said to have reached the almost incredible number of 50,000 volumes. The library was not destined long to survive its founder. There is reason to believe that it had been very seriously despoiled even before it perished at the hands of the Turks on the fall of Budain 1527. A few of its treasures are still preserved in some of the libraries of Europe. While these munificent patrons of learning were thus taking pains to recover and multiply the treasures of ancient literature by the patient labour of transcribers and calligraphers, an art was being elaborated which was destined to revolutionize the whole condition of literature and libraries. With the invention of printing, so happily coinciding with the revival of true learning and sound science, the modern history of libraries may be said to begin.
These are most conveniently described in geographical order, and a general survey on this method will be found in the tables at the end of this article. The following sketch supplies additional details.
The United Kingdom.
The British Museum ranks in importance before all the great libraries of the world, with the single exception of the Bibliotheque Rationale at Paris, and far excels the latter institution in the systematic arrangement and accessibility of its contents. Recent changes have some what limited its former universality of character, but it still remains the grand national repository of literature and archaeology. The library consists of over 1,550,000 printed volumes and 50,000 manuscripts. This extra ordinary opulence is principally due to the enlightened energy of the late Sir Antonio Panizzi. The number of volumes in the printed book department, when he took the keepership in 1837, was only 240,000; and during the nineteen years he held that office about 400,000 were added, mostly by purchase, under his advice and direction. It was Panizzi likewise who first seriously set to work to see that the national library reaped all the benefits be stowed upon it by the Copyright Act.
The foundation of the British Museum dates from 1753, when effect was given to the bequest (in exchange for 20,000 to be paid to his executors) by Sir Hans Sloane, of his books, manuscripts, curiosities, &c., to be held by trustees for the use of the nation. A bill was passed through parliament for the purchase of the Sloane collections and of the Harleian MSS., costing 10,000. To these, with the Cottonian MSS., acquired by the country in 1700, was added by George II., in 1757, the royal library of the former kings of England, coupled with the privilege, which that library had for many years enjoyed, of obtaining a copy of every publication entered at Stationers Hall. This addition was of the highest importance, as it enriched the museum with the old collections of Archbishop Cranmer, Henry prince of Wales, and other patrons of literature, while the transfer of the privilege with regard to the acquisition of new books, a right which has been maintained by successive Copyright Acts, secured a large and continuous augmentation, the yearly average of which has now reached 8000 or 9000 volumes. A lottery having been authorized to defray the expenses of purchases, as well as for providing suitable accommodation, the museum and library were established in Montague House, and opened to the public 15th January 1759. In 1763 George III. presented the well-known Thomason collection (in 2220 volumes) of books and pamphlets issued in England between 1640 and 1662, embracing all the controversial literature which appeared during that period. The Rev. C. M. Cracherode, one of the trustees, bequeathed his collection of choice books in 1799; and in 1820 Sir Joseph Banks left to the nation his important library of 16,000 volumes. Many other libraries have since then been incorporated in the museum, the most valuable being George III. s royal collection (15,000 volumes of tracts, and 65,259 volumes of printed books, including many of the utmost rarity, which had cost the king about 130,000), which was presented (for a pecuniary consideration, it has been said) by George IV. in 1823, and that of the Right Honourable Thomas Grenville (20,240 volumes of rare books, all in fine condition and binding), which was acquired under bequest in 1846. The Cracherode, Banksian, King's, and Grenville libraries are still preserved as separate collections. Other libraries of minor note have also been absorbed in a similar way, while, at least since the time of Panizzi, no opportunity has been neglected of making useful purchases at all the British and Continental book auctions.
The collection of English books is far from approaching completeness, but, apart from the enormous number of volumes, the library contains an extraordinary quantity of rarities. Few libraries in the United States equal either in number or value the American books in the museum. The collection of Slavonic literature, due to the initiative of the late Mr Watts, is a remarkable feature; after that of the St Petersburg Imperial Library it is believed to be the largest in existence. Indeed, in cosmopolitan interest the museum is without a rival in the world, possessing as it does the best Hungarian collection out of that country,, the best Dutch library out of Holland, and in short the best library in any European language out of the territory in which the language is vernacular. The Hebrew books number over 12,000, the Chinese nearly 27,000, and the printed books in other Oriental languages about 13,000 volumes. Periodical literature has not been forgotten, and the series of newspapers is of great extent and interest. Great pains are taken by the authorities to obtain the copies of the newspapers published in the United Kingdom to which they are entitled by the provisions of the Copyright Act, and upwards of 1900 are annually collected, filed, and bound. Under the English Copyright Act there were received, in 1881, not counting single pieces, such as broadsides, songs, &c., 8857 volumes and pamphlets, and 21,792 parts of volumes, and through the international copyright treaties 941 volumes and 433 parts.
The department of MSS. is at least equal in importance to that of the printed books. The collection of MSS. in European languages ranges from the 2d century before Christ down to our own times, and includes the ALEXANDRIAN MS. (q.v.). The old historical chronicles of England, the charters of the Anglo-Saxon kings, and the celebrated series of Arthurian romances are well represented; and care has been taken to acquire on every available opportunity the unprinted works of English writers. The famous collections of MSS. made by Sir Robert Cotton, and Harley earl of Oxford, have already been mentioned, and from these and other sources the museum has become rich in early Anglo-Saxon and Latin codices, some of them exhibiting marvels of skill in calligraphy and ornamentation, such as the charters of King Edgar and Henry I. to Hyde Abbey, which are written in gold letters, others interesting for different reasons, such as the book of Durham, in Latin and Anglo-Saxon, reputed to have been Bede's own copy. The Burney collection of classical MSS. furnished important additions, so that from this source and from the collection of Arundel MSS. (transferred from the Royal Society in 1831), the museum can boast of an early copy of the Iliad, and one of the earliest known codices of the Odyssey. There is likewise an extensive series of ancient Irish texts, with many modern transcripts, the Bridgewater MSS. on French history, and Lord Guilford's similar collection to illustrate the history of Italy. Special reference may be made to the celebrated Bedford Missal, illuminated for the duke of Bedford, regent of France, and to Henry VI.'s copy of Hardyng's chronicle. The Oriental collection is also extremely rich and ample, including the library formed by Mr Rich (consul at Baghdad in the early part of this century), and a vast quantity of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish MSS.; the Chambers collection of Sanskrit MSS.; several other collections of Indian MSS.; and a copious library of Hebrew MSS. (including that of the great scholar Michaelis, and codices of great age, recently brought from Yemen). The collection of Syriac MSS., embracing the relics of the famous library of the convent of St Mary Deipara in the Nitrian desert, formed by the abbot Moses of Nisibis, in the 10th century, is the most important in existence; of the large store of Abyssinian volumes many were amassed after the campaign against King Theodore. The number of genealogical rolls and documents relating to the local and family history of Great Britain is very large. Altogether there are now over 50,000 MSS. (of which 8500 are Oriental), besides 45,000 charters and rolls.
The musical works comprise upwards of 11,000 volumes of vocal and nearly 6000 volumes of instrumental music, the number of separate pieces amounting to more than 70,000. The catalogue is in manuscript. The collection of maps, charts, plans, and topographical drawings is also a remark able one. The maps are nearly 116,000 in number. Letter A of a printed catalogue of the maps is already in type.
The name of Panizzi is inseparably connected with his circular reading-room, opened in 1857. This is encompassed by the new library, with shelf-space for a million and a half volumes. The presses inside the reading-room, arranged in three tiers, contain upwards of 80, 000 volumes, those on the ground floor (20,000) being books of reference to which readers have unlimited access. The comfortable accommodation for readers is briefly described below. Perhaps not the least convenient arrangement here is the presence of the superintendent, whose duty it is to help readers in their difficulties; the varied qualifications of the present holder of the office are well known. The electric light has been successfully used until 8 o clock P.M. through the darker months from the earlier part of October. In order to enjoy the privilege of reading at the British Museum, the applicant (who must be over twenty-one years of age) must obtain a renewable ticket of admission through a recommendation from a householder addressed to the principal librarian. Formerly no person was admitted until the ticket had been presented at the entrance, but latterly this rule has been considerably relaxed. During 1881 the number of readers was 133,842. In spite of the hostile criticism to which it has sometimes been subjected, it cannot be denied that the general catalogue of the printed books (which now runs to upwards of 2000 volumes in manuscript) is a marvellous work executed in a praiseworthy manner. Some slight notion of the extent of the catalogue may be derived from the fact that it contains the works of over 2400 authors of the name of Smith, t- But the rapidly increasing size of the catalogue has impelled the trustees to resort to print in order to diminish the bulk. Since 1880 the titles of all accessions have been printed, and as it becomes necessary to break the manuscript volumes, the titles contained in them are also printed; in course of time, therefore, the whole of the titles will have been put into type. The sheets are published at regular intervals, and can be purchased. It is proposed to issue separately headings of special interest, whether of subjects or of authors, e.g., Shakespeare, Bible, Liturgies, &c. Considerable progress has been made in the preparation for the press of a catalogue of English books printed before the year 1640.
The printed catalogues of books commence with one published in 2 vols. folio, 1787, followed by that of 1813-19 in 7 vols 8vo the next is that of the library of George III., 1820-29, 5 vols. folio, with 2 vols. 8vo, 1864, describing the geographical and topographical collections; and then the Bibliothcca Grenvilliana, 1842-72, 4 vols. 8vo. The first vol. (letter A) of a general catalogue appeared in 1841 in a folio volume which has never been added to. The octavo catalogue of the Hebrew books came out in 1867; that of the Sanskrit and Pali literature is in 4to, 1876; and the Chinese catalogue is also in 4to, 1877. There are also printed lists of the books of reference (1871) and bibliographies (1881) in the reading-room. Private enterprise has done a great deal towards cataloguing the American books (by Mr H. Stevens, 4 vols. 8vo), and the British topographical literature has recently been the subject of a similar publication by Mr J. P. Anderson, 8vo, 1881.
The printed catalogues of the MSS. are that of the old Royal Library, 1734, 4to; the Sloane and others hitherto undescribed, 1782, 2 vols. 4to; the Cottonian, 1802, folio; the Harleian, 1808, 4 vols. folio; the Hargrave, 1818, 4 to; the Lansdowne, 1819, folio; the Arundel, 1840, folio; the Burney, 1840, folio; the Oriental (Arabic and Ethiopic), 5 pts., folio, 1838-71; the Syriac, 1870-73, 3 pts., 4to; the Ethiopic, 1877, 4to; the Persian, 1879-80, 2 vols. 4to; and the Spanish, 1875-80, 3 vols. 8vo. There are also catalogues of the Greek and Egyptian papyri, 1839-46, 5 pts., folio. The additional MSS. from 1831-75 are described in 10 vols. 8vo, 1835-77, with indexes (1783-1835) in folio and (1854-75) in 8vo. A catalogue of the MS. music was produced in 1842, 8vo; and one of the MS. maps in 1844, 2 vols. 8vo.
The binding is done upon the premises, and the sum expended each year is 9000. The average sum annually spent upon the purchase of books is about 10,000, and upon MSS. 2500. Since the catalogues ceased to be transcribed 3000 is annually spent oil printing.
London is very badly off as regards public libraries, and the largest general collection which is available without any tedious preliminary forms is that of the corporation of the city of London at the Guildhall. A library was established here by Sir Richard Whittington between 1421-26, and several notices in the civic records show how well in those times the citizens cared for their books. But it did not remain without accident; in 1522 the Lord Protector Somerset carried off three cart-loads of books, and during the great fire of 1666 the remainder was destroyed together with the library buildings. Nothing was done to repair the loss until 1824, when a committee was appointed, and rooms set apart for library purposes. In 1840 a catalogue of 10,000 volumes was printed, and in 1859 a second was prepared of 40,000 volumes. In consequence of the large and increasing number of the readers, the present fine building was commenced about ten years later, and, after having cost 90,000, was opened in 1873 as a free public library. There are now upwards of 80,000 printed volumes and 300 MSS. The contents are of a general character, and include a special collection of books about London, the Solomons Hebrew and rabbinical library, and the libraries of the Clockmakers Company and the old Dutch church in Austin Friars. The only rate-supported library in. the metropolis is that of the united parishes of St Margaret and St John at Westminster (13,527 volumes), founded in 1857, principally by the influence of the late Lord Hatherley, with a small branch at Knightsbridge. The Netting Hilt Free Public Library (5000 volumes) is supported by Mr James Heywood, and the Bethnal Green Free Library and South London Free Library by voluntary subscriptions.
Of libraries of a more special character, those principally devoted to theology have perhaps the first claim to notice. The archiepiscopal library at Lambeth was founded in 1610 by Archbishop Bancroft, and has been enriched by the gifts of Laud, Tenison, Manners Sutton, and others of his successors; it is now lodged in the noble hall built by Juxon. The treasures consist of the illuminated MSS., and a rich store of early printed books; of the latter two catalogues have been issued by S. R. Maitland. The MSS. are described in H. J. Todd's catalogue, 1812. Sion College is a guild of the parochial clergy of the city and suburbs of London, and the library was founded in 1629 for their use; laymen may also read (but not borrow) the books when recommended by some beneficed metropolitan clergyman. The library is especially rich in liturgies, Port-Royal authors, pamphlets, &c. The copyright privilege was commuted in 1835 for an annual sum of £363, 15s. 2d. The present building was erected immediately after the great fire. The chamber in the old cloisters, in which the library of the dean and chapter of Westminster is preserved, is well known from the charming description by Washington Irving in his Sketch Book. There are about 11,000 volumes, mostly of old theology and history, including many rare Bibles and other valuable books. The library of the dean and chapter of St Paul's was founded in very early times, and now numbers some 8700 volumes, mainly theological, besides over 10,300 pamphlets, with a good collection of early Bibles and Testaments, Paul's Cross Sermons, and works connected with the cathedral. Dr Williams's library was founded by the will of an eminent Presbyterian divine of that name; it was opened in 1729. The books (30,000 printed volumes and 1000 MSS.) are housed in a new building, completed in 1873. Theology of all schools of opinion is represented, and there are special collections of theosophical books and MSS., the works of Boehme, Law, and other mystical writers. The MSS. include the original minutes of the Westminster Assembly, letters and treatises of Richard Baxter, &c. The British and Foreign Bible Society has a remarkable collection of Bibles and Biblical literature, of which a printed catalogue was published in 1855. Perhaps the best library of Catholic theology in London is that of the Oratory at South Kensington, established in 1849.
Of the law libraries, that at Lincoln's Inn is the oldest and the largest. It dates from 1497, when John Nethersale, a member of the society, made a bequest of forty marks, part of which was to be devoted to the building of a library for the benefit of the students of the laws of England. A catalogue of the printed books was published in 1859, and the MSS. were catalogued by the Rev. Joseph Hunter in 1837. The library of the Inner Temple is known to have existed in 1510. In the middle of the 17th century it received a considerable benefaction from William Petyt, the well-known keeper of the Tower records. There are now about 36,000 volumes, including the pamphlets collected by John Adolphus for his History of England, books on crime and prisons brought together by Mr Crawford, and a selection of works on jurisprudence made by John Austin. A library in connexion with the Middle Temple was in existence during the reign of Henry VIII., but the date usually assigned to its foundation is 1641, when Robert Ashley left his books to the inn of which he had been a member. Gray's Inn Library was perhaps established before 1555. In 1669 was made the first catalogue of the books, and the next, still extant, in 1689. The Incorporated Law Society (1831) has a good law and general library (30,000 volumes), including the best collection of private Acts of Parliament in England, and a large number of pamphlets relating to Anglo-Catholic controversies brought together by the late Rev. Joseph Mendham. The catalogue was printed in 1869.
The collegiate library at Dulwich dates from 1619, and a list of its earliest accessions, in the handwriting of the founder, may still be seen. There are now about 7000 volumes of miscellaneous works of the 17th and 18th centuries, with a few rare books. A catalogue of them was printed in 1880; and one describing the MSS. (567) and the muniments (606) was issued during the succeeding year. The last two classes are very important, and include the well-known "Alleyn Papers" and the theatrical diary of Philip Henslow. Soon after the foundation of the University of London in 1837, an endeavour was made to provide a library, but it has had to look to gifts rather than to purchases for its accessions. In 1871 the university obtained, in this manner, the library of the historian Grote, and in the same year Lord Overstone purchased and presented the mathematical collection of De Morgan. A catalogue was printed in 1875. The books at University College (1828) are much more numerous, and here also a considerable proportion are donations, including the Morrison Chinese library of 10,000 volumes, the Daulby-Roscoe Icelandic books, the Graves mathematical and physical library, and the Barlow Dante bequest. A printed catalogue of the greater portion was brought out in 1879. The library at King's College includes a collection of works on Eastern subjects bequeathed by Dr Marsden, as well as the scientific books formerly belonging to Sir Charles Wheatstone. The medical library is distinct. The educational library at the South Kensington Museum numbers about 42,200 volumes, and may be consulted by teachers and students of the departmental schools, and by other persons on the same terms as the art library mentioned below. The ninth edition of the catalogue appeared in 1876.
The library of the Patent Office is the largest scientific and technical collection, indeed the only one which is readily open to the public. There are at present 80,000 volumes, including a very extensive series of the transactions and journals of learned bodies. A catalogue is now in the press. Transactions and proceedings of societies, with scientific periodicals, compose almost the whole library of the Royal Society, which extends to about 40,000 volumes. The diarist Evelyn induced the seventh duke of Norfolk to present to the Society the Arundel library, part of which had formerly belonged to Matthias Corvinus. The MSS., however, were sold to the British Museum in 1831 for £3559, and a quantity of rare printed books have also been disposed of. Scientific inquirers are freely admitted to the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, where there are over 30,000 volumes on geology, mineralogy, mining, and metallurgy, including the former collections of De la Beche and Murchison. A printed catalogue was issued in 1878. For the libraries of other scientific institutions see the tables.
Medical and surgical libraries are attached to all the chief hospitals and medical societies (see the tables).
For the fine arts there is the National Art Library (1852) at the South Kensington Museum, which is now an excellent collection of 56,000 volumes, 56,000 photographs, 25,000 drawings, and 80,000 prints. Art students are admitted free, as are ordinary visitors on Museum pay days; otherwise a charge of 6d. per week is made to the latter. The library of the Royal Academy of Arts, after its journey from Somerset House to Trafalgar Square, has been lodged in the old ball-room of Burlington House since 1875. At the National Gallery is preserved for official use the library (3500 volumes) formerly belonging to Sir C. L. Eastlake, P.R.A., which is particularly rich in catalogues and descriptions of picture galleries. The Royal Institution of British. Architects (1834) possesses over 6500 volumes on architectural and allied subjects, including an almost complete collection of editions of Vitruvius. The library of the Royal Academy of Music (1822) is almost exclusively musical, and, although numbering less than 1000 volumes, contains many rare and interesting works. The library of the Sacred Harmonic Society is said to be one of the best arranged and most valuable musical collections in England. A third edition of the printed catalogue appeared in 1872, when the library contained 4851 volumes.
The best library of archaeology and kindred subjects is that of the Society of Antiquaries, consisting of nearly 20,000 printed volumes and 500 MSS. It is rich in early printed books, topography, heraldry, and numismatics, and includes a curious collection of books on pageants presented by Mr Fairholt, and the remarkable assemblage of lexicographical works formerly belonging to the late Albert Way, given by his widow. There is a good muster of heraldic works at the Herald's College, and the library of Sir John Soane (15,000 volumes) is still preserved in the museum at his house in Lincoln's Inn Fields. The printed catalogue (1878) shows that it is a fairly good collection of books on architecture and antiquities.
Among subscription libraries, the London Library stands first in order of importance. It was founded in 1841 as a lending library for the use of scholars, and Dean Milman, Sir G. C. Lewis, Mr Gladstone, Thomas Carlyle, Henry Hallam, and other eminent men took part in its formation. By means of a moderate subscription, funds were raised for the purchase of books on general subjects, which now amount to about 90,000 volumes. The latest catalogue was printed in 1875, with a supplement in 1881. The London Institution (1805) is a proprietary library to which proprietor's nominees and yearly subscribers also have admission. For reference purposes reader's tickets are very liberally granted to other persons. The books now number about 70,000 volumes in general literature; the departments of history and topography are especially rich, and the number is rapidly growing. A complete catalogue was published in 1837-43; almost the whole collection, including reference and circulating libraries very minutely classified, is contained in one room. Porson filled the position of librarian here at the close of his life, but he proved no better a librarian than did Casaubon before him at Paris. The library of the Royal Institution of Great Britain was founded in 1803 by the subscriptions of the members, amounting, in 1806, to 6000. There are now 40,000 volumes in scientific and general literature; they are not lent out. There is an interesting series of 56 volumes of MS. correspondence relating to the American war.
The libraries of the two branches of the legislature may be named with those of the great public offices. The Foreign Office library contains about 70,000 volumes, including the old library of the Board of Trade (20,000 volumes); history, geography, and law are well represented, and the department of treaties and diplomacy is of course very complete. The India Office library was formed by a vote of the court of directors of the East India Company in 1801. Tile services in India were also invited to aid in the creation of an institution which should become a permanent repository of Oriental lore, and many munificent donations were received in consequence of the appeal. The printed books now number nearly 40,000, chiefly on Indian and Oriental subjects, with about 10,000 Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Pali, and other Oriental manuscripts. Loth's excellent catalogue of the Arabic codices was published in 1877, and other catalogues are now ready for the press. At the Colonial Office there is a collection of about 12,000 works relating to colonial history and administration, and the Home Office possesses about 5000 volumes of parliamentary, historical, and legal works. The Admiralty library extends to about 25,000 volumes, chiefly voyages and travels; a printed catalogue was issued in 1875. At the War Office there are also 25,000 volumes, mainly topographical and military. The MS. records are estimated to extend to 100,000 volumes, but only those of the last twenty years are kept in Pall Mall, the remainder being at the Record Office. These records extend from the time of Queen Elizabeth, and there are some of earlier date. The older volumes belonged to the late Board of Ordnance, and the series also includes the despatches from generals commanding armies on foreign service. All these libraries are for official use only, but at the India Office strangers are admitted upon proper introduction.
Many of the principal clubs possess libraries; that of the Athenaeum is by far the most important. It now numbers about 48,000 volumes of books in all departments of literature, and is especially rich in well-bound and fine copies of works on the fine arts, archaeology, topography, and history. The pamphlets, of which there is a complete printed catalogue, as well as of the books, form a remark able series, including those collected by Gibbon and Mackintosh. Next comes the Reform Club, with about 30,000 volumes, chiefly in belles-lettres, with a fair pro portion of parliamentary and historical works. The Oxford and Cambridge Club has 20,000 volumes in general and classical literature. At the Garrick there is a small dramatic collection; and the United Service Club, besides a number of books on professional subjects, possesses the fine library which formerly belonged to Dugald Stewart.
A few libraries which could not be brought into any of the foregoing classes may now be spoken of. First comes the library of the Royal Geographical Society (1832), a valuable collection of 20,000 volumes of voyages and travels, and works on the sciences connected with geography, with many costly Government publications and geographical serials. The catalogue has been printed with supplements down to 1880. The maps and charts number 35,000, with 500 atlases and 240 large diagrams. Since 1854, in consideration of an annual grant of 500 from the treasury, the map room has been open for public reference. At the Royal United Service Institution there are also about 20,000 volumes, chiefly naval and military, with a printed catalogue, 1865. Besides the members, officers of both services are admitted. The Royal Asiatic Society has a library of nearly 8000 printed books, with 750 MSS. in Sanskrit, Persian, Turkish, &c., 5000 Chinese books, and 220 Japanese. Besides the art and educational libraries at South Kensington, there are also deposited at the museum, and open under the same regulations, the library of the Rev. Alexander Dyce, bequeathed in 1869, and the books of John Forster, left in 1876. The Dyce collection (15,000 volumes) is strong in the English drama and poetry, Italian literature, and classical authors. The Forster library (19,000 volumes) abounds in history, biography, travels, plays, and fiction, tracts, Americana, proclamations, ballads, &c.; the manuscripts include three note-books of Leonardo da Vinci, and the Garrick correspondence in 39 volumes.
Notices of a considerable number of other metropolitan libraries, not mentioned in the preceding pages, may be found in the tables at the end of this article.
With one or two exceptions, libraries are attached to the cathedrals of England and Wales. Though they are of course intended for the use of the cathedral or diocesan clergy, they are in most cases open to any respectable person who may be properly introduced. They seldom contain very much modern literature, chiefly consisting of older theology, with more or less addition of classical and historical literature. They vary in extent from a few volumes, as at Llandaff or St David's, to 15,000 volumes, as at Durham. Together they possess nearly 150,000 printed and manuscript volumes. As a rule, very little is spent upon them, and they are very little used.
The library of Christ Church, Oxford, belongs alike to the college and the cathedral, but will be more properly described as a college library. The cathedral library of Durham dates from monastic times, and possesses many of the books which belonged to the monastery. These were added to by Dean Sudbury, the second founder of the library, and Bishop Cosin, The collection has been considerably increased in more modern times, and now contains 15,000 volumes. It is especially rich in MSS., some of which are of great beauty and value; a catalogue of them was printed in 1825. The library has good topographical and entomological collections. The chapter spend 370 per annum in salaries and in books. The library at York numbers about 11,000 volumes, and has been very liberally thrown open to the public. It is kept in the former chapel of the archbishop's palace, and has many valuable MSS. and early printed books. The foundation of the library at Canterbury dates probably from the Roman mission to England, 596 A.D., although the library does not retain any of the books then brought over, or even of the books said to have been sent by Pope Gregory to the first archbishop in 601. It is recorded that among Lanfranc's buildings was a new library, and Becket is said to have collected books abroad to present to the library. The collection now numbers about 9900 printed books, with about 110 MS. volumes, and between 6000 and 7000 documents. A catalogue was printed in 1802. The present building was erected in 1867 on part of the site of the monastic dormitory. The library at Lincoln contains 7400 volumes, of which a catalogue was printed in 1859. It possesses a fine collection of political tracts of the age of Elizabeth, James, and Charles I. The present collection at Chichester dates from the Restoration only; that at Ely is rich in books and tracts relating to the non-jurors. The library at Exeter possesses many Saxon MSS. of extreme interest, one of them being the gift of Leofric, the first bishop. The treasures of Lichfield were destroyed by the Puritans during the civil war, and the existing library is of later formation. Frances, duchess of Somerset, bequeathed to it nearly 1000 volumes, including the famous Evangeliary of St Chad. The collection at Norwich is chiefly modern, and was presented by Dr Savers. The earlier library at Peterborough having almost wholly perished in the civil war, Bishop White Kennett became the virtual founder of the present collection. Salisbury is rich in incunabula, and a catalogue has recently been printed. Winchester Cathedral Library is mainly the bequest of Bishop Morley in the 17th century. The library at Bristol, then numbering 6000 or 7000 volumes, was burnt and pillaged by the mob in the riots of 1831. Only about 1000 volumes were saved, many of which were recovered, but few additions have been made to them. At Chester in 1691 Dean Arderne bequeathed his books and part of his estate "as the beginning of a public library for the clergy and city." The library of Hereford is a good specimen of an old monastic library; the books are placed in the Lady Chapel, and about 230 choice MSS. are chained to oaken desks. The books are ranged with the edges outwards upon open shelves, to which they are attached by chains and bars. The four Welsh cathedrals were supplied with libraries by a deed of settlement in 1709. The largest of them, that of St Asaph, has about 1750 volumes.
The Bodleian Library, though it had been preceded by various efforts towards a university library, owed its origin to Sir Thomas Bodley. After a long and honourable career as a diplomatist he determined, as he says, to take his farewell of state employments, and concluded to set up his staff at the library door in Oxon. Contributing largely himself, and procuring contributions from others, he opened the library with upwards of 2000 volumes in 1602. In 1610 he obtained a grant from the Stationers Company of a copy of every work printed in the country. The additions made to the library soon surpassed the capacity of the room, and the founder proceeded to enlarge it. By his will he left considerable property to the university for the maintenance and increase of the library. The example set by Bodley found many noble imitators. Amongst the chief benefactors have been Sir Henry Savile, Archbishop Laud, John Selden, Sir Kenelm Digby, Lord Fairfax, Richard Gougli, Francis Douce, Richard Rawlinson, Rev. Robert Mason, and F. W. Hope. The library now contains almost 400,000 printed volumes, and about 30.000 manuscripts. The number of separate works exceeds a million. But the number of volumes conveys a very inadequate idea of the valuable character of the collection. In the department of Oriental manuscripts it is perhaps superior to any other European library; and it is exceedingly rich in other manuscript treasures. It possesses a splendid series of Greek and Latin editiones prindpes, and of the earliest productions of English presses. Its historical manuscripts contain most valuable materials for the general and literary history of the country.
The last general catalogue of the printed books was printed in 4 vols. folio, 1843-51. In 1859 it was decided to prepare a new manuscript catalogue on the plan of the great catalogue at the British Museum, and this has recently been completed in duplicate. It extends to over 700 folio volumes, in which the books are entered on manifolded slips. It is an alphabetical author-catalogue; and the Bodleian, like the British Museum, has no accessible subject index. A catalogue on subjects is now, however, in course of preparation. There are also printed catalogues of the books belonging to several of the separate collections. The MSS. are in general catalogued according to the collections to which they belong, and they are all indexed, although they are not all catalogued as yet. Five volumes have been published under the late Mr Coxe's editorship of the "Catalog! Codicum MSS. Bibliothecte Bodleiaiue," 1853-63, in quarto, and there is a folio catalogue of Oriental MSS. In 1860 the beautiful building known as the "Radcliffe Library," now called the "Camera Bodleiana," was offered to the curators of the Bodleian by the Radclilfe trustees. It is used as a storehouse for the more modern books, including the new periodicals, which lie upon its tables; and it also serves as a reading-room. It is the only room open after the hour when the older building is closed owing to the rule as to the exclusion of artificial light. The separa tion of the books is a source of some inconvenience in practice, and it has been proposed of late years to remove the entire collections to a new building which should be erected for the purpose of accommodating them.
The library is open by right to all graduate members of the university, and to others (over eighteen years of age) upon producing a satisfactory recommendation. No books are allowed to be sent out of the library except by special leave of the curators, in which respect there is a marked contrast with the practice at the University Library at Cambridge, and still more so with the conspicuous liberality in this respect of the university libraries of Germany. The hours are from 9 to 4 and 9 to 3, according to the time of year, the Camera being open from 10 to 10 all the year round. The library is only closed altogether some twenty-nine working days in the year. The general control of the library is committed to a board of thirteen curators. The permanent endowment is comparatively small; the ordinary expenditure, chiefly defrayed from the university chest, is about £4500.
The other important collections not connected with particular colleges are the Radcliffe Library and the library of the Taylor Institution. The former was founded by the famous physician Dr John Radcliffe, who died in 1714, and bequeathed, besides a permanent endowment of 350 a year, the sum of 40,000 for a building. The library was opened in 1749. Many years ago the trustees resolved to confine their purchases of books to works on medicine and natural science. When the university museum and laboratories were built in 1860, the trustees allowed the books to be transferred to the museum. The completeness and convenience of the arrangements make the Radcliffe the model of a working scientific library. The Taylor Institution is due to the benefaction of Sir Robert Taylor, an architect, who died in 1788, leaving his property to found an establishment for the teaching of modern languages. The library was established in 1848, and is devoted to the literature of the modern European languages. It contains a fair collection of works on European philology, with a special Dante collection, about 1000 Mazarinades and 400 Luther pamphlets. It contains altogether 30,000 volumes, with a few MSS. The Finch collection, left to the university in 1830, is also kept with the Taylor Library. Books are lent out to members of the university and to others on a proper introduction. The endowment affords an income of £800 to £1000 for library purposes, and about 2000 volumes are added yearly.
The libraries of the several colleges vary considerably in extent and character. That of All Souls was established in 1443 by Archbishop Chichele, and enlarged in 1710 by the munificent bequest of Christopher Codrington. It devotes special attention to juris prudence, of which it has a large collection. It possesses 40,000 printed volumes and 300 MSS., and fills a splendid hall 200 feet long. The library of Brasenose College has a special endowment fund, so that it has, for a college library, the unusually large income of 200. The library of Christ Church is rich in divinity and topography. It embraces the valuable library bequeathed by Charles Boyle, third earl of Orrery, amounting to 10,000 volumes, the books and MSS. of Archbishop Wake, and the Morris collection of Oriental books. The building was finished in 1761, and closely resembles the basilica of Antoninus at Rome, now the Dogaua. Corpus possesses a fine collection of Aldines, many of them presented by its founder Bishop Fox, and a collection of 17th century tracts catalogued by Mr Edwards, with about 400 MSS. Exeter College Library has 25, 000 volumes, with special collections of classical dissertations and English theological and political tracts. The library of Jesus College has few books of later date than the early part of the last century. Many of them are from the bequest of Sir Leolina Jenkins, who built the existing library. There are also some valuable Welsh MSS. The library of Keble College consists largely of theology, including the MSS. of many of Keble's works. The library of Magdalen College has about 22,500 volumes (including many volumes of pamphlets) and 250 MSS. It has scientific and topographical collections. The library of Merton College has of late devoted itself to foreign modern history. New College Library has about 17,000 printed volumes and about 350 MSS., several of which were presented by its founder, William of Wykeham. Oriel College Library, besides its other possessions, has a special collection of books on comparative philology and mythology, with a printed catalogue. The fine library of Queen's College is strong in theology, in English and modern European history, and in English county histories. St John's College Library is largely composed of the Literature of theology and jurisprudence before 1750, and possesses a collection of medical books of the 16th and 17th centuries. The newer half of the library building was erected by Inigo Jones at the expense of Laud, who also gave many printed and manuscript books. The room used as a library at Trinity College formed part of Durham College, the library of which was established by Richard of Bury. Wadham College Library includes a collection of botanical books bequeathed by Richard Warner in 1775 and a collection of books, relating chiefly to the Spanish Reformers, presented by the executors of Benjamin Wiffen. Worcester College Library has of late specially devoted itself to classical archaeology. It is also rich in old plays.
It must be admitted that the college libraries as a rule have not been used to any great extent. Of late, however, there have been signs of awakening interest. About 1871 there was a meeting of college librarians; and it was agreed that the colleges, instead of making merely sporadic purchases from the whole field of literature, should rather husband their limited resources and restrict them selves each to some special department. But the idea has not been carried out very thoroughly, and a good deal must be done before the college libraries can be said to be as useful and efficient as they might be.
The history of the University Library at Cambridge dates from the earlier part of the 15th century. Two early lists of its contents are preserved, the first embracing 52 volumes dating from about 1425, the second a shelf-list, apparently of 330 volumes, drawn up by the outgoing proctors in 1473. Its first great benefactor was Thomas Scott of Rotherham, archbishop of York, who erected in 1475 the building in which the library continued until 1755. He also gave more than 200 books and manuscripts to the library, some of which still remain. The library received other benefactions, but nevertheless appeared " but mean " to John Evelyn when he visited Cambridge in 1654. In 1666 Tobias Rustat presented a sum of money to be invested to buy the choicest and most useful books. In 1715 George I. presented the library of Bishop Moore, which was very rich in early English printed books, forming over 30,000 volumes of printed books and manuscripts. The funds bequeathed by William Worts and John Manistre, together with that of Rustat, produce at present about £1500 a year. The share of university dues appropriated to library purposes amounts to £3000 a year. In addition the library is entitled to new books under the Copyright Acts. The number of printed volumes in the library cannot be exactly stated, as no recent calculation on the subject exists. It has been variously estimated at a quarter or half a million. The calendar states it as 200,000. It includes a fine series of editiones principes of the classics and of the early productions of the English press. The MSS. number 5723, in which are included a considerable number of adversaria or printed books with MS. notes, which form a leading feature in the collection. The most famous of the MSS. is the celebrated copy of the four gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, which is known as Codex fiezae, and which was presented to the university by that Reformer. A catalogue of the MSS. has been published in 4 vols., 1856-61. There is no printed catalogue of the books, although the catalogue is in print, the accessions being printed and cut up and arranged in volumes. The regulations of the library with regard to the lending of books are very liberal, as many as ten volumes being allowed out to one borrower at the same time.
There is a library attached to the Fitzwilliam Museum bequeathed to the university in 1816. It consists of the entire library of Lord Fitzwilliam, with the addition of an archaeological library bought from the executors of Colonel Leake, and a small number of works, chiefly on the history of art, since added by purchase or bequest. It contains a collection of engravings of old masters, a collection of music, printed and MS., and a collection of illuminated MSS., chiefly French and Flemish, of the 14th to 16th centuries. The books are not allowed to be taken out.
The library of Trinity College, which is contained in a magnificent hall built by Sir Christopher Wren, has about 90,000 printed and 1918 MS. volumes, and is especially strong in theology, classics, and bibliography. It owes to numerous gifts and be quests the possession of a great number of rare books and manuscripts. Amongst these special collections are the Capell collection of early dramatic and especially Shakespearian literature, the collection of German theology and philosophy bequeathed by Archdeacon Hare, and the Grylls bequest in 1863 of 9600 volumes, including many early printed books. There are printed catalogues of the Sanskrit and other Oriental MSS. by Dr Aufrecht and Professor Palmer, and of the incunabula by the present librarian, Mr Sinker. The library is open to all members of the college, and the privilege of using it is liberally extended to properly accredited students.
None of the other college libraries rivals Trinity in the number of books. The library of Christ's College received its first books from the foundress. Clare College Library includes a number of Italian and Spanish plays of the end of the 16th century left by George Ruggle. The library of Corpus Christi College first became not able through the bequest of books and MSS. made by Archbishop Parker in 1575. The printed books are less than 5000 in number, and the additions now made are chiefly in such branches as throw light on the extremely valuable collection of ancient MSS., which attracts scholars from all parts of Europe. There is a printed catalogue of these MSS. Gonville and Gains College Library is of early foundation. A catalogue of the MSS. was printed in 1849, with pictorial illustrations, and a list of the incunabula in 1850. The printed books of King's College includes the fine collection bequeathed by Jacob Bryant in 1804. The MSS. are almost wholly Oriental, chiefly Persian and Arabic, and a catalogue of them has been printed. Magdalene College possesses the curious library formed by Pepys and bequeathed by him to the college, together with his collections of prints and drawings and of rare British portraits. It is remarkable for its treasures of popular literature and English ballads, as well as for the Scottish manuscript poetry collected by Sir Richard Maitland. The books are kept in Pepys's own cases, and remain just as he arranged them himself. The library of Peterhouse is the oldest library in Cambridge, and possesses a catalogue of some 600 or 700 books dating from 1418, in which year it was completed. It is chiefly theological, though it possesses a valuable collection of modern works on geology and natural science, and a unique collection of MS. music. Queen's College Library contains about 30,000 volumes, mainly in theology, classics, and Semitic literature, and has a printed class catalogue. The library of St John's College is rich in early printed books, and possesses a large collection of English historical tracts. Of the MSS. and rare books there is a printed catalogue. For the other college libraries see the tables.
Free Public Libraries.—In the year 1850 Mr Ewart introduced the first Public Libraries Act into the House of Commons, and it has since been supplemented and amended by the Acts of 1855, 1866, 1871, and 1877. Mr Ewart had previously carried through parliament the Museums Act of 1845; and small libraries had been established in connexion with museums under that Act at Salford and Warrington. The number of towns which have established rate-supported libraries, or in which the Acts have been adopted, now amounts to at least ninety-six, ten of these towns being in Scotland, and one only in Ireland. It is noticeable that the Acts have not been adopted in any of the great capital towns of the three kingdoms, except in one single parish of Westminster. Many of our largest towns are also in default. Glasgow may be considered to be sufficiently provided for by the munificent Mitchell bequest. Of the libraries which have actually been opened sixteen are in places of over 100,000 inhabitants, twenty in towns of between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, sixteen in towns of between 30,000 and 50,000, eleven in towns of between 20,000 and 30,000 inhabitants, seventeen in towns of between 10,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, and finally six in towns of less than 10,000 inhabitants.
Taking the latest returns we have been able to obtain, which are with a few exceptions those of the year 1880-81, the number of volumes in stock and of the total issues is as follows. In eighty-one libraries returning their number of volumes, there is a total of 1,448,192 volumes in stock; while the total issues for the year in seventy-six libraries amounted to the enormous number of 9,023,742 volumes. Even these figures afford a very inadequate idea of the service rendered by these institutions in supplying popular reading. They take no account of the visits made to the newsrooms which are almost invariably connected with the libraries, or of the use made of the magazines and periodicals which lie upon the tables. The free public libraries generally consist of a lending department, with a reference library wherever the institution can provide one. A very large proportion of the issues from the lending departments consists of fiction, the percentage varying in different libraries from about 50 to as much as 75 per cent, of the whole. It is only in the case of the wealthier institutions, such as those in the great towns of Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham, that the reference departments are so important as to claim consideration here in respect of the intrinsic character of their collections. Even some of the smaller libraries, however, present features of interest in their collections of local books, or of books illustrating the trade or industry of the district, or the life and writings of some great man connected with or born in the locality.
The Salford Free Public Library was one of the libraries which were established under the Museums Act of 1845, and was opened in 1850 in connexion with the museum and picture gallery at Peel Park. The buildings are pleasantly situated in grounds of 46 acres in extent. The reference library now contains 33,500 volumes, and besides the central lending departments there are three branches in different parts of the borough. The income from the penny rate is about £3300; but this is found to be inadequate.
The Manchester Free Library was the first to be established under the Act of 1850. A public subscription of nearly £13,000 was raised to defray the expenses of its establishment, and the library was opened in September 1852. The working of this library was a success from the outset. The issues in the first year were in the reference departments 61,080 volumes, and in the lending departments 77,232. The progress made since then may be measured by the number of volumes issued last year (1881), which amounted to 966,468, and by the fact that six branch libraries have been established. The rate produces an income of £11,000. The reference library now possesses a valuable collection of 65,000 volumes, chiefly of standard works. It contains several special collections, chiefly connected with the industries and history of the district. The library of the English Dialect Society, of which a catalogue has been printed, is deposited here. In addition, the library possesses a very extensive series of periodicals, and a larger collection of political and commercial tracts than can be found any where in the country except at the British Museum. A good catalogue was printed in 1864, and a new and extensive index has just appeared.
The library at Liverpool, which was established under a special Act passed in 1852, is the most successful of all the free public libraries, and is connected with a splendid museum and art gallery, the former formed around the nucleus of the ornithological specimens bequeathed to the town by the thirteenth earl of Derby. The rapid extension of museum and library soon rendered larger premises a necessity. The late Sir William Brown took upon himself the entire cost of the present extensive buildings, which were opened in 1860. In 1880 was opened the Picton Heading-Room. It is a circular room 100 feet in diameter, surmounted by a dome, the entire height being 56 feet. It contains 50,000 volumes, and will accommodate over 300 readers. Since April 1881 the electric light has been employed. Under the reading-room is a large circular lecture-room accommodating 1500 persons, in which lectures are regularly delivered. There is a numerous collection of local books and pamphlets. The Binns collection, consisting of maps, plans, drawings, portraits, &c., all having reference to the county of Lancaster, is very interesting and valuable. The issues from the reference library in 1880 were 870,716, and with the issues from the two lending departments make the enormous aggregate of 1,307,131. The rate produces an income of 13,000 per annum, of which more than 5000 is expended upon the libraries. An elaborate catalogue of the reference library was published in 1872, and a supplement is now being printed. In 1853 Bolton established a library which now hns a circulation of over 240,000 volumes. In 1855 libraries were established at Birkenhead and Sheffield. At Birkenhead the rate produces 1500, and 130,000 volumes were lent out last year. At Sheffield, where the rate produces 4750, there are three branches, and the total issues last year were 384,266. The reference library has only 9000 volumes.
The Acts, after having been rejected at Birmingham in 1852, were adopted in 1860. By 1868 four branches had been opened in addition to the central reference and lending libraries. The issues from the lending departments last year were 400,000 volumes. The reference library consisted of over 50,000 volumes. The Shakespeare Memorial Library consisted of about 7000 volumes. There were also the Staunton Warwickshire collections of books and MSS. and the Cervantes books. All these collections were unfortunately destroyed by a fire on January 11, 1879. The inhabitants of Birmingham have shown much public spirit in repairing the losses then sustained so far as is possible, and the new central reference and lending libraries are expected to be open early in 1882, when it is anticipated that there will be as many volumes ready to be placed in the reference library as there were when the former library was destroyed. No town in England is so surrounded with free libraries as Birmingham. The rate at Birmingham produces over £6000.
The free library at Nottingham (1867) has recently had new quarters found for it in the new university buildings. It has two branches, and its issues are about 160,000. The rate produces £2200. The local collections include a Byron library. The library at Leeds (1868) has no less than twenty-one branches, and together they count over 109,000 volumes. The issues last year, in addition to the use made of the central reference library, were 639,613. The rate produces nearly 5000. At Leicester there is only a halfpenny rate, which produces about 800. The issues last year were 192.317. At Bradford (Acts adopted 1871) the rate produces 3200, and there are five branches with a circulation of 291,276 volumes, besides the use made of the reference library. At Plymouth (Acts adopted 1871, library opened 1876) the circulation was 171,851 last year; at Rochdale (Acts adopted 1872) 168,514. At each place there is a good collection of local literature, and at Rochdale a collection of works on the woollen manufacture. The library at Newcastle, opened in 1880, has issued from its lending departments, in its first year, no less than 301,925 volumes to about 14,000 readers. A splendid building is in course of erection to accommodate the reference library. This department is intended to contain a complete collection of all standard works, and also a collection of books and manuscripts relating to Newcastle and the northern counties generally. The rate produces 2800. At Bristol a town library had been established in 1614 by Robert Redwood and Archbishop Matthew, and this has formed the nucleus of the collections formed under the Acts when they were adopted in 1875. The total number of volumes is about 46,000. The issues were 432,646 at the central library and its three branches. At Southport (1875) Mr Atkinson gave the building called after him for a library and art gallery. The issues last year were 110,778. The rate produced 775, and an additional voluntary rate produced a little over 100 besides.
It will be seen from this summary statement that the libraries established under the Acts have in the cases mentioned been abundantly used. The merit of these results is very largely due to the enlightened energy of those who are entrusted with their administration.
Amongst the English libraries that have not yet been described there are few that call for special mention. Some of these have been founded by individuals, and still bear their names. The most notable of these is the fine old library established by Humphrey Chetham at Manchester in 1653, which is still housed in the old collegiate buildings where Raleigh was once entertained by Dr Dee. The collection consists largely of older literature, and numbers 40,000 volumes, with 300 MSS. It is freely open to the public, and may be said to have been the first free library in England. Dr Shepherd's library at Preston was bequeathed by the founder, a physician of the town, to the corporation of Preston in trust for the inhabitants in the year 1759. It is a library of reference, accessible on a recommendation from an alderman. The William Salt Library, a special Staffordshire library with numerous MSS. and other collections, formed to bring together materials for a history of Staffordshire, was opened to the public in 1874.
in the Warrington Museum. The Leeds library was established in 1768, and now has 85,000 volumes, and an income of 1430. In 1772 the Bristol museum and library was formed, and numbered Coleridge, Southey, and Landor among its earlier members. It now reckons 50,000 volumes, and au income of 1400 a year. The Birmingham (old) library was formed in 1779, and its rules were drawn up by Dr Priestley, who had already taken an active share in the management of the libraries at Warrington and Leeds. The library has now 40,000 to 50,000 volumes, and an income of 1600. Many similar institutions are noticed in the tables, while others have given place to the trade circulating libraries and to the libraries established under the Free Libraries Acts.Some mention should be made also of the more important subscription or proprietary libraries, which were formed for the most part in the latter half of the 18th century. It is difficult for us to realize how few collections of books were accessible to the public of the last century even in London. The earliest circulating library in the metropolis was established about the middle of the century. The first in Birmingham was opened by Hutton in 1757. The idea of a proprietary library appears to have been first carried out at Liverpool in 1758. The library then formed still flourishes at the Lyceum, and possesses a collection of 72,000 volumes and an income of £1200 a year. In 1760 a library was formed at Warrington which has been merged
A few modern collegiate libraries, finally, claim a summary notice. The library of the university of Durham dates only from 1833, and was begun by a gift of books from Bishop Van Mildert, to which many other donations have since succeeded. The Routh collection includes a large collection of early tracts. The Winterbottom collection is chiefly classical, and the Maltby collection classical and theological. The library of the Owens College, Manchester, was formed on the establishment of the college in 1851 by a gift of books from Mr James Hey wood, F.R.S. It has since been largely increased by donations and bequests, including the libraries of Bishop Lee, Mr Grace Calvert, and others. It has an endowment fund of 2500. The library at Stonyhurst College has gradually grown since the establishment of the college in 1794. There is a printed catalogue of books printed before 1551. The Walshian Library at St Mary's College, Oscott, was established by Bishop Walsh in 1839, having been purchased by him from the Marchese Marini. It has 70 MSS. and many early printed books.
The principal library in Scotland is that of the Faculty of Advocates, who in 1680 appointed a committee of their number, which reported that " it was fitt that, seeing if the recusants could be made pay their entire money, there wold be betwixt three thousand and four thousand pounds in cash; that the same be imployed on the best and fynest lawers and other law bookes, conforme to a catalogue to be condescended upon by the Facultie, that the samen may be a fonde for ane Bibliothecque whereto many lawers and others may leave their books." In 1682 the active carrying out of the scheme was committed to the Dean of Faculty, Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, who may be regarded as the founder of the library. In 1684 the first librarian was appointed, and the library appears to have made rapid progress, since it appears from the treasurer's accounts that in 1686 the books and furniture were valued at upwards of 11,000 Scots, exclusive of donations. In the year 1700, the rooms in the Exchange Stairs, Parliament Close, in which the library was kept, being nearly destroyed by fire, the collection was removed to the ground floor of the Parliament House, where it has ever since remained. The library retains the copyright privilege conferred upon it in 1709. The number of volumes in the library is computed to amount to 265,000; of the special collections the most important are the Astorga collection of old Spanish books, purchased by the faculty in 1824 for 4000; the Thorkelin collection, consisting of about 1200 volumes relating chiefly to the history and antiquities of the northern nations, and including some rare books on old Scottish poetry; the Dietrich collection of over 100,000 German pamphlets and dissertations, including many of the writings of Luther and Melanchthon, purchased for the small sum of 80.; and the Combe collection.
The faculty appear early to have turned their attention to the collection of MSS., and this department of the library now numbers about 3000 volumes. Many of them are of great interest and value, especially for the civil and ecclesiastical history of Scotland before and after the Reformation. There are thirteen monastic chartularies which escaped the destruction of the religious houses to which they belonged. The MSS. relating to Scottish church history include the collections of Spottiswoode, Woodrow, and Calderwood. The Woodrow collection consists of 154 volumes, and includes his correspondence, extending from 1694 to 1726. Sir James Balfour a collection and the Balcarres papers consist largely of original state papers, and include many interesting royal letters of the times of James V., Queen Mary, and James VI. The Sibbald papers, numbering over 30 volumes, are largely topographical. The Riddel notebooks, numbering 156 volumes, contain collections to illustrate the genealogy of Scottish families. There are about one hundred volumes of Icelandic MSS., purchased in 1825 from Professor Finn Magnusson, and some Persian and Sanskrit, with a few classical, manuscripts. The department has some interesting treasures of old poetry, extending to 73 volumes. The most important are the Bannatyne MS., in 2 vols. folio, written by George Bannatyne in 1568, and the Auchinleck MS., a collection of ancient English poetry, named after Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck, who presented it in 1774.
The first catalogue of the printed books was compiled in 1692, and contains a preface by Sir George Mackenzie. Another was prepared under the care of Ruddiman in 1742. In 1853 the late Mr Halkett commenced a catalogue, which has been printed in 6 vols. 4to, with a supplement, and includes all the printed books in the library at the end of 1871, containing about 260,000 entries. It is an illustration of the public spirit with which they conduct their library, that the whole cost of printing this extensive catalogue, over 5000, has been borne by the members of the faculty. The library, managed by a keeper and staff, under a board of six curators, is easily accessible to all persons engaged in literary work, and is for all practical purposes the public consulting library of Scotland.
The origin of the University Library of Edinburgh is to be found in a bequest of his books of theology and law made to the town in 1580 by Clement Little, advocate. This was two years before the foundation of the university, and in 1584 the town council caused the collection to be removed to the college, of which they were the patrons. As it was the only library in the town, it continued to grow and received many benefactions, so that in 1615 it became necessary to erect a library building. Stimulated perhaps by the example of Bodley at Oxford, Drummond of Hawthornden made a large donation of books, of which he printed a catalogue in 1627, and circulated an appeal for assistance from others. In 1678 the library received a bequest of 2000 volumes from the Rev. James Nairne. In 1709 the library became entitled to the copy privilege, which has since been commuted for a payment of 575 per annum. In 1831 the books were removed to the present library buildings, for which a parliamentary grant had been obtained. The main library hall (190 feet in length) is one of the most splendid apartments in Scotland. One of the rooms is set apart as a memorial to General Reid, by whose benefaction the library has greatly benefited. Amongst the more recent accessions have been the Halliwell-Phillips Shakespeare collection, the Laing collection of Scottish MSS., the Baillie collection of Oriental MSS. (some of which are of great value), and the Hodgson collection of works on political economy. The library now consists of about 140,000 volumes of printed books with 2000 MSS.
The library of the Writers to Her Majesty's Signet was established by the society in 1755. At first it consisted of law books exclusively, but in 1788 they began to collect the best editions of works in other departments of literature. During the librarianship of Macvey Napier (1805-37) the number of volumes was more than sextupled, and in 1812 the library was removed to the new hall adjoining the Parliament House. In 1834 the upper hall was devoted to the collection. This is a magnificent apartment 142 feet long, with a beautiful cupola painted by Stotbard. The library now contains nearly 70,000 volumes, exclusive of pamphlets, and includes some fine specimens of early printing, as well as many other rare and costly works. It is especially rich in county histories and British topography and antiquities. A catalogue of the law books was printed in 1856. The late David Laing, who became librarian in 1837, published the first volume of a new catalogue in 1871. The second volume is nearly completed. The books are lent out to the Writers and even to strangers recommended by them. This library, like that of the Advocates, is most liberally opened to literary inquirers, and has thus acquired a quasi-public or national character.
There are various other important libraries in Edinburgh, but no considerable lending library open freely to the poorest of the people, and two attempts which have been, made to introduce the Libraries Acts have been unsuccessful.
The first mention of a library at St Andrews is as early as 1456. The three colleges were provided with libraries of their own about the time of their foundation St Salvator's 1455, St Leonard's 1512, St Mary's 1537. The University Library was established about 1612 by King James VI., and in the course of the 18th century the college libraries were merged in it. The copy right privilege was commuted in 1837. The collection numbers 90,000 volumes exclusive of pamphlets, with about 200 MSS., chiefly of local interest. About 1200 volumes are added yearly. A library is supposed to have existed at Aberdeen since the foundation of King's College by Bishop Elphinstone in 1494. The present collection combines the libraries of King's College and Marischal College, now incorporated in the university. The latter had its origin in a collection of books formed by the town authorities at the time of the Reformation, and for some time kept in one of the churches. The library has benefited by the Melvin bequest, chiefly of classical books, and those of Henderson and Wilson, and contains some very valuable books. The general library is located in Old Aberdeen, while the medical and law books are in the New Town. The library has a grant, in lieu of the copy privilege, of 320. The library of the university of Glasgow dates from the 15th century, and numbers George Buchanan and many other distinguished men amongst its early benefactors. A classified subject-catalogue is in progress. The annual accessions are about 1500, and the commutation-grant 707. Connected with the university, which is trustee for the public, is the library of the Hunterian Museum, formed by the eminent anatomist Dr William Hunter. It is a collection of great bibliographical interest, as it is rich in MSS. and in fine specimens of the early printing, especially in Greek and Latin classics. The printed books number about 13,000 volumes, and the MSS. some 600 volumes. All the Scottish university libraries lend books to students, on deposit of 1, to graduates, for an annual subscription of half a guinea, and to persons engaged in literary research, by permission of the senatus.
The Mitchell Library at Glasgow bids fair to be the most important public library outside Edinburgh. It was founded by a munificent bequest of 70,000 from the late Mr Stephen Mitchell. The library was opened in 1877, in temporary premises, and already contains over 36,000 volumes. It includes a special collection of Scottish poetry called "The Poets Corner," and a collection of Glasgow literature, including early specimens of Glasgow printing. The library is open to all persons over fourteen years of age, and the number of readers during the first three years in which the library has been opened is believed to be without precedent. The number of volumes issued in 1880 was 390,732.
The English Libraries Act of 1850 was extended to Scotland in 1854, and the first town to put it into operation was Airdrie, in 1856. The largest of the libraries which have been opened under the Acts is at Dundee, which possesses 35,500 volumes, with a circulation of 252,314. The rate produces £2390. Although the resources of the other towns in which the Acts have so far been adopted do not enable them to rival the larger English towns, the results are proportionately quite as satisfactory. The turnover of their stock of books is generally large, and the reading done appears to be more solid and serious than in England. The percentage of fiction issued is at least 10 or 15 per cent. below the average rate in the English free libraries.
The establishment of the library of Trinity College, Dublin, is contemporaneous with that of the Bodleian at Oxford, and it is an interesting circumstance that, when Challoner and Ussher (afterwards the archbishop) were in London purchasing books to form the library, they met Bodley there, and entered into friendly intercourse and co-operation with him to procure the choicest and best books. The commission was given to Ussher and Challoner as trustees of the singular donation which laid the foundation of the library. In the year 1601 the English army determined to commemorate their victory over the Spanish troops at Kinsale by some permanent monument. Accordingly they subscribed the sum of 1800 to establish a library in the university of Dublin. For Ussher's own collection, consisting of 10,000 volumes and many valuable MSS., the college was also indebted to military generosity. On his death in 1655 the officers and soldiers of the English army then in Ireland purchased the whole collection for 22,000 with the design of presenting it to the college. Cromwell, however, interfered, alleging that he proposed to found a new college, where the books might more conveniently be preserved. They were deposited therefore in Dublin Castle, and the college only obtained them after the Restoration. In 1674 Sir Jerome Alexander left his law books with some valuable MSS. to the college. In 1726 Dr Palliser, archbishop of Cashel, bequeathed over 4000 volumes to the library; and ten years later Dr Gilbert gave the library nearly 13,000 volumes which he had himself collected and arranged. In 1741 the library received a valuable collection of MSS. as a bequest from Dr Stearne. In 1802 the collection formed by the pensionary Fagel, which had been removed to England on the French invasion of Holland, was acquired for 10,000. It consisted of over 20,000 volumes. In 1805 Mr Quin bequeathed a choice collection of classical and Italian books. There have been many other smaller donations, in addition to which the library is continually increased by the books received under the Copyright Act. The library now contains 192,000 volumes and 1880 MSS., and about 3000 volumes are added every year. There is no permanent endowment, and purchases are made by grants from the board. The whole collections are contained in one building, erected in 1732, consisting of eight rooms. The great library hall is a magnificent apartment over 200 feet long. A new reading-room was opened in 1848. A catalogue of the books acquired before 1872 is now in course of printing. There is no printed catalogue of the MSS. Graduates of Dublin, Oxford, and Cambridge are admitted to read permanently, and temporary admission is granted by the board to any fit person who makes application. Books and MSS. are lent out only under special regulations. A lending library has been established to make provision for the needs of the students.
The public library, St Patrick's, Dublin, sometimes called Marsh's Library after its founder, was established about 1694 by Archbishop Marsh, was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1707, and endowed by its founder at his death in 1713. The building was erected by the founder, and the original oak fittings still remain. There is no room for additions, and a large collection of modern books was refused a few years ago on that account. The endowment is too small to allow of purchases from the funds of the library, so that it still retains the character of a 17th century library. The books are chiefly theological, and in the learned languages; they include the libraries of Bishop Stillingfleet and of Elias Bouhereau, a French refugee, who was the first librarian.
The library of the Royal Dublin Society was commenced shortly after the formation of the society in 1731. With the exception of about 10,000 volumes of the publications of learned societies and scientific periodicals, with a few early editions, its books were transferred to the state, in 1877, to assist in forming the national library of Ireland. The manuscript collections of Walter Harris on Irish history were purchased and placed in the library for public use by the Irish parliament. The library of the Royal Irish Academy was established on the formation of the Academy in 1785, for the purpose of promoting the study of science, literature, and antiquities in Ireland. The library possesses about 40,000 printed volumes and about 1400 MSS. There is a large collection of MSS. and books relating to the history, ancient language, and antiquities of Ireland. They include the Betham collection, acquired partly by public subscription in 1851. The library is partly supported by a Government grant of 200 per annum, and is freely open on a proper introduction. Under the direction of the present honorary librarian, the publication of Irish MSS. in the library was begun in 1870, and has since continued. The library of King's Inns was founded, pursuant to a bequest of books and legal MSS. under the will of Mr Justice Robinson in 1787, to form the nucleus of a library for law students. It is partly supported from the funds of the benchers, but partly also by a treasury grant of £433, 6s. 8d. in lieu of the copy privilege. No books are lent out, and the use of the library is confined to students and barristers; so that the public has no advantage in return for the annual contribution of public money.
There is no library in Dublin corresponding in extent and public accessibility to the British Museum in London, or the Advocates Library in Edinburgh. About 1850 it was proposed to supply the deficiency by combining the libraries of the Dublin Society and the Irish Academy, both of which had long received grants of public money, together with the collection of Archbishop Marsh. Accordingly in 1854 an Act of Parliament was passed "for the establishment of a national gallery and for the care of a public library in Dublin." The scheme thus authorized has never been carried out. In 1877, however, the National Library of Ireland was established in the apartments of Leinster House. The library is under the Science and Art Department of South Kensington, and is superintended by a body of twelve trustees in Dublin. For the last two years it has received an annual vote of £1000 from parliament for the purchase of books. As already mentioned, the books of the Royal Dublin Society have been transferred to it. It is freely open to the public on a respectable introduction, and is much used. The public library of Armagh was founded by Lord Primate Robinson in 1770, who gave a considerable number of books and an endowment. The books are freely available, either on the spot, or by loan on deposit of double the value of the work applied for. At Belfast the Queen's College Library has about 36,000 volumes, with a special collection of books on the languages and literatures of the East. The library of the Queen's College, Cork, contains about 25,000 volumes, 1600 of the most valuable of which have been presented by Mr Crawford. The library is easily accessible to literary inquirers, and is much used by strangers. The library of Maynootfi College is chiefly theological, and contains the collections bequeathed by the late president, Monsignor Russell. There are about 40,000 volumes and a few MSS.
Dundalk is at present the only town that has a library under the Public Libraries Acts, which were adopted there in 1856. The rate produces only about 80.
French libraries (other than those in private hands) belong either to the state, to the departments, to the communes, or to learned societies, educational establishments, and other public institutions; the libraries of judicial or administrative bodies are not considered to be owned by them, but to be state property. Besides the unrivalled library accommodation of the capital, France possesses a remarkable assemblage of provincial libraries. The communal and school libraries also form striking features of the French free library system.
Five and twenty years ago (see Tableau statistique des Bibliotheques publiques, 1857) there were in the depart ments, exclusive of those not literally free, and of all Parisian libraries, 340 public libraries containing 3,734,260 volumes and 44,436 MSS. In 1857 there were only 32 provincial libraries which owned more than 30,000 volumes each; there are now 54 which are of that extent and upwards. In Paris there are now 16 containing over 30,000 volumes each.
Ths departments of engravings and medals were now created, and before long rose to nearly equal importance with that of books. Marolles's prints, Foucquet's books, an! many from the Mazarin library were added to the collection, and, in short, the Bibliotheque du Roi had its future pre-eminence undoubtedly secured. Nic. Clement made a catalogue in 1684 according to an arrangement which has been followed ever since (that is, in twenty-three classes, each one designated by a letter of the alphabet), with an alphabetical index to it. After Colbert's death Louvois emulated his predecessor's labours, and employed Mabillon, Thevenot, and others to procure fresh accessions from all parts of the world. A new catalogue was com piled in 1688 in eight volumes by several distinguished scholars. The Abbe Louvois, the minister's son, became head of the library in 1691, and opened it to all students— a privilege which although soon withdrawn was after wards restored. Towards the end of Louis XIV.'s reign it contained over 70,000 volumes. Under the manage ment of the Abbe" Bignon numerous additions were made in all departments, and the library was removed to its present home in the Rue Richelieu. Among the more important acquisitions were 6000 MSS. from the private library of the Colbert family, Bishop Huet's forfeited collection, and a large number of Oriental books imported by missionaries from the further East, and by special agents from the Levant Between 1739 and 1753 a catalogue in eleven volumes was printed, which enabled the administration to discover and to sell its duplicates. In Louis XVI. s reign the sale of the La Valliere library furnished a valuable increase both in MSS. and printed books. A few years before the Revolution broke out the latter department contained over 300,000 volumes and opuscules. The Revolution was serviceable to the library, now called the Bibliotheque Nationale, by increasing it with the forfeited collections of the emigres, as well as of the suppressed religious communities. In the midst of the difficulties of placing and cataloguing these numerous acquisitions, the name of Van Praet appears as an administrator of the first order. Napoleon increased the amount of the Government grant; and by the strict enforcement of the law concerning new publications, as well as by the acquisition of several special collections, the Bibliotheque made considerable progress during his reign towards realizing his idea that it should be universal in character. At the beginning of this century the recorded numbers were 250,000 printed volumes, 83,000 MSS., and 1,500,000 engravings. After Napoleon's downfall the MSS. which he had transferred from Berlin, Hanover, Florence, Venice, Rome, the Hague, and other places had to be returned to their proper owners. The MacCarthy sale in 1817 brought a rich store of MSS. and incunabula. From that time onwards to the present, under the enlightened administration of MM. Taschereau and Delisle, the accessions have been very extensive.Libraries of Paris.—The Bibliotheque Nationale (still the most extensive library in the world) has had an advantage over all others in the length of time during which its contents have been accumulating, and in the great zeal shown for it by several kings and other eminent men. Enthusiastic writers find the original of this library in the MS. collections of Charlemagne and Charles the Bald, but these were dispersed in course of time, and the few precious relics of them which the national library now possesses have been acquired at a much later date. Of the library which St Louis formed in the 13th century (in imitation of what he had seen in the East) nothing has fallen into the possession of the Bibliotheque Nationale, but much has remained of the royal collections made by kings of the later dynasties. The real foundation of the institution (formerly known as the Bibliotheque du Roi) may be said to date from the reign of King John, the Black Prince's captive, who had a considerable taste for books, and bequeathed his "royal library" of MSS. to his successor Charles V. Charles V. organized his library in a very effective manner, removing it from the Palais de la Cité to the Louvre, where it was arranged on desks in a large hall of three stories, and placed under the management of the first librarian and cataloguer, Claude Mallet, the king's valet-de-chambre. His catalogue was a mere shelf-list, entitled Inventaire des Livres du Roy nostre Seigneur estans au chastel du Louvre; it is still extant, as well as the further inventories made by Jean Blanchet in 1380, and by Jean le Bcgue in 1411 and 1424. Charles V. was very liberal in his patronage of literature, and many of the early monuments of the French language are due to his having employed Nicholas Oresme, Raoul de Presle, and other scholars to make translations from ancient texts. Charles VI. added some hundreds of MSS. to the royal library, which, however, was sold to the regent, duke of Bedford, after a valuation had been established by the inventory of 1424. The regent transferred it to England, and it was finally dispersed at his death in 1435. Charles VII. and Louis XI. did little to repair the loss of the precious Louvre library, but the news of the invention of printing served as a stimulus to the creation of another one, of which the first librarian was Laurent Paulmier. The famous miniaturist Jean Foucquet of Tours was named the king's enlumineur, and although Louis XI. neglected to avail himself of many precious opportunities that occurred in his reign, still the new library developed gradually with the help of confiscation. Charles VIII. enriched it with many fine MSS. executed by his order, and also with most of the books that had formed the library of the kings of Aragon, seized by him at Naples. Louis XII., oncoming to the throne, incorporated the Bibliotheque du Roi with the fine Orleans library at Blois, which he had inherited. The Blois library, thus augmented, and further enriched by plunder from the palaces of Pavia, and by the purchase of the famous Gruthuyse collection, was described at the time as one of the four marvels of France. Francis I. removed it to Fontainebleau in 1534, enlarged by the addition of his private library. He was the first to set the fashion of fine artistic bindings, which was still more cultivated by Henry II., and which has never died out in France. During the librarianship of Amyot (the translator of Plutarch) the library was transferred from Fontainebleau to Paris, not without the loss of several books coveted by powerful thieves. Henry IV. removed it to the College de Clermont, but in 1604 another change was made, and in 1622 it was installed in the Rue de la Harpe. Under the librarianship of J. A. de Thou it acquired the library of Catherine de Medici, and the glorious Bible of Charles the Bald. In 1617 a decree was passed that two copies of every new publication should be deposited in the library, but this was not rigidly enforced till Louis XIV.'s time. The first catalogue worthy of the name was finished in 1622, and contains a description of some 6000 volumes, chiefly MSS. Many additions were made during Louis XIII. s reign, notably that of the Dupuy collection, but a new era dawned for the Bibliotheque du Roi under the patronage of Louis XIV. The enlightened activity of Colbert, one of the greatest of collectors, so enriched the library that it became necessary for want of space to make another removal. It was therefore in 1666 installed in the Rue Vivien (now Vivienne) not far from its present habitat.
The official estimate of the number of volumes in the Département des Imprimés now reaches the extraordinary total of about 2,290,000, but the contents have not been actually counted since 1791, and as the above enumerates pieces of which many are included in one volume, perhaps something like 1,827,000 is nearer the proper number. The annual additions are about 45,000. The reserve (con sisting of articles of the highest importance) extends to more than 50,000 volumes. The collection of books on French history is in itself an enormous library, amounting to 440, 000 volumes. The maps and charts, said to number 300,000, are included in this department. The Département des MSS. comprehended, in 1876, 91,700 volumes. The Département des Médailles possessed, in 1873, 143,030 coins, medals, engraved stones, &c., and since that date has acquired many important accessions. More than 2,200,000 engravings are in the Département des Estampes, where 20,000 pieces are annually received under the copyright law. The annual vote for purchases and binding is 200,000 francs.
Admittance to the Salic de Travail is obtained by a bulletin personnel, which is procurable without difficulty. This, the reading-room for students, was built in 1868, and affords accommodation for 344 readers. There are but few books of reference, and readers, are only allowed five books a day. The Salle publique contains 40,000 books, which are freely available to the public. Plans are now under consideration for an enlargement of the Bibliotheque, and a sum of 3,700,000 francs is to be devoted to that purpose.
The Bibliotheque Nationale does not possess a general catalogue at the disposal of readers; the MS. catalogues of the various classes of the printed books are for official use only. Besides the old catalogue of 1739-53, there is the very elaborate Catalogue de l'Histoire de France (1855-79, 11 vols. 4to), with a lithographed supplement; the indexes will appear shortly. The third volume of the Catalogue des Sciences Medicales is now in the press, and that devoted to English history is nearly finished in manuscript. The I vellum books have been described by Van Praet (1822-23, 6 vols.: 8vo, and supplement, 1877). The MSS. are much better provided for. The printed catalogues of these commence with that of Anicet Melot, 1739-44, 4 vols. folio, continued in a way by the Notices et Extraits dcs MSS. du Bibl. du Roi, 1787-1875. The work of M. Paulin Paris, Lcs MSS. Francois; leur histoire et celle des textea allemands, anglois, italiens, et espagnols (1836-48, 7 vols. 8vo), is well known. Catalogues of the Italian, Spanish, Belgian, Pali, Sanskrit, Ethiopian, and Chinese MSS. have also appeared between 1807 and 1844. The first and second volumes in 4to of a new Cata logue dcs MSS. Francais have been printed, and two volumes of the Inrentaire of M. Delisle, besides five parts of his Inventaire des MSS. Latins (1863-71). The authorities have also brought out a Catalogue dcs Manuscrits Hebrcux et Samaritains (1866, 4to), besides those of MSS. Syriaques ct Sabeens (1874, 4to), MSS. Ethiopiens (1877), and MSS. Espagnols (1879).
Paris is much better provided than London or any other city in the world with great public libraries. Besides the Bibliotheque Nationale there are four libraries, each over 120,000 volumes (with others less extensive), to which the public have free access, the Bibliotheque de 1 Arsenal being the largest of them. The collection of the Marquis de Paulmy d Argenson was the basis of this library, which also acquired a portion of the books of the Due de la Valliere in 1781. It is peculiarly rich in romances, the drama, and French poetry, and possesses 80,000 volumes on French history alone. It is freely open, but there are not many readers. The Bibliotheque Mazarine was founded by the great cardinal, who in 1643 placed about 12,000 volumes at the disposal of the public. The books were chiefly brought together through the exertions of Gabriel Naude, who tells us that in 1648 they amounted to 40,000 volumes. After the death of Mazarin, his magnificent library was bequeathed to the college bearing his name; it remained under the direction of the Sorbonne from 1688 to 1791, since which time it has been subject to the control of the state. It is rich in incunabula and theology, including the works of Protestant divines, and is annually visited by over 12,000 readers. The Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve was founded in 1624, at the abbey of that name, by Cardinal Francois de la Rochefoucauld. Other persons also gave books, and in 1687 the library is said to have contained 20,000 printed volumes and 400 MSS. In 1710 C. M. Le Tellier bequeathed his collection, and in the Almanadi Royal of the same year an announcement appeared that the library would be open to students during certain hours every day. Louis, Due d Orleans, the son of the Regent, took up his abode here, and in 1730 the library was considerably enlarged by him. It was opened to the public in 1790, and at the time of the Revolution there were 80,000 printed volumes and 2000 MSS.; there are now 120,000 volumes and 2392 MSS. The reading-room is open in the evening, and is much frequented, especially by students. The library contains a good collection of incunabula, many of which have been described by Dibdin, a number of rare Italian and Spanish chronicles, and a very complete series of periodicals from the 17th century to the empire. The Bibliotheque de I'Universite (or the Sorbonne) was formerly restricted to the use of the members of the five faculties of Paris, but the public has been freely admitted during the last thirty years. The Bibliotheque de l'Institut having been plundered during the Revolution, the old town library was transferred to it. Persons not members are admitted upon the recommendation (which lasts twelve months) of any academician. The Bibliotheque de la Ville, founded in the 18th century, and reorganized at the time of the Revolution, was destroyed in 1871. It has since been entirely re-established in the Hotel Carnavalet, which contains the historical museum of the city, and comprehends 60,000 volumes of books and 40,000 engravings, entirely relating to the history and description of Paris. The other public libraries are under the authority of the minister of public instruction, but the Bibliotheque de la Ville is under the control of the prefect of the Seine. The municipal libraries in Paris are 20 in number, with 70,000 volumes; there are besides 440 school libraries, with 44,120 books.
Of other libraries in Paris, not included in our tables, we may name the Bibliotheque de la Prefecture de Police (10,000 volumes, with curious MSS. relating to the Revolution), Bibliotheque du Tribunal cle premiere instance (28,000 volumes), Bibliotheque de 1 jScole Polytechnique (30,000 volumes), Bibliotheque de VEcole Normale (26,000 volumes, which acquired the library of Georges Cuvier in 1833), Bibliotheque des Invalides (28,000 volumes, a good collection on history and military affairs), Bibliotheque de IMllcole Nationale des Beaux Arts (15,000 volumes, 12,000 drawings, 100,000 prints and photographs), Bibliotheque du Conservatoire de Musique (30,000 volumes, one of the finest collections of musical literature in the world), Bibliotheque des Archives Rationales (founded by Danon in 1808, containing 25,000 volumes on palaeo graphy , history, and jurisprudence, as this is the record office of France, the archives are very extensive), Bibliotheque du Luxem bourg (25,000 volumes), Bibliotheque du Lycee Louis le Grand (30,000 volumes), Bibliotheque du Ministers de 1 Interieur (17,000 volumes, including Parisian and provincial history and documents). Pro- Besides the various collections belonging to learned and scientific vinces of societies, educational institutions, and other bodies, outside Paris, France, over 215 French provincial towns possess public libraries, which range in number of volumes from 2000 or 3000 to 190,000, as at Bordeaux. Most of them were founded at the end of the last or the beginning of the present century, but some are earlier. The library at Lyons was established by Francis I. in 1 530, that at Nantes dates from" 1588, La Rochelle from 1604, Abbeville, Besangon, and Troyes from the latter part of the same century, and Orleans from the beginning of the 17th century. The large majority were formed by confiscation at the time of the Revolution. In February 1790 the Assemblee Nationale abolished the different religious communi ties, and in September of the same year the provincial tribunals and parliaments met with the same fate. The books (said to number 10 or 12 millions) of these corporations were declared national pro perty, a committee was appointed to consider what should be done with them, and a general catalogue of all the sequestered effects ordered to be drawn up. In consequence of the recommendations of the committee, the Convention Nationale (January 27, 1794) decreed the establishment and augmentation of public libraries. The orders of the Convention were not carefully executed, and pitiable stories are told of valuable works sold by the yard as they lay upon the ground, of precious manuscripts and printed rarities left to rot in the open air or burnt for fuel. As the government became more settled, the libraries (when not destroyed) of condemned persons were restored to their representatives. A very large number of books still remained, however, and it is to them that the town libraries of France chiefly owe their riches. Theology, law, history, and the severer literature of the 17th and 18th centuries conse quently predominate, although for many years more modern re quirements have been mainly considered in the acquisition of books. Many collections of local and provincial literature have been formed, as at Angers, Auxerre, Chaumont, Grenoble, La Rochelle, Lille, Marseilles, Orleans, Toulouse, Tours, and Versailles. Some of the libraries are very extensive. Douai and Troyes have 100,000 volumes each ; Lyons and Rouen over 120, 000 ; Besanc.on, 130,000 ; Aix and Nantes, 150,000; Grenoble, 170,000; and Bordeaux, 190,000 volumes. All have catalogues, mostly alphabetical ; a few of them are in print. The Catalogue general des MSS. des lilliothcqucs puUiqites des departments is a noble undertaking on the part of the French Government. The first volume came out in 1849, and the latest, the sixth, in 1879 ; the treasures of eighteen libraries have now been catalogued (about 9650 MSS. ), and there remain over 45,000 MSS. to be described. Besides this, Angers, Amiens, Auxerre, Caen, Carpentras, Chartres, Orleans, and Tours possess separate printed catalogues of their MSS. The chambers annually vote large sums for books, which are distributed to the town libraries by the minister of public instruction. The sums granted by the different municipalities for their libraries vary in amount ; for instance, Grenoble (170,000 volumes and eight persons employed) gives 26,314 francs, Bordeaux (190,000 volumes and eight persons) 21,350 francs, and Nantes (150,000 volumes and four persons) 13,600 francs. Popular libraries of every description, including military and workmen s libraries, owe much to the "Societe Franklin pour la propagation des bibliotheques populaires," which, founded in 1862, has since been of immense service in originating and helping those institutions. Between 1868 and 1878 the Societe had spent 550,000 francs on these purposes. It issues a Catalogue Populairc of a good selection of recommended books, and publishes a journal of its pro ceedings. School libraries had an organized existence in France as far back as 1831, and by 1848 the books which had been distributed by the state amounted in value to 2 millions of francs ; two years later, however, no trace of books or libraries could be found. 1 In 1860 the question was again taken up, and in 1862 the minister of public instruction ordered that in every primary school a library should be established under the care of the schoolmaster. For some years the Government annually granted 120,000 francs, a sum which was raised to 200,000 francs in 1878; for their share See De "Watteville, Rapport sur les Bibliotheques scolaires, 1879. of the expenses the departments contributed in 1875 as much as 170,000 francs. As an instance of the rapidity with which the school libraries have increased, it may be stated that Haute- Marne, which only possessed 44 of them in 1866, ten years later had 548 ; in 1877 there were about 17,764 biblioth&qucs scolaires possessing 1,716,904 works, and there are now over 20,000 of them in France. The libraries, which are intended not only for the use of school children but also for their parents and other adults, are re gulated by a commission sitting at the ministry of public instruction. Germany (with Austria and Sivitzerland). Germany is emphatically the Lome of large libraries ; Germany, her want of political unity and consequent multiplicity of capitals have had the effect of giving her a considerable number of large state libraries, and the number of her universities has tended to multiply considerable collections. Berlin is well supplied with libraries, seventy-two being Berlin, registered by Petzholdt in 1875, with about 1,293,030 printed volumes. The largest of them is the Iloyal Library, which was founded by the "Great Elector" Frederick William, and opened as a public library in a wing of the electoral palace in 1661. From 1699 the library became entitled to a copy of every book published within the royal territories, and it has received many valuable accessions by purchase and otherwise. It is now estimated to contain upwards of 700,000 printed volumes and over 15,000 MSS. The amount yearly expended upon binding and the acquisition of books, <tc., is 4800. The catalogues are in manuscript, and include a general alphabetical author-catalogue, and a systematic subject- catalogue in a handy form. The building, erected about 1780 by Frederick the Great, has long been too small, and a new one is in contemplation. The conditions as to the use of the collections are, as in most German libraries, very liberal. Any adult person is allowed to have books in the reading-room. Books are lent out to all higher officials, including those holding educational offices in the university, &c., and by guarantee to almost any one recom mended by persons of standing; admission to the journal- room is more strictly limited. By special leave of the librarian, books and MSS. may be sent to a scholar at a distance, or, if especially valuable, may be deposited in some public library where he can conveniently use them. There appears to be no limit to the number of books which may be borrowed, although it is prescribed that not more than "three works" must be asked for on one day. Professor Lepsius reports the issues for last year as 71,400 works, to above 5000 readers. The University Library (1831) numbers 200,000 volumes with 353 MSS. The number of volumes lent out in 1880 was 40,101. The library possesses the right to receive a copy of every work published in the province of Brandenburg. Some of the governmental libraries are important, especially those of the Military Academy and the General Staff, which was increased in 1872 by acquiring the library of the " F^cole d Application " at Metz. In 1850 some popular libraries were established by a society for giving scientific lectures. There are now thirteen such libraries with over 54,000 volumes, but the yearly number of readers is only about 12,000. The libraries of Munich, though not so numerous as those Munich. of Berlin, include two of great importance. The Royal Library, the largest collection of books in Germany, was founded by Duke Albrecht V. of Bavaria (1550-79), who made numerous purchases from Italy, and incorporated the libraries of the Nuremberg physician and historian Schedel, of Widmannstadt, and of J. J, Fugger. The number of printed volumes is estimated at about one million, although it is long since any exact enumeration has been made. The library is especially rich in incunabula, many of them being derived from the libraries of the monasteries closed in 1803. The Oriental MSS. are numerous and valuable, and include the library of Martin Haug. The amount annually spent upon the library is .5400, of which 2050 is expended upon books and binding. The catalogues of the printed books are in manuscript, and include (1) a general alphabetical catalogue, (2) an alphabetical repertorium of each of the 195 subdivisions of the library, (3) biographical and other subject catalogues. A printed catalogue of the MSS. in 8 volumes is nearly complete; the first was published in 1858. The library is open only twenty-nine hours during the week, while the Royal Library at Berlin is, except in the three winter months, open for thirty-nine. The library of the British Museum is now open for sixty-six hours per week, but it lends no books out. The regulations for the use of the library are very similar to those of the Royal Library at Berlin. The building erected for this collection under King Louis I. in 1832-43 is regarded as a model library structure. The archives are bestowed on the ground floor, and the two upper floors are devoted to the library, which occupies seventy-seven apartments. The University Library was originally founded at Ingolstadt in 1472, and removed with the university to Munich in 1826. It participated in 1803 in the division of the literary treasures of the disestablished monasteries. At present the number of volumes in the general library amounts to 290,000, besides which several special collections are also deposited in the library to the number of 32,800 volumes. The MSS. number 1744. The various libraries of Munich have upwards of 1,400,000 volumes.
Dr Petzholdt has registered no less than 49 libraries in Dresden, where indeed his inquiries were likely to be particularly exhaustive. The Royal Public Library in the Japanese Palace was founded in the 16th century. Among its numerous acquisitions have been the library of Count Biinau in 1764, and the manuscripts of Ebert. Special attention is devoted to history and literature. The library does not claim to possess more than 350,000 volumes, although Petzholdt in 1875 reckoned them as at least 500,000 printed books, as well as 400,000 dissertations. The MSS. number 6500 volumes. Admission to the reading-room is granted to any respectable adult on giving his name, and books are lent out to persons qualified by their position or by a suitable guarantee. Here, as at other large libraries in German}, works of belles-lettres are only supplied for a literary purpose. The number of persons using the reading-room in a year is about 3900, and about 10,000 works (not volumes) are lent to about 500 readers. The " Prinzliehe SecundoGenitur " Library, now in the possession of Prince George of Saxony, and of which Dr Petzholdt, the Nestor of bibliographers, is librarian, is a private library to which access is permitted.
The Royal Public Library of Stuttgart, although only established in 1765, has grown so rapidly that it now possesses about 425,000 "numbers" of printed works and 3800 MSS. There is a famous collection of Bibles, containing 7200 volumes. The annual expenditure is about £2640, of which £1250 is devoted to books and binding. The library also enjoys the copy-privilege in Würtemberg. The borrowing of books for home use is open to all members of the German empire resident in Stuttgart, whose personal and economic circumstances offer the necessary guarantees for the safety of the national property. The library may, moreover, be used from any part of Würtemberg on payment of the cost of carriage." The annual number of borrowers is over 1800, who use nearly 17,000 volumes. The number issued in the reading-room is at least twice as great. The number of parcels despatched from Stuttgart is nearly 900. Admission is also gladly granted to the Royal Private Library, founded in 1810, which contains about 50,000 volumes and 600 MSS. The other libraries of Stuttgart, of which Petzholdt reckons 11, are not of importance.— The Grand-ducal Library of Darmstadt was established by the grand-duke Louis I. in 1817, on the basis of the still older library formed in the 17th century. The number of volumes used in the course of the year is about 30,000, of which 9000 are lent out to about 5000 readers. The Ducal Library of Gotha was established by Duke Ernest the Pious in the 17th century, and contains many valuable books and MSS. from monastic collections. It numbers about 240,000 works, with upwards of 6000 MSS. The catalogue, now in course of publication, of the Oriental MSS., chiefly collected by Seetzen, and forming one-half of the collection, is one of the best in existence. Other great Ducal Libraries are noticed in the tables.
"Locupletior est et meliorum librorum quam Vaticana." In 1623 the library was carried to Rome as a present to the pope, but some of the treasures were ultimately restored. The later collection was first formed in 1703. The collection of MSS. is extremely valuable. The library of Leipsic university dates from 1409, although it was not until the middle of the 16th century that it was properly organized. The library of Gottingen owes much to the labours of the illustrious Heyne. It ranks as one of the most complete and best arranged of the German libraries. New buildings for its accommodation are in course of erection. The library at Strasburg, although founded only in 1871 to replace that which had been destroyed in the siege, already ranks amongst the largest libraries of the empire. Its books and MSS. together amount to 513,000. The remaining university libraries are noticed in the tables.Libraries of varying extent and importance are attached to all the twenty-one universities of Germany, most of them being coeval with the universities themselves. Thus the oldest library is that of Heidelberg, which in its earlier form dates from 1386. In 1608 it had become so important that Joseph Scaliger wrote of it
Some of the town libraries of Germany mentioned in the tables were amongst the earliest established after the revival of learning. The oldest of them is perhaps that of Ratisbon, which was founded at least as early as 1430. Since Ratisbon has ceased to be an imperial city it has had to part with many of its treasures to the library at Munich.
The whole number of libraries in the German empire enumerated by Dr Petzholdt is 1547, distributed amongst 584 towns.
A report issued in 1873-74 by the Austrian Statistical Commission, furnishes an account of the condition of the libraries in those portions of Austria which are represented in the Reichsrath, as they were at the end of the year 1870. The number of libraries registered was 577, of which 23, however, were private libraries. Of the rest 159 belonged to religious corporations and seminaries, 105 were military libraries, 56 belonged to literary and scientific societies, 189 were of an educational and scholastic, and the remaining 45 of a public character.
The largest library in Austria, and one of the most important collections in Europe, is the Imperial Public Library at Vienna, apparently founded by the emperor Frederick III. in 1440, although its illustrious librarian Lambecius, in the well-known inscription over the entrance to the library which summarizes its history, attributes this honour to Frederick's son Maximilian. However this may be, the munificence of succeeding emperors greatly added to the wealth of the collection, including a not inconsiderable portion of the dispersed library of Corvinus. Since 1808 the library has also been entitled to the copy privilege in respect of all books published in the empire. The sum devoted to the purchase of books is 26,250 florins annually. The main library apartment is one of the most splendid halls in Europe. Admission to the reading-room is free to everybody, and books are also lent out under stricter limitations. The University Library of Vienna was established by Maria Theresa. The reading-room is open to all comers, and the library is open much longer than is the rule with university libraries generally. In winter, for instance, it is open from 5 to 8 in the evening, and it is even open from 9 to 12 on Sundays. In 1879, 159,768 volumes were used in the library, 16,300 volumes lent out in Vienna, and 4418 volumes sent carriage free to borrowers outside Vienna. The total number of libraries in Vienna enumerated by Dr Petzholdt is 101, and many of them are of considerable extent.
The number of monastic libraries in Austria is very considerable. Particulars are furnished, in the report already quoted, of 107 of them, varying from a few hundreds of volumes to as many as 80,000. Many other such libraries are known to exist in the 463 monas teries. The oldest of them, and the oldest library in Austria, is that of the monastery of St Peter at Salzburg, which was established by St Rupert in the 6th century. It possesses 60,000 volumes, with nearly 20,000 incunabula. The four next in point of antiquity arc Kremsmiinster (50,000), Lambach (22,000), Admont (80,000), and Melk (60,000), all of them dating from the 11th century. Of the 107 libraries enumerated in the report, 56 possessed 5000 volumes or upwards at the end of 1870. For further particulars as to the larger Austrian libraries the reader is referred to the tables.
The libraries in the Hungarian kingdom are not included in the report, and, as will be seen from the tables, are not very numerous. The most important of them are at Buda-Pest.
The public libraries of Switzerland have been very carefully registered by Dr Ernest Heitz, as they existed in 1868. Altogether no less than 2096 libraries are recorded, four-fifths of these belong to the class of bibliotheques populaires et celles pour la jeunesse," and few are of literary importance. Only eighteen have as many as 30,000 volumes. The largest collection of books in Switzerland is the University Library of Basel, founded with the university in 1460. The monastic libraries of St Gall and Einsiedeln date respectively from the years 830 and 946, and are of great historical and literary interest.
 They are classed under the headings of (1) national libraries of Florence, Naples, Turin, Palermo, Vittorio Emanuele of Rome, the Brera of Milan, and the Marciana of Venice; (2) the libraries of the universities of the first class—Bologna, Naples, Padua, Pavia, Pisa, and Rome; (3) those of the universities of the second class—Cagliari, Catania, Genoa, Messina, Modena, Parma, and Sassari; (4) those of academies and institutions of fine arts; the last, although under Government control, are ruled by special regulations of their own. Small collections are sometimes handed over to the local authorities, should this be considered desirable, and the state will take into its own hands the administration of provincial or communal libraries if necessary. The librarians and subordinates are divided into (1) prefects, librarians, and sub-librarians; (2) assistant librarians; (3) attendants, or book distributors; (4) ushers, &c. Those of class 1 constitute the " board of direction," which is presided over by the prefect or librarian, and meets from time to time to consider important measures connected with the administration of the library. The candidates for posts in classes 1 and 2 must possess certain scholastic qualifications and serve for a specified time as ahmni on probation. An important feature of the regulations consists of the scheme (unfortunately not yet in working order) which is eventually to supply Italy with a body of young librarians properly trained in all the theoretical and technical branches of their profession. Each library is to possess, alike for books and MSS., a general inventory or accessions catalogue, an alphabetical author-catalogue, and a subject catalogue. When they are ready, catalogues of the special collections are to be compiled, and these the Government intends to print, together with the subject-catalogues of the MSS. Various other small registers are provided for. The sums granted by the state for library purposes must be applied to (1) salaries and maintenance; (2) binding and repairs; (3) purchase of books, MSS., &c. Books are chosen by a committee nominated by the minister, which, in the national libraries, includes the members of the council of direction. In other libraries two members only of the council form part of the committee. In the university libraries two-fifths of the expenditure is decided by the committee, and the remainder by a council formed by the professors of the different faculties. The rules for lending books and MSS. allow them to be sent to other countries under very special circumstances.The public libraries (biblioteche governative) are under the authority of the minister of public instruction, and are subject to certain regulations finally agreed upon during the ministry of Signor Ruggiero Bonghi in 1876.
The biblioteche governative are now 32 in number, and annually spend about 150,000 lire in books. From the three sources of gifts, copyright, and purchases, their accessions in 1879 were 35,541, being 5187 more than the previous year. The number of readers is now gradually increasing. In 1879 there were 895,749, who made use of 1,154,853 volumes, showing an increase of 10,393 readers and 130,051 books as contrasted with the statistics of the previous year.
The minister of public instruction has kept a watchful eye upon the literary treasures of the suppressed monastic bodies. In 1875 there were 1700 of these confiscated libraries, containing two millions and a half of volumes. About 650 of the collections were added to the contents of the public libraries already in existence; the remaining 1050 were handed over to the different local authorities, and served to form 371 new communal libraries, and in 1876 the number of new libraries so composed was 415.
Vatican Library would have been as rich in early printed literature as it is now rich in manuscripts. Sixtus V. erected the present building in 1588, and considerably augmented the collection. Gregory XV. received as a gift from Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, the library of the elector Palatine seized by Tilly at the capture of Heidelberg in 1622. The greater part of the library at Urbino, founded by Duke Federigo, was acquired in 1655 by Alexander VII. for the sum of 10,000 scudi, and some of the famous palimpsests from the Benedictine monastery of Bobbio were also added to the treasures of the Vatican. After the death of Christina, queen of Sweden, her collection of books and manuscripts, formed from the plunder seized at Prague, Wiirtzburg, and Bremen by her father Gustavus Adolphus, became by succession the property of the Ottoboni family, the head of which, Alexander VIII., in 1689 placed 1900 of the MSS. in one of the galleries. Clement VII. and Pius II. also enriched the Vatican with valuable manuscripts, including many Oriental. In 1740 Benedict XIV. united with it the Ottoboniana, and in the same pontificate the Marchese Aless. Capponi bequeathed his precious collections. Clement XIII. in 1758, Clement XIV. in 1769, and Pius VI. in 1775 were also important benefactors. For over two hundred years the history of the Vatican was one of unbroken prosperity, but it suffered a serious blow at the close of the 18th century, when MSS. dating before the 9th century, and the most choice artistic specimens, altogether to the number of 500, were carried off by the French to Paris in 1798. The greater part were, however, restored in 1815, and most of the Palatine MSS., which formed part of the plunder, ultimately found their way to the university of Heidelberg in 1816. Pius VII. acquired for the Vatican the library of Cardinal Zelada in 1800; Leo XII. was able to add the noble collection of fine art literature of Count Cicognara in 1823; and Gregory XVI. also largely augmented the library. Pius IX. in 1856 added 40,000 volumes belonging to Cardinal Mai.The Biblioteca Vaticana stands in the very first rank among European libraries as regards antiquity, since from the middle of the 5th century we have evidence of the existence of a pontifical library at Rome; and Pope Zachary (d. 752), himself a Greek, is known to have added considerably to the store of Greek codices. The Lateran Library shared in the removal of the papal court to Avignon, and it was on the return of the popes to Rome that the collection was permanently fixed at the Vatican. Nicholas V. (d. 1455) may, however, be considered the true founder of the library, and is said to have added 5000 MSS. to the original store. Calixtus III. also enriched the library with many volumes saved from the hands of the Turks after the siege of Constantinople. So large a proportion of the printed books of the 15th century having been produced by the Italian presses, it is natural to expect that a great number of specimens may be found in the papal library, and, but for the wholesale destruction of books and MSS. during the sack of Rome by the duke of Bourbon in 1527, the
Few libraries are so magnificently housed as the Biblioteca Vaticana. The famous Codici Vaticani are placed in the salone or great double hall, which is decorated with frescos depicting ancient libraries and councils of the church. At the end of the great hall an immense gallery, also richly decorated, and extending to 1200 feet, opens out from right to left. Here are preserved in different rooms the codici Palatini, Begin., Ottoboniani, Capponiani, &c. Most of the printed books are contained in a series of six chambers known as the Appartamento Borgia. The printed books only are on open shelves, the MSS. being preserved in closed cases.
The present official estimate of the number of printed volumes is about 220,000, including 2500 15th century editions, of which many are vellum copies, 500 Aldines, and a great number of bibliographical rarities. There are 25,600 MSS., of which 19,641 are Latin, 3613 Greek, 609 Hebrew, 900 Arabic, 460 Syriac, 78 Coptic, &c. Among the Greek and Latin MSS. are some of the most valuable in the world, alike for antiquity and intrinsic importance. It is sufficient to mention the famous Biblical Codex Vaticanus of the 4th century, the Virgil of the 4th or 5th century, the Terence equally ancient, the palimpsest De Republica of Cicero, conjectured to be of the 3d century, discovered by Cardinal Mai, and an immense number of richly ornamented codices of extraordinary beauty and costliness. The archives are apart from the library, and are quite inaccessible to the public; no catalogue is known to exist. Leo XII. has appointed a committee to consider what documents of general interest may expediently be published, and a greater liberality in the use of them is said to be contemplated.
The Biblioteca Vaticana is now open from 8 to 12 every morning between November and June, with the exception of Sundays, Thursdays, and the principal feast days. Permission to study is obtained from the cardinal secretary of state. The want of proper catalogues for the use of readers is a great drawback. There are imperfect written lists (for the use of the librarians alone) of the printed books, and various catalogues of special classes of the MSS. have been published. New catalogues, however, are in course of preparation. The Oriental MSS. have been described by J. S. Assemanni, Billiotheca orientalis Clemenlino- Vaticana, Rome, 1719-28, 4 vols. folio, and EM. Vat. codd. MSS. catalogus ab S. E. et J./S. Assemanno redactiis, ib., 1756-59, 3 vols. folio, and by Cardinal Mai in Script. Vet. nova collectio. The Coptic MSS. have been specially treated by G. Zoega, Piome, 1810, folio; and by F. G. Bonjour, Rome, 1699, 4to. There are printed catalogues of the Capponi (1747) and the Cicognara (1820) libraries.
—The Biblioteca Angelica possesses all the authentic acts of the Congregatio de Auxiliis, and the precious collections of Cardinal Passionei and Lucas Holstenius.— The Biblioteca Alessandrina della R. Universita di Roma, founded by Alexander VII., is considerably used by students: there were in 1879 57,000 readers. The greater part of the printed books formerly in the collection of the dukes of Urbino is now in this library. The Biblioteca del Senato is very rich in collections of municipal history and statutes of Italian cities. The printed catalogue (1878) describes no less than 1067 statutes or volumes containing them, relating to 443 localities.—The Biblioteca Vallicelliana was founded by S. Filippo Ncri, and contains some valuable manuscripts, including a Latin Bible of the Sth century attributed to Alcuin, and some inedited writings of Baronius. In 1877 Professor A. Sarti presented to the city of Rome his collection of fine-art books, 10,000 volumes, which was placed in charge of the Accademia di San Luca, which already possessed a good artistic library.—Of private libraries accessible by permission, we note the Biblioteca Barberina, including many rare editions with valuable autographs, but especially remarkable for its MSS.; these were chiefly collected by Cardinal Fr. Barberini, the nephew of Urban VIII., and comprehend the letters and papers of Galileo, Bembo, and Bellarmine, the reports on the state of Catholicism in England in the time of Charles I., and a quantity of inedited materials for the history of the Stuarts. A catalogue was published at Rome in 1681, 3 vols. folio.—The Corsiniana, founded by Clement XII. (Lorenzo Corsini), is also a private library; it is rich in incunabula, and includes one of the most remarkable collections of prints in Italy, the series of Marc-Antonios being especially complete. The library of the Collegium de Propaganda Fide was established by Urban VIII. in 1626, and in 1687 the rector Andrea Bonvicini obtained permission to preserve in it prohibited books. It was destroyed by the French army in 1798, and owes its present rich ness almost entirely to testamentary gifts, among which may be mentioned those of Cardinals Borgia, Caleppi, and Pietro. It is a private collection for the use of the congregation and of those who belong to it, but permission may be obtained from the superiors. There are at least thirty libraries in Borne which are more or less accessible to the public. One is now in course of formation which will include everything relating to the emancipation of Italy.Next in importance to the Vatican library is the Casanatense, so called from the name of its founder, Cardinal Casanata (1700). It contains about 130,000 volumes of printed books, including a, large number of 15th century impressions and early editions with woodcuts, as well as about 2500 MSS., amongst which are one of the 7th century and several of the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries. They are carefully arranged in eleven rooms, the large central hall being one of the finest in Rome. Books are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-rooms, but admission is freely granted, and the annual number of readers is about 18,000. The subvention is a small one, but additions continue to be made, and the library is well administered. All the officials, in accordance with the founder's will, belong to the Dominican order. The incomplete catalogue of the printed books, prepared by A. Audiffredi (Home, 1761-88, 4 vols. folio), still remains a model of cataloguing. The Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele forms part of the Collegio Romano, and was made up from the old Jesuit library, enriched by accessions from a number of other suppressed institutions. It now consists of 300,000 volumes, with 5000 MSS., and is united to the Casanatense by a bridge. The entire edifice is spacious enough to contain a million of volumes, besides the Kircherian and other museums which are already located in it.
At Subiaco, a few miles from Rome, the library of the Benedictine monastery of Santa Scolastica is not a very large one, comprising only 6000 printed volumes and 400 MSS., but the place is re markable as having been the first seat of typography in Italy. It was in this monastery that Schweynheim and Pannartz, fresh from the dispersion of Fust and Schoeffer's workmen in 1462, established their press and produced a series of very rare and important works which are highly prized throughout Europe. The Subiaco Library, although open daily to readers, is only visited by students who are curious to behold the cradle of the press in Italy, and to inspect the series of original editions preserved in their first home
The great national libraries are as follows:
 The Biblical section is rich in rarities, com mencing with the Mainz Bible of 1462, printed on vellum. Other special features are the collection of tcsti di lingua, that of books on volcanoes and that of works printed at famous presses, parti cularly those executed by the typographers of Naples. The MSS. include a palimpsest containing writings of the 3d, 5th, and 6th centuries under a grammatical treatise of the 8th, 2 Latin papyri of the 6th century, over 50 Latin Bibles, and a great number of illuminated books with miniatures. There are more than 40 books printed on vellum in the 15th and 16th centuries, including a fine iirst Homer. There are several MS. maps and portolani, one of them dating from the end of the 14th century. About 10,000 readers use this library, consulting some 140,000 books yearly. The Bibliotheca Nazionale of Milan, better known as the Brera, founded in 1770 by a decree of the empress Maria Theresa, consists of 163,123 printed volumes and 3646 MSS., with a yearly increment of about 6000 volumes, and the annual number of readers is said to amount to 45,000. It comprises nearly 2300 books printed in the 15th century (including the rare Monte Santo di Dio of Bettini, 1477), 913 Aldine impressions, and a xylographic Biblia Paupcrum. Amongst the MSS. are an early Dante and autograph letters of Galileo, some poems in Tasso's autograph, and a fine series of illustrated service-books, with miniatures representing the advance of Italian art from the 12th to the 16th century. These were formerly in the Certosa at Pavia.— The Bibliotheca Nazionale of Palermo", founded from the Collegio Massimo of the Jesuits, with additions from other libraries of that suppressed order, is rich in 15th century books, which have been elaborately described in a catalogue printed in 1875, and in Aldines and bibliographical curiosities of the 16th and following centuries.— The Biblioteca Nazionale of Turin is extensively used by readers, whose annual number amounts to 120,000. The majority of the books are works for scientific study, but amongst them are several rarities, comprising a Sedulius MS. of the 5th century, the celebrated MS. of the DC Imitationc (on which the assignment of its authorship to Gersen is founded, see KEMPIS), and several productions of the earliest German and Italian printers. The Biblioteca Marciana, or library of St Mark at Venice, was founded in 1362 by a donation of MSS. from the famous Petrarch (most of them now lost), and instituted as a library by Cardinal Bessarion in the 15th century. It is open daily, and is used by about 40,000 readers annually. The precious contents include Greek MSS. of great value, of which more than 1000 were given by Cardinal Bessarion, important MS. collections of works on Venetian history, rare incunabula, and a great number of volumes, unique or exceedingly rare, on the subject of early geographical research. Amongst the MSS. is a Latin Homer in the autograph of Boccaccio, an invaluable codex of the laws of the Lombards, and the autograph MS. of Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent. Since the fall of the republic and the suppression of the monasteries afterwards, a great many private and conventual libraries have been incorporated with the Marciana.The Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence, formed from the union of Magliabechi's library with the Palatina, is the largest in Italy. The Magliabechi collection became public property at his death in 1714, and, with the accessions made from time to time, held an independent place until 1862, when the Biblioteca Palatina (formed in 1815 from the old Pitti Library and the collections of Poggiali and Rzewuzky) was incorporated with it. An old statute by which a copy of every work printed in Tuscany was to be presented to the Magliabechi Library was formerly much neglected, but has been maintained rigorously in force since 1860. There are many valuable autograph originals of famous works in this library, and the MSS. include the most important extant codici of Dante and later poets, as well as of the historians from Villani to Machiavelli and Guicciardini. Amongst the printed books is a very large assemblage of rare early impressions, a great number of the Eapprcscntazioni of the 16th century, at least 200 books printed on vellum, and a copious collection of municipal histories and statutes, of testi di lingua, and of geographical and topographical maps. The MS. portolani, 25 in number, are for the most part of great importance; the oldest is dated 1417, and several seem to be the original charts executed for Sir Robert Dudley (duke of Northumberland) in the preparation of his Arcano del Marc. The annual increment of books in this library is about 12,000. It is open freely to the public, and about 50,000 readers annually make use of it. About 60,000 printed volumes and 2500 MSS. arc consulted annually, not including some 1500 books and 50 MSS., which are lent out yearly to certain students. The Biblioteca Nazionale at Naples, though only opened to the public in 1804, is the largest library of that city. The nucleus from which it developed was the collection of Cardinal Seripando, which comprised many MSS. and printed books of great value. Acquisitions came in from other sources, especially when in the year 1848 many private and conventual libraries were thrown on the Neapolitan market.
Of the remaining Government libraries the following may be named. The Biblioteca del Monastero della S . Trinith,, at La Cava dei Tirreni in the province of Salerno, is after the Biblioteca dell Archivio Capitolare at Vercelli the most ancient library in the Italian kingdom, its foundation being said to be contemporaneous with that of the Benedictine abbey itself (beginning of the 11th century). It only contains some 10,000 volumes, but these include a number of MSS. of very great rarity and value, ranging from the 8th to the 14th century. Amongst these is the celebrated Codex Legum Longobardorum, dated 1004, besides a well-known geographical chart of the 12th century, over 100 Greek MSS., and about 1000 charters beginning with the year 840, more than 200 of which belong to the Lombard and Norman periods. At Florence the Marucelli Library, founded in 1752, is remarkable for its artistic wealth of early woodcuts and metal engravings. The number of these and of original drawings by the old masters amounts to 80,000 pieces.— At Modena is the famous Biblioteca Palatina, sometimes called the Biblioteca Estense from having been founded by the Este family at Ferrara in 1393; it was transferred to Modena by Cesare D Este in 1598. Muratori, Zaccaria, and Tiraboschi were librarians here, and made good use of the treasures of the library. It is particularly rich in early printed literature and valuable codices. The oldest library at Naples is the Biblioteca Brancacciana, with many valuable MSS. relating to the history of Naples. Two planispheres by Coronelli are preserved here. It was founded in 1673 by Cardinal F. M. Brancaccio.— The Regia Biblioteca di Parma, founded definitively in 1779, owes its origin to the grand-duke Philip, who employed the famous scholar Paciaudi to organize it. It is now a public library containing 213,995 volumes, including 4000 MSS., with an annual increment of nearly 1000 volumes. Amongst its treasures is De Rossi's magnificent collection of Biblical and rabbinical MSS.
Clement VII., who charged Michelangelo to construct a suitable edifice for its reception. It was opened to the public by Cosimo I. in 1571, and has ever since gone on increasing in value, the acces sions in the 18th century alone being enough to double its former importance. The printed books it contains are probably no more than 3000 in number, but are almost all of the highest rarity and interest. It is, however, the precious collection of MSS., amounting to about 7000 articles, which gives its chief importance to this library. They comprise some of the most valuable codices in the world, the famous Virgil of the 4th or 5th century, Justinian's Pandects of the 7th, a Homer of the 10th, and several other very early Greek and Latin classical and Biblical texts, as well as copies in the handwriting of Petrarch, about 100 codices of Dante, a Decameron copied by a contemporary from Boccaccio's own MS., and Cellini's MS. of his autobiography. Bandini's catalogue of the MSS. occupies 13 vols. folio, printed in 1764-78. At Genoa the Biblioteca Franzoniana, founded about 1770 for the instruction of the poorer classes, is noteworthy as being the first European library lighted up at night for the use of readers.— The famous Biblioteca Ambrosiana at Milan was founded in 1609 by Cardinal Fed. Borromeo. It contains 164,000 printed volumes and 8100 MSS. Amongst the MSS. are a Greek Pentateuch of the 5th century, the famous Peshito and SyroHexaplar from the Nitrian convent of St Maria Deipara, a Josephus written on papyrus, supposed to be of the 5th century, several palimpsest texts, including an early Plautus, and St Jerome's commentary on the Psalms in a volume of 7th century execution, full of contemporary glosses in Irish, Gothic fragments of Ulfilas, and a A irgil with notes in Petrarch's handwriting. Note worthy amongst the printed books is Yaldarfer's Boccaccio of 1471, as well as the Virgil of 1470 (Venice), and the editio princeps of Isocrates, both printed on vellum. Cardinal Mai was formerly custodian here. In 1879 Professor C. Mensinger presented his " Biblioteca Europea," consisting of 2500 volumes, 300 maps, and 5000 pieces, all relating to the literature and linguistics of European countries. The Melzi and Trivulzio libraries should not pass with out mention here, although they are private and inaccessible without special permission. The former is remarkable for its collection of early editions with engravings, including the Dante of 1481, with twenty designs by Baccio Bandinelli. The latter is rich in MSS. with miniatures of the finest and rarest kind, and in printed books of which many are unique or nearly so. It consists of 70,000 printed volumes.— The foundation of the monastery of Monte Cassino is due to St Benedict, who arrived there in the year 529, and established the prototype of all similar institutions in western Europe. He brought with him a few manuscripts, four or five of which are still to be seen. The library of printed books now extends to about 20,000 volumes, chiefly relating to the theological sciences, but including some rare editions. A collection of the books belong ing to the monks is in course of formation; it contains about the same number of volumes. But the chief glory of Monte Cassino consists of the archivio, which is quite apart; and this includes 30,000 or 40,000 bulls, diplomas, charters, and other documents, besides 1000 MSS. dating from the 6th century downwards. The latter comprehend some very early Bibles and important codices of patristic and other mediaeval writings. There are good written catalogues, and a calendar is now being published, Bibliothcca Casincnsis, of which 4 volumes have appeared. These libraries enjoy no special revenues, and owe their accessions entirely to donations. At Ravenna the Biblioteca Classense has a 10th cen tury codex of Aristophanes and two 14th century codices of Dante. Here are also the autograph correspondence of Muratori, and many unpublished letters of modern writers. At Vercelli the Biblioteca dell Archivio Capitolare, the foundation of which can be assigned to no certain date, but must be referred to the early days when the barbarous conquerors of Italy had become Christianized, comprises nothing but MSS., all of great antiquity and value. Amongst them is an Evangeliarium S. Eusebii in Latin, supposed to be of the 4th century; also the famous codex containing the Anglo-Saxon homilies which have been published by the Ælfric Society. The " Frari " at Venice contains an enormous collection of archives, the invaluable state paper records of the Venetian republic.Chief among the great libraries not under Government control comes the world-famed Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana at Florence, formed from the collections of Cosimo the Elder, Pietro de Medici, and Lorenzo the Magnificent (which, however, passed away from the family after the expulsion of the Medici from Florence, and were repurchased by Cardinal Giovanni, afterwards Leo X.). It was first constituted as a public library in Florence by
Not a few of the communal and municipal libraries, as will be seen from the tables, are of great extent and interest.
Belgium and Holland.
 After suffering many losses from thieves and fire, in 1772 the Bibliotheque de Bourgogne received consider able augmentations from the libraries of the suppressed order of Jesuits, and was thrown open to the public. On the occupation of Brussels by the French in 1794 a number of books and MSS. were confiscated and transferred to Paris (whence the majority were returned in 1815); in 1795 the remainder were formed into a public library under the care of La Serna Santander, who was also town librarian, and who was followed by Van Hulthem. At the end of the administration of Van Hulthem a large part of the precious collections of the Bollandists was acquired. In 1830 the Bibliotheque de Bourgogne was added to the state archives, and the whole made available for students. A 7 an Hulthem died in 1832, leaving one of the most important private libraries in Europe, described by A T oisin in Bibliothcca Hulthcrniana, Brus., 1836, 5 vols., and extending to 60,000 printed volumes and 1016 MSS., mostly relating to Belgian history. The collection was purchased by the Government in 1837, and, having been added to the Bibliotheque de Bourgogne (open since 1772) and the Bibliotheque de la Ville (open since 1794), formed what has since been known as the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique. The printed volumes now number 350,000, with 30,000 MSS., 100,000 prints, and 50,000 coins and medals. The yearly additions to the books amount to between 1500 and 3000; the other departments receive few acces sions. The special collections, each with a printed catalogue, consist of the Fonds van Hulthem, for national history; the Fonds Fe tis, for music; the Fonds Goethals, for genealogy; and the Fonds Muller, for physiology. The catalogue of the MSS. has been partly printed, but in an imperfect manner.The national library of Belgium is the Bibliotheque Royale at Brussels, of which the basis may be said to consist of the famous Bibliothequc dcs Dues de Bourgogne, the library of the Austrian sovereigns of the Low Countries, which had gradually accumulated during three centuries.
The University Library of Ghent, known successively as the Bibliothèque de l'École Centrale and Bibliotheque Publique de la Ville, was founded upon the old libraries of the Conseil de Flandres, of the College des Echevins, and of many suppressed religious com munities. It was declared public in 1797, and formally opened in 1798. On the foundation of the university in 1817 the town placed the collection at its disposal, and the library has since remained under state control. The printed volumes now amount to 250,000, with 1600 MSS; the annual increment is about 2500 volumes. There are important special collections on archaeology, Netherlands literature, national history, books printed in Flanders, and 23,000 historical pamphlets of the 16th and 17th centuries. There are printed catalogues of the works on jurisprudence (1839), and of the MSS. (1852).— The Bibliotheque de l'Universite Catholique of Louvain is based upon the collection of Beyerlinck, who bequeathed it to his alma mater in 1627; this example was followed by Jacques Romain, professor of medicine, but the proper organization of the library commenced in 1636. There are now said to be 250,000 volumes.— The Bibliothèque de l'Universite of Liege dates from 1817, when on the foundation of the university the old Bibliothèque de la Ville was added to it. There are now 105,746 printed volumes, 87,254 pamphlets, 1544 MSS., and 142 incunabula. The Liege collection (of which a printed catalogue appeared in 3 vols. 8vo, 1872), bequeathed by M. Ulysse Capitaine, extends to 12,061 volumes and pamphlets. A printed catalogue of the medical books was published in 1844, and one of the MSS. in 1875.
The national library of Holland is the Koninklijke Bibliotheek at the Hague, which was established in 1798, when it was decided to join the library of the princes of Orange with those of the defunct Government bodies in order to form a library for the States General, to be called the National Bibliotheek. In 1805 the present name was adopted; and since 1815 it has become the national library. In 1848 the Baron W. Y. H. van Westreenen van Tiellandt bequeathed his valuable books, MSS., coins, and antiquities to the country, and directed that they, should be preserved in his former residence as a branch of the royal library. There arc now upwards of 200,000 volumes of printed books, with an annual increment of 4000 volumes. The MSS. number 4000, chiefly historical, but including many fine books of hours with miniatures. Books are lent all over the country. Some twenty-five years ago it was decided for economical reasons to restrict the purchases to political, historical, and legal works, but recently, in consequence of an increase in the yearly subsidy, literature has been added to these three classes. The library boasts of the richest collection in the world of books on chess, Dutch incunabula, Elzevirs, and Spinozana. There is one general written catalogue arranged in classes, with alphabetical indexes. In 1800 a printed catalogue was issued, with four supplements down to 1811 j and since 1866 a yearly list of additions has been published. Special mention should be made of the excellent catalogue of the incunabula published in 1856.
Scaliger, Isaac Voss, Ruhnken, and Hemsterhuis. The MSS. com prehend many of great intrinsic importance; the Oriental codices number 2400. The library of the Society of Netherland Literature has been placed here since 1877; this is rich in the national history and literature. The Arabic and Oriental MSS. known as the Legatum Wamerianum are of great value and interest; and the collection of maps bequeathed in 1870 by J. J. Bodel Nyenhuis is also noteworthy. The library is contained in a building which was formerly a church of the Beguiucs, adapted in 1860 somewhat after the style of the British Museum. The catalogues (one alphabetical and one classified) are on slips, the titles being printed. A cata logue of books and MSS. was printed in 1716, one of books added between 1814 and 1847 in 1848, and a supplementary part of MSS. only in 1850. A catalogue of the Oriental MSS. was published in 6 vols., 1851-77.The next library in numerical importance is the famous Bibliotheca Academic Lugduno-Batavrc, which dates from the foundation of the university of Leyden by William I., prince of Orange, on February 8, 1575. It has acquired many valuable additions from the books and MSS. of the distinguished scholars, Golius, Joseph
Utrecht. The University Library at Utrecht dates from 1582, when certain conventual collections were brought together in order to form a public library, which was shortly afterwards enriched by the books bequeathed by Hub. Buchelius and Ev. Pollio. Upon the founda tion of the university in 1636, the town library passed into its charge. Amon; the MSS. are some interesting cloister MSS. and the famous "Utrecht Psalter," which contains the oldest text of the Athanasian creed. The last edition of the catalogue was in 2 vols. folio, 1834, with supplement in 1845, index from 1845-55 in 8vo, and additions 1856-70, 2 vols. 8vo. The titles of accessions are now printed in sheets and pasted down for insertion.
Amster- The basis of the University Library at Amsterdam consists of a dam. collection of books brought together in the 15th century and preserved in the Is ieuwe Kerk. At the time of the Reformation in 1578 they became the property of the city, but remained in the N ieuwe Kerk for the use of the public till 1632, when they were transferred to the Athenauum. Since 1877 the collection has been known as the University Library, and in 1881 it was removed to a building designed upon the plan of the new library and readingroom of the British Museum. The library includes the best collection of medical works in Holland, and the Bibliotheca Roscnthaliana of Hebrew and Talmudic literature is of great fame and value; a catalogue of the last was printed in 1875. The libraries of the Dutch Geographical and other societies are preserved here. A general printed catalogue was issued in 6 vols. 8vo, Amsterdam, 1856-77; one describing the bequests of J. de Bosch Kemper, E. J. Potgieter, and F. W. Rive, in 3 vols. 8vo, 1878-79; a catalogue of the MSS. of Professor Moll was published in 1880, and one of those of P. Camper in 1881.
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
The commencement of the admirably managed national library of Denmark, the great Royal Library at Copenhagen, may be said to have taken place during the reign of Christian III. (1533-59), who took pride in importing foreign books and choice MSS.; but the true founder was Frederick III. (1648-70); to him is mainly due the famous collection of Icelandic literature and the acquisition of Tycho Brahe's MSS. The present building (in the Christiansborg Castle) was commenced in 1667. Among notable accessions may be mentioned the collections of C. Reitzer, the count of Danneskjold (8000 volumes and 500 MSS.), and Count de Thott; the last bequeathed 6039 volumes printed before 1531, and the remainder of his books, over 100,000 volumes, were eventually purchased. In 1793 the library was opened to the public, and it has since remained under state control. Two copies of every book published within the kingdom must be deposited here. The incunabula and block books form an important series. There is a general classified catalogue in writing in 295 folio volumes for the use of readers; and an alphabetical one on slips arranged in boxes for the officials. A good catalogue of the De Thott collection was printed in 12 vols. 8vo, 1789-95; a catalogue of the French MSS. appeared^ in 1844; of Oriental MSS., 1846; of the Danish collec tion, 1875, 8vo. Annual reports and accounts of notable MSS. have been published since 1864. There were 7000 additions in 1880.
The University Library, founded in 1482, was destroyed by fire in 1728, and re-established shortly afterwards. A copy of every Danish publication must be deposited here. The MSS. include the famous Arne-Magnean collection (see vol. xii. p. 626).
The chief library in Norway is the University Library at Christiania, established at the same time as the university, September 2, 1811, by Frederick II., with a donation from the king of many thousands of duplicates from the Royal Library at Copenhagen, and since augmented by important bequests.
The Royal Library at Stockholm was first established in 1585. The original collection was given to the university of Upsala by Gustavus II., that formed by Christina is at the Vatican, and the library brought together by Charles X. was destroyed by fire in 1697. The present library was organized shortly afterwards. The Benzelstjerna-Engestrb m Library (14,500 printed volumes and 1200 MSS., rich in materials for Swedish history) is now annexed to it. Natural history, medicine, and mathematics are left to other libraries. Among the MSS. the Codex Aureus of the 6th or 7th century, with its interesting Anglo-Saxon inscription, is particularlv noteworthy. The catalogues are in writing, and are both alpha betical and classified; printed catalogues have been issued of portions of the MSS. The present building was opened in 1882.
The University Library at Upsala was founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1620, from the remains of several convent libraries; he also provided an endowment. The MSS. chiefly relate to the his tory of the country, but include the Codex Argcnteus, containing the Gothic gospels of Ulfilas. The general catalogue is in writing. A catalogue was printed in 1814; special lists of the foreign acces sions have been published each year from 1850; the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish MSS. are described by C. J. Tornberg, 1846. The library at Lund dates from the foundation of the university in 1668, and was based upon the old cathedral library. The MSS. include the De la Gardie archives, acquired in 1848.
Spain and Portugal.
Escorial has been given at vol. viii. p. 541. In 1808, before the invasion, the Escorial is estimated to have con tained 30,000 printed volumes and 3400 MSS.; Joseph removed the collection to Madrid, but when it was returned by Ferdinand 10,000 volumes were missing. There are now 32,142 printed volumes, with 583 Greek, 1905 Arabic, 73 Hebrew, and 2050 Latin MSS. The Arabic MSS. have been described by M. Casiri, 1760-70; and a catalogue of the Greek codices by Miiller was issued at the expense of the French Government in 1848. There is an imperfect written catalogue of the printed books, and the present librarian is now engaged upon a catalogue of the Latin MSS. Permission to study at the Escorial, which is one of the royal private libraries, must be obtained by special application.The chief library in Spain is the Biblioteca Nacional (formerly the Biblioteca Real) at Madrid. The printed volumes number 400,000 volumes, with 200,000 pamphlets; the accessions in 1880 amounted to 25,840 articles. Spanish literature is of course well represented, and, in consequence of the numerous accessions from the libraries of the suppressed convents, the classes of theology, canon law, history, &c., are particularly complete. The number of bibliographical rarities was largely increased by the incorporation of the valuable collection formed by the well-known bibliographer Don Luis de Usoz. There are 30,000 MSS., contained in 10,000 volumes and bundles; they include some finely illuminated codices, historical documents, and many valuable autographs. The col lection of prints extends to 120,000 pieces, and was principally formed from the important series bought from Don Valentin Carderera in 1865. In 1880 54,875 books were issued to 51,960 readers. The annual revenue is only 1600. The printed books have one catalogue arranged under authors names, and one under titles; the departments of music, maps and charts, and prints have subject-catalogues as well. There is a general index of the MSS., with special catalogues of the Greek and Latin codices and genea logical documents. The first (and only) volume of a printed catalogue of the Greek MSS. appeared in 1769. The cabinet 01 medals is most valuable and well arranged. Of the other Madrid libraries (see the tables) it is enough to mention the Biblioteca de la Academia de la Historia (20,000 volumes and 1500 MSS.), which contains some printed and MS. Spanish books of great value, including the well-known Salazar collection.— The history of the library of the
Among the libraries of Portugal the Bibliotheca Nacional at Lisbon naturally takes the first place. In 1841 it was largely increased from the monastic collections, which, however, seem to have been little cared for according to a report prepared bv the principal librarian three years later. There are now said to be 200,000 volumes of printed books, among which theology, canon law, history, and Portuguese and Spanish literature largely pre dominate. The MSS. number 9415, including many of great value. There is also a cabinet of 40,000 coins and medals.—The Biblio theca da Academia, founded in 1780, is preserved in the suppressed convent of the Ordem Terceira da Penitencia. In 1836 the Academy acquired the library of that convent, numbering 30,000 volumes, which have since been kept apart. The Archive Nacional, in the same building, contains the archives of the kingdom, brought here after the destruction of the Torre do Castello during the great earthquake.
mainly of Portuguese and French books. The important Camoens collection is described in a printed catalogue, Oporto, 1880. A notice of the MSS. may be found in Catalogo clos 3ISS. da B. PublicaEboreme, by H. da Cunha Rivara, Lisbon, 1850-70, 3 vols. folio, and the first part of an Indice prcparatorio do Catalogo dos Manuscriptos was produced in 1880.The Bibliotheca Publica Municipal at Oporto is the second largest in Portugal, although only dating from July 9, 1833, the anniver sary of the debarkation of D. Pedro, and when the memorable siege was still in progress; from that date to 1874 it was styled the Real Bibliotheca do Porto. The regent (ex-emperor of Brazil) gave to the town the libraries of the suppressed convents in the northern provinces, the municipality undertaking to defray the expense of ieeping up the collection, but only £180 is yearly spent on books and bindings, and £380 on salaries. Recent accessions consist
The Imperial Public Library at St Petersburg is the third largest library in the world, and now claims to possess 1,000,000 printed volumes. The commencement of this magnificent collection may be said to have been the books seized by the Czar Peter during his invasion of Courland in 1714; the library did not receive any notable augmentation, however, till the year 1795, when, by the acquisition of the famous Zaluski collection, the Imperial Library suddenly attained a place in the first rank among great European libraries. The Zaluski Library was formed by the Polish count Joseph Zaluski, who collected at his own expense during forty-three years no less than 200,000 volumes, which were added to by his brother Andrew, bishop of Cracow, by whom in 1747 the library was thrown open to the public. At his death it was left under the control of the Jesuit College at Warsaw; on the suppression of the order it was taken care of by the Commission of Education; and finally in 1795 it was transferred by Suwaroff to St Petersburg as a trophy of war. It then extended to 260,000 printed volumes and 10,000 MSS., but in consequence of the withdrawal of many medical and illustrated works to enrich other institutions, hardly 238,000 volumes remained in 1810. Literature, history, and theology formed the main features of the Zaluski Library; the last class alone amounted to one-fourth of the whole number. Since the com mencement of this century, through the liberality of the sovereigns, the gifts of individuals, careful purchases, and the application of the law of 1810, whereby two copies of every Russian publication must be deposited here, the Imperial Library has attained its present extensive dimensions. Nearly one hundred different collections, some of them very valuable and extensive, have been added from time to time. They include, for example, the Tolstoi Sclavonic collec tion (1830), Tischendorf's MSS. (1858), the Dolgorousky Oriental MSS. (1859), and the Firkowitseh Hebrew (Karaite) collection (1862-63), the libraries of Adelung (1858) and Tobler (1877), that of the Slavonic scholar Jungmann (1856), and the national MSS. of Karamzin (1867). This system of acquiring books, while it has maile some departinents exceedingly rich, has left others com paratively meagre. The library was not regularly opened to the public until 1814; it is under the control of the minister of public instruction. In the printed book department the yearly average of readers is now 107,000, and of books consulted 285,300. The annual grant from the treasury is 79, 174 silver roubles; an income of 3438 roubles is derived from other sources. The official estimate of the number of printed books is 1,000,000 volumes, with 19,059 maps and 75,000 prints and photographs. The yearly accessions amount to about 28,000. The Russian books number 100,000 and the Russica 30,000 volumes; the Aldines and Elzevirs form a nearly perfect collection; and the incunabula are numerous and very instructively arranged.
The manuscripts include 26,000 codices, 41,340 autographs, 4689 charters, and 576 maps. The glory of this department is the celebrated Codex Sinaiticus of the Greek Bible, brought from the con vent of St Catherine on Mount Sinai by Tischendorf in 1859. Other important Biblical and patristic codices are to be found among the Greek and Latin MSS.; the Hebrew MSS. include some of the most ancient that exist, and the Samaritan collection is one of the largest in Europe; the Oriental MSS. comprehend many valuable texts, and among the French are some of great historical value.
The general catalogues are in writing, but the following special catalogues of the printed books have been published: the Tolstoi collection of early printed Russian books, 1829; the Aldines, 1854; the Elzevirs, 1862, and another in 1864, by C. F. Walther; editions printed during the reign of Peter the Great, by BytschkofF, 1867; the foreign books relating to Peter the Great by P. Minzloff, 1872; and the Russica, 2 vols., 1873. Lists of the foreign books have been issued since 1863, and the Comptcs Rcndus published since 1850 contain notices of the most important acquisitions.
The following catalogues of the MSS. are in print: the Tolstoi Slavonic collection, 1825; Dorn's catalogue of the Oriental MSS., 1852; old German, 1853; the Greek, by Muralt, 1864; the Khanikoff Oriental codices, by Dorn, 1865; Russian MSS. on the history of Peter the Great, by Bytsohkoff, 1872; the French, 1874; Samari tan, 1875; Hebrew Biblical, 1875; Slavonic and Russian mis cellaneous, parts 1 and 2, 1878-80.
The nucleus of the library at the Hermitage Palace was formed by the empress Catherine 1 1., who purchased the books and MSS. of Voltaire and Diderot. In the year 1861 the collection amounted to 150,000 volumes, of which nearly all not relating to the history of art were then transferred to the Imperial Library.
The second largest library in Russia is contained in the public museum at Moscow. The class of history is particularly rich, and Russian early printed books are well represented. The MSS. number 5000, including many ancient Sclavonic codices and his torical documents of value. One room is devoted to a collection of Masonic MSS., which comprehend the archives of the lodges in Russia between 1816 and 1821. There is a general alphabetical catalogue in writing; the catalogue of the MSS. has been printed, as well as those of some of the special collections.
For other Russian libraries see the tables.
India, China, and Japan.
Of Indian libraries it is sufficient to notice those that have importance for Oriental letters. At Calcutta the Sanskrit college has 1652 printed Sanskrit volumes and 2769 Sanskrit MSS., some as old as the 14th century; there is also a large collection of Jain MSS. A catalogue is now being prepared for publication. The Arabic library attached to the Arabic department of the Madrasa was founded about 1781, and now includes 731 printed volumes, 143 original MSS. and 151 copies; the English library of the Anglo-Persian department dates from 1854, and extends to 325 1 volumes. The library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal was founded in 1784, and now contains 15,000 printed volumes, chiefly on Eastern and philological subjects, with a valuable collection of 9500 Arabic and Persian MSS. A catalogue is now passing through the press.
At Bombay the library of the Bombay branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, established in 1804 as the Literary Society of Bengal, is now an excellent general and Oriental collection of 40,000 printed volumes and 200 MSS., described in a printed catalogue of 1875. The Moolla Feroze Library was bequeathed for public use by Moolla Feroze, head priest of the Parsis of the Kudmi sect in 1831, and consisted chiefly of MSS. in Arabic and Persian on history, philosophy, and astronomy; some additions of English and Gujarati works have been made, as well as of European books on Zoroastrianism. A catalogue has been printed.
The library of Tippoo Sahib, consisting of 2000 MSS., fell into the hands of the British, and a descriptive catalogue of them by Charles Stewart was published at Cambridge in 1809, 4to. A fewwere presented to public libraries in England, but the majority were placed in the college of Fort William, then recently established". The first volume, containing Persian and Hindustani poetiy, of the Catalogue of the Libraries of the King of Oudh, by A. Sprenger, was published at Calcutta in 1854. The compiler shortly afterwards left the Indian service, and no measures were taken to complete the work. On the annexation of the kingdom in 1856 the ex-king is believed to have taken some of the most valuable MSS. to Calcutta, but the largest portion were left behind at Lucknow. During the siege the books were used to block up windows, &c., and those which were not destroyed were abandoned, and plundered by the soldiers. Many were burnt for fuel; a few, however, Avere rescued and sold by auction, and of these some were purchased for the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Perhaps the most remarkable library in India is that of the raja of Tanjore, which dates from the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, when Tanjore was under the rule of the Telugu Naiks, who collected Sanskrit MSS. written in the Telugu character. In the 18th century the Marhattas conquered the country, and since that date the library increased but slowly. By far the greater portion of the store was acquired by Sharabhoji Raja during a visit to Benares in 1820-30; his successor Sivaji added a few, but of inferior value. There are now about 18,000 MSS. written in Devandgari, Nandinagari, Telugu, Kannada, Granthi, Malayalam, Bengali, Panjdbi or Kashmiri, and Uriya; 8000 are on palm leaves. Dr Burnell's printed catalogue describes 12,375 articles.
Thanks to the enlightened policy of the Government of India, we are beginning to know much more respecting native libraries than was possible a few years ago, and since 1868 a yearly sum of 24,000 rupees has been granted to carry on the work of searching for Sanskrit MSS. The first part of a list of those in private hands in southern India has been published by Dr G. Oppert; it contains a description of 8376 MSS., and another volume is in course of pre paration. Dr Biihler, in his investigation of Santinath's library at Cambay, found 300 MSS. of great antiquity, six dating from the beginning of the 12th century. A pandit has examined the Samgluivina Pada Library in Pathan, and a catalogue has been pre pared for printing. A copy of the oldest Sanskrit dictionary, the Sasrata Kosha, of which only one other copy (at the Bodleian) is known, was found here. Dr Biihler also purchased 429 volumes for the Government. Inquiries made in Behar have not met with much result. Notices of Sanskrit MSS. in the presidency of Bengal have been prepared under the direction of Dr Rajendralala Mitra; seven fasciculi (1000 pp.) have been printed, describing 842 articles. The same scholar has also printed a catalogue (755 pp.) of the library of the maharaja of Bikanir, describing 2000 Sanskrit MSS.; and his analysis of the Sanskrit Buddhist literature of Nepal will shortly be published. The total number of Sanskrit MSS. acquired in this presidency is now 1612, some of which are new to Europeans. Two catalogues of 180 Sanskrit MSS. discovered in the NorthWestern Provinces and Oudh during 1878-80 have been prepared, and the following libraries (containing many important texts) of the Punjab have been examined:—that of Pandit Kikhikesha, of 500 books; Pandit Jwala Datta Prasada, 2500 MSS., the largest collection in the province; and Pandit Dilaram, 430 MSS. The efforts of Dr Forchhammer will probably bring to light many valuable Sanskrit MSS., both in Upper and Lower Burmah.
The Raffles Library at Singapore was established as a proprietary institution in 1844, taken over by the Government in 1874, and given legal status by an ordinance passed in 1878. It now contains 11,000 volumes in general literature, but books relating to the Malayan peninsula and archipelago have been made a special feature, and since the acquisition of the collection of J. R. Logan in 1879 the library has become remarkably rich in this department.
The library of the Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen at Batavia contains books printed in Netherlandish India, works relating to the Indian Archipelago and adjacent countries, and the history of the Dutch in the East. There are now 20,000 printed volumes and 1630 MSS., of which 243 are Arabic, 445 Malay, 303 Javanese, 60 Batak, and 517 on lontar leaves in the ancient Kawi, Javanese, and Bali languages, &c. The last edition of the catalogue appeared in 1877; printed catalogues of the Arabic, Malay, Javanese, and Kawi MSS. have also been issued.
China.—The Great Imperial Library was founded by K'in Lung, 18th century, and from a catalogue which has been issued appears to have contained about 12,000 works, extending to 168,000 volumes. There are many provincial libraries in China, and the chief Buddhist monasteries also possess collections of books.
1d. is charged here. The Imperial University has a good collection of European and Japanese science and general literature. The libraries of the large temples often contain rare books of value to the philologist, and many of the leading towns throughout the country are provided with free libraries. Lending libraries of native and Chinese literature have existed in Japan from very early times.Japan.—The library of the Tokio Fu (municipality of Tokio) at Leido, in the old Chinese university, contains 63,000 Chinese and Japanese volumes, and 5000 European, principally English and Dutch. The reading-room is supplied with native daily papers, and the chief foreign periodicals. The library is open for purposes of reference, and books may be borrowed by special permission. The Asakusa Library, now occupying the former fireproof rice store houses of the shogun, is one of the oldest in the country, and is reported to contain 143,000 volumes, including many ancient books and MSS.; an entrance fee of about
Of such libraries as may be found in the British colonies there are very few that call for particular mention here.
The largest collection of books in Canada is the library of parliament at Ottawa. Though founded in 1815, it contained very few books until 1841, when the two libraries of Upper and Lower Canada were joined. After being destroyed by fire, the library was re-established in 1855, chiefly for parliamentary use. It now contains 100,000 volumes, and is open to the public except when parliament is sitting. Books are lent out. The main library is a handsome octagonal apartment with beautiful carved work in Canadian white wood.
In the South African Public Library at Cape-town, which was established in 1818, there are 39,000 volumes, including the collection bequeathed by Sir George Grey, comprising, besides MSS. and early printed books, an unrivalled collection of works in the native languages of Africa, Australia, &c. The library is open to any respectable person.
The largest library in the Australian colonies is the Public Library of Victoria at Melbourne, which was established in 1853. In 1881 it numbered 89,387 volumes with 22,257 pamphlets; it possesses a collection of works on Australasia. The library has a printed catalogue (1880). It is supported by an annual parliamentary vote, which amounted last year to £5495. Readers are admitted without any formality, and have free access to the shelves. Although books are not lent out of the library individually, there is a system by which parcels of from 100 to 400 books are lent to libraries, mechanics institutes, &c., in the inland towns of Victoria. There are several other not inconsiderable libraries in Melbourne. Next in importance to the Melbourne Library is the Sydney Free Public Library, which is said to contain the largest collection of works on Australasia anywhere to be found. It has a lending as well as a reference department, and is much used.
Particulars of other colonial libraries will be found in the tables.
The libraries of the United States, as we should expect to find in a country where intelligence and education are so widely diffused, are exceedingly numerous. A great mass of information with regard to them has been published by the Bureau of Education, particularly in the comprehensive Special Report on Public Libraries issued in 1876. From this report, and the annual reports of the commissioners of education which have since appeared, we learn that the number of public libraries already registered is 3842, with upwards of 12,569,450 volumes. It is of course true that the great majority of these libraries are not numerically important. On the other hand, many of them are very rapidly growing, and their very youth implies that their shelves are not burdened with much obsolete literature. The recent development of American libraries is indeed very striking. Of the libraries reported in 1875, about 64 appear to have been established before 1800, and 30 of these between 1775 and 1800. Between 1800 and 1825 there were established 179 libraries, between 1825 and 1850 as many as 551, and finally between 1850 and 1875 no less than 2240, which in the latter year contained as many as 5,481,068 volumes. It will be convenient to deal with these libraries in groups according to the historical order of their development. The earliest libraries formed were in connexion with educational institutions, and the oldest is that of Harvard (1638). It was destroyed by fire in 1764, but active steps were at once taken for its restoration. From that time to the present, private donations have been the great resource of the library. In 1840 the collection was removed to Gore Hall, which was erected for the purpose with a noble bequest from Christopher Gore, formerly governor of Massachusetts. There are also nine special libraries connected with the different departments of the university. The total number of volumes in all these collections is 259,000, exclusive of over 200,000 pamphlets. The annual increase is about 7000 volumes, and the library has an endowment fund of over $200,000. There is a MS. card-catalogue in two parts, by authors and subjects, which is accessible to the readers. The only condition of admission to use the books in Gore Hall is respectability; but only members of the university and privileged persons may borrow books. The library of Yale College, New Haven, was founded in 1700, but grew so slowly that, even with the 1000 volumes received from Bishop Berkeley in 1733, it had only increased to 4000 volumes in 1766, and some of these were lost in the revolutionary war. During the present century the collection has grown more speedily, and now the main library numbers 102,000 volumes, while the special libraries in the control of the college bring up the total to 143,000 volumes. The yearly increase is about 4500 volumes, and the library has a book fund of $100,000. Amongst the other important university libraries are those of the college of New Jersey (Princeton), Dartmouth College (Hanover), Amherst College, Cornell University, and Brown University (Providence, R. I.). In 1875 the number of college libraries (not reckoning academy and school libraries) was 312, besides 299 libraries belonging to college students' societies.
. . . . . The institution soon manifested its ability, was imitated by other towns and in other provinces." The Library Company of Philadelphia was soon regularly incorporated, and gradually drew to itself other collections of books, including the Loganian Library, which was vested in the company by the State legislature in 1792 in trust for public use. Hence the collection combines the character of a public and of a proprietary library, being freely open for reference purposes, while the books circulate only among the subscribing members. It numbers at present 123,000 volumes, of which 11,000 belong to the Loganian Library, and may be freely lent. The printed classed catalogue of the library has been praised by Brunet and Allibone. In 1869 Dr James Rush left a bequest of over one million dollars for the purpose of erecting a building to be called the Ridgeway branch of the library. The building is very handsome, and has been very highly spoken of as a library structure. Philadelphia has another large proprietary library—that of the Mercantile Library Company, which was established in 1821. It possesses 143,135 volumes, and its members have always enjoyed direct access to the shelves. The library of the Boston Athenæum was established in 1807, and numbers 122,000 volumes. It has recently published an admirable dictionary-catalogue. The collection is especially rich in art and in history, and possesses a part of the library of Washington. The Mercantile Library Association of New York, which was founded in 1810, has the largest of all the subscription libraries, counting over 193,000 volumes. New York possesses two other large proprietary libraries, one of which claims to have been formed as early as 1700 as the "public" library of New York. It was organized as the New York Society Library in 1754, and has been especially the library of the old Knickerbocker families and their descendants, its contents bearing witness to its history. It contains about 80,000 volumes. The Apprentices Library has about 63,000 volumes, and makes a special feature of works on trades and useful arts. It is maintained by the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen. Finally, the Brooklyn Library deserves mention, if only for its very useful and admirable catalogue, the printing of which was completed in December 1880, and which embraces 60,000 volumes.The establishment of proprietary or subscription libraries runs back into the first half of the 18th century, and is connected with the name of Benjamin Franklin. It was at Philadelphia, in the year 1731, that he set on foot what he calls "his first project of a public nature, that for a subscription library
Although the State libraries of Pennsylvania and New Hampshire are known to have been established as early as 1777, it was not until some time after the revolution that any general tendency was shown to form official libraries in connexion with the State system. It is especially within the last thirty years that the number of these libraries has so increased that now every State and Territory possesses a collection of books and documents for official and public purposes. These collections depend for their increase upon annual appropriations by the several States, and upon a systematic exchange of the official publications of the general Government and of the several States and Territories. The largest is that of the State of New York at Albany, which contains 116,000 volumes, and is composed of a general and a law library, of which a printed catalogue has been published with full subject-indexes. The State libraries are libraries of reference, and only members of the official classes are allowed to borrow books, although any well-behaved person is admitted to read in the libraries.
In addition to the libraries maintained by the several States, there are the collections belonging to the general Government, most of which are at Washington. The most important of them is of course the Library of Congress, but there are also considerable libraries attached to the house of representatives, the senate, the department of state, the patent office, and the office of the surgeon-general.
a.m. to 4 p.m., and admission is granted to all persons over sixteen years of age without formality or introduction, but books are only lent to members of the official classes.The Library of Congress was first established in 1800 at Washington, and was burned together with the Capitol by the British army in 1814. President Jefferson's books were purchased to form the foundation of a new library, which continued to increase slowly until 1851, when all but 20,000 volumes were destroyed by fire. From this time the collection has grown rapidly, and now consists of 396,000 volumes with 130,000 pamphlets. In 1866 the library of the Smithsonian Institution, consisting of 40,000 volumes, chiefly in natural science, was transferred to the library of congress. The library is specially well provided in history, jurisprudence, the political sciences, and Americana. Since 1832 the law collections have been constituted into a special department. This is the national library. In 1870 the registry of copyrights was transferred to it under the charge of the librarian of congress. As two copies of every publication which claims copyright are required to be deposited in the library, the receipts under this head are nearly 25,000 articles per annum. The sum annually appropriated by congress for the management and increase of the library is $52,840. The present accommodation is inadequate, and a separate building is to be erected of size to contain two million volumes. There is an alphabetical card-catalogue kept constantly up to date, and a printed catalogue of subject-matters. The library is open every day in the year, except on four legal holidays, from 9
Since the organization of the Government in 1789, no less than one hundred and sixty historical societies have been formed in the United States, most of which still continue to exist. Many of them have formed considerable libraries, and possess extensive and valuable manuscript collections. The oldest of them is the Massachusetts Historical Society, which dates from 1791. The earliest of the scientific societies owes its origin to Franklin, and dates from 1743. The most extensive collection is that of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, which consists of 35,000 volumes and 40,000 pamphlets. For information as to the numerous professional libraries of the United States theological, legal, and medical the reader may be referred to the report already mentioned. a.m. to 6 p.m. from October to March, and until 7 p.m. during the rest of the year. Books are delivered for home use until 9 in the evening. The periodical room is open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. on week days, and on Sundays from 2 to 9. A new building is in contemplation.Of all the libraries of the United States none have achieved a greater fame, and none are more zealously and admirably conducted, than those which are supported from the public funds of some of the great cities. Legislation on the subject of free public libraries was almost synchronous in England and America. Of the free town libraries of America, much the largest and most successful is the Boston Public Library, which was established in 1852. Besides the liberal appropriations made by the city for its support, it has been the object of a long series of splendid gifts in money and books. Among the more conspicuous of its benefactors have been Joshua Bates, Theodore Parker, and George Ticknor. Since the library has been opened to the public there has thus been gathered "the largest collection of books, under one administration, upon this continent." The number of volumes in the library on July 1. 1881, was 395,478, and the annual accessions are over 17,000 volumes. In addition to the income available from trust funds, the annual appropriation by the city is $115,000. Besides the central library, with the Bates Hall and Lower Hall, there are eight branches, and the total circulation is considerably over 1,000,000 volumes per annum. Any inhabitant of Boston over fourteen years of age is admitted to read in the library and to borrow books. The principal catalogue of the library is upon cards, in addition to which there are printed catalogues of special collections, and a perfect multitude of useful class catalogues and bibliographical helps of various kinds. The number of persons engaged in the service of the library is one hundred and forty-three. The library is open to readers from 9
Of the remaining free town libraries, the most important are those of Cincinnati and Chicago. The public library of Cincinnati, which was established on its present footing in 1867, has 122,930 volumes besides pamphlets. Its expenditure last year was 51,465, and its total issues, including those from the two branches, were 768,565. The reading-rooms are open every day in the year from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. The library buildings were completed in 1873 at a cost of about 400,000, and are "among the handsomest in the world." The Chicago Public Library was established in 1872, and owed its origin to the sympathy felt for Chicago in England after the great fire of 1871. The number of volumes now in the library is 76,120. There is a very full and minute card-catalogue, in one alphabet, of authors and subjects; the contents of collections, volumes of essays, &c., are analysed under their subjects. The reading-room is open three hundred and sixty-five days in the year from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., and is not even closed for the purpose of taking stock or cleaning. The library has not yet an appropriate building. Of smaller free town libraries there is a considerable number, especially in Massachusetts. Of the entire number ten only possess over 30,000 volumes each. It is the opinion of the energetic and enlightened managers of these libraries that a free public library is the proper corollary of a free system of public education, and it is their aim as far as possible to direct the taste and to methodize the reading of those who use the collections under their charge.
We cannot conclude this brief sketch without mentioning some notable illustrations of that public-spirited munificence which is nowhere perhaps so frequently found as in the United States. The Astor Library in New York was founded by a bequest of John Jacob Astor, whose example was followed successively by his son and grandson. The library was opened to the public in 1854, and at the end of 1880 the collection due to their joint benefaction contained 192,547 volumes. It consists of a careful selection of the most valuable books upon all subjects. It is a library of reference, for which purpose it is freely open, and books are not lent out. It is "a working library for studious persons," and such persons on a proper introduction are allowed to pursue their studies in the alcoves. In 1880 the number of general readers was 45,670, and the number of visits to the alcoves was 7961. The total endowment is over $1,100,000. There is a printed catalogue for about half the library, with a printed index of subjects, and a similar catalogue for the rest is in preparation. The Lenox Library was established by Mr James Lenox in 1870, when a body of trustees was incorporated by an Act of the legislature. In addition to the funds intended for the library building and endowment, amounting to 1,247,000, the private collection of books which Mr Lenox has long been accumulating is extremely valuable. Though it does not rank high in point of mere numbers, it is exceedingly rich in early books on America, in Bibles, in Shakesperiana, and in Elizabethan poetry. The Peabody Institute at Baltimore was established by Mr George Peabody in 1857, and contains a reference library open to all comers, numbering about 72,000 volumes. The institute has an endowment of $1,000,000, which, however, has to support, besides the library, a conservatoire of music, an art gallery, and courses of popular lectures. The largest legacy yet made for a public library has recently fallen to the citizens of Chicago in the Newberry bequest of over $2,000,000 for the founding of a free public library in the north division of Chicago.
South America and Mexico.
The importance of public libraries has been fully recognized by the Argentines, and at present more than two hundred of them are in the country. They are due to benefactions, but the Government in every case adds an equal sum to any endowment. A central commission exists for the purpose of facilitating the acquisition of books and to promote a uniform excellence of administration. The most considerable is the Biblioteca Nacional at Buenos-Ayres, which contains at present 40,000 volumes, and has been almost doubled since 1872. It is passably rich in MSS., some of great interest, concerning the early history of the Spanish colonies.
The chief library of Brazil is the Bibliotheca Publica Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, founded in 1807, and now comprising 120,000 printed volumes with 1000 MSS. National literature and works connected with South America are special features of this collection. The Royal Library of Ajuda (including 4000 MSS.) was taken to Brazil by King Joao VI., but was sent to Portugal on the declaration of independence. Since 1873 the annual Government grant has been largely increased. Among other libraries of the capital may be mentioned those of the Faculty of Medicine (18,000 volumes), Marine Library (19,500 volumes), National Museum (9000 volumes), Portuguese Literary Club (53,000 volumes), Bibliotheca Fluminense (43,000 volumes), Benedictine Monastery (9000 volumes), and the Bibliotheca Municipal (15,500 volumes). In the official report on Brazil, submitted at the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876, it was stated that the aggregate number of volumes in all the libraries of the empire accessible to the public was then 460,272 volumes. In 1875 the libraries were visited by 85,044 persons.
The Biblioteca Nacional at Santiago is the chief library in Chili. The catalogue is printed, and is kept up by annual supplements.
Only sixteen out of the twenty-nine states and territories of the Mexican republic have public libraries, and only a small proportion of the contents consists of modern literature. Many, however, possess rare and valuable books, of interest to the bibliographer and historian, which have come from the libraries of the suppressed religious bodies. It is calculated that books in all the public libraries amount to about 250,000 volumes. There are about seventy-three scientific and literary associations in the republic, each possessing books. The Society of Geography and Statistics, founded in 1851, is the most important of them, and owns a fine museum and excellent library. After the triumph of the Liberal party the cathedral, university, and conventual libraries of the city of Mexico came into the possession of the Government, and steps were taken to form them into one national collection. No definite system was organized, however, until 1867, when the church of San Augustin was taken and fitted up for the purpose. Two copies of every book printed in Mexico must be presented to this library. The only other public library in the city is the Biblioteca Cinco de Mayo, which is under the management of the Lancastrian Society.
The Biblioteca Nacional at Lima was founded by a decree of the liberator San Martin on August 28, 1821, and placed in the house of the old convent of San Pedro. The nucleus of the library consisted of those of the university of San Marcos and of several monasteries, and a large present of books was also made by San Martin. The library is chiefly interesting from containing so many MSS. and rare books relating to the history of Peru in vice-regal times. The volumes marked "Papeles varies" contain reports on the superstitions of the Indians, abstracts of the ecclesiastical councils of Lima, and memoirs on provincial administration and petitions. It is reported (1881) that the whole library has been seized by the Chilians and transferred to Santiago.
—The conditions of no two libraries being precisely alike, it is impossible to lay down rules to suit all, but certain principles of general application may be stated. In the first place the internal arrangements ought to be devised by a person thoroughly acquainted with the practical working of such a library as the building is intended to accommodate. The reading-rooms, book-rooms, work-rooms, and offices should be made to fall into the most convenient relations one to the other. And as libraries grow with wonderful rapidity the plan ought to admit of easy development. The site should be dry and airy, and permit isolation of the fabric, which should be constructed of fire-proof materials, iron being preferable to stone, and brick to either. Every floor should be laid upon rolled iron beams, supported by lattice girders, the space between the beams being fitted in with porous terra cotta, and the beams covered with concrete. To protect them against fire, girders and pillars must be covered with terra cotta. Iron doors (or, better still, stout wooden doors plated with thin iron) should separate the different rooms. The safety and convenient disposal of the books must never be sacrificed to outside show. The old form of library, the museum-like room with alcoves and a large block of vacant space in the centre, or the series of apartments with books on the walls only, is no longer in favour. The reading-room, commodious, well lighted, and supplied with works of reference, should be away from the main collection, and the lending department should be kept apart from the reference library. It is convenient to have separate rooms for ladies and for readers to whom special facilities may be gran ted; and let ample provision be made for work-rooms, librarians offices, cataloguing rooms, and a bindery if necessary. The chief portion of the books (at any rate those in most demand) should be on the ground floor, and more than two stories are to be avoided. Plenty of light and good ventilation are two conditions of great importance. The basement should be vaulted. As the store-room, or that in which the main collection is deposited, is one to which readers have seldom the right of access, the greatest economy as to shelvage and passage way may be effected. Bookcases may be placed against the walls, but not too close to them, and double presses, about 3 feet apart, arranged across the floor. To prevent the objectionable use of high ladders, no shelf should stand more than 8 feet above the ground. If the room be sufficiently lofty it may contain one or more perforated iron floors, sustained by the upright portion of the presses, also of iron. Spiral staircases are to be avoided. Lifts may be introduced with advantage. In many college libraries in America (e.g. at Princeton) the circular form, with cases radiating from the centre, has been adopted success fully. The spacious rotundas of the British Museum and that of the Liverpool Free Public Library are good examples of the circular reading-room.Library Buildings.
Mr Justin "Winsor has devised an excellent plan for a library of one million volumes capacity (see "Library Buildings," in Report on Public Libraries of U.S., p. 465), and the same system might be applied to one much less extensive. Another distinguished American librarian, Mr W. F. Poole of Chicago, has made some novel suggestions on library architecture which have met with considerable approval. He objects to the waste of space in the central portion of most large library rooms, to the difficulty of ventilating and heating them, to shelving books in galleries on the walls, to the destruction of bindings from gas and heat ("books cannot live where man cannot live"), to the excessive labour of procuring books from long distances, the insecurity from fire, the inconvenience of keeping many volumes (other than those of reference) in the public reading-room, and the unnecessary cost of the present system. To remedy these defects a plot of land is required 200 feet square, and surrounded with open spaces. At the middle of the principal side may be placed the main building, 60 feet front and 75 feet deep, devoted to administrative and working purposes. The books will be stored, not in one central repository, but in a series of rooms thrown out in wings from the central edifice, and extending round the four sides of the quadrangle with a vacant space in the middle. Each room is 50 feet wide, 15 feet high, and as long as convenient. Ten of these rooms will occupy the ground floor, so that, carrying the same construction four stories high, there will be forty different rooms in the whole structure. Each will be devoted to one large, or two or more small, classes of books. Alcoves and galleries are not to be permitted, but the books will be shelved on the walls or on double presses within reach. Every room will receive light on two sides, will be furnished with tables and chairs for readers, and provided with an attendant; no general reading-room will therefore be wanted. As a protection against fire, each room will be cut off by means of brick fire-walls extending to the roof, and access from one room to the other will be by a light iron corridor on the inside of the quadrangle. At the rear of the central building will be a lift for readers, and there will be staircases as well. In this way, on one story there will be about 25,250 square feet in the different wings, which, after deducting sufficient space for readers tables, &c., will give about 20,200 square feet for books. As each square foot will shelve 25 volumes, each story will hold 505,000 volumes, or on the four stories 2,020,000 volumes. One of the front rooms (to hold 67,500 volumes) might serve as a circulating library. Mr Poole estimates the cost of such a building in America at $530,000, or complete with shelving and furniture $640,000. (See Library Journal, vi. 69 sq.) In the same volume, p. 77 sq., is a description of the proposed plan for a new national library building at Washington. In this scheme the architect has in view the centralization towards a circular reading-room, good light, the possible expansion of the library for one hundred years, accessibility to all parts, economical administration, and division into different fire-proof compartments.
Of the various systems for heating libraries open fire-places have the best appearance, are very safe, and best convey heat; close stoves are the cheapest at first hand. Perhaps steam heating is the safest and most economical for large buildings. Unprotected gas jets are very injurious to the books. If gas be used at all, the sun-light system or the Benham light is the best means of conveying away the fumes and heated air. The electric light is used with great success at Liverpool and in the British Museum.
—For presses and shelves, should wood be preferred, English oak or the cheaper deal (well seasoned) is the best material; or the presses may be made of iron and the shelves of slate or galvanized iron. At the British Museum the presses are all on one scale and all of the same model, the standards being of galvanized iron, with holes for brass pins, which are so shaped that the space is altered by merely turning them half-way round. The shelves are also of galvanized iron, covered with leather, on wooden frames; movable pads covered with leather protect the books at either end from being rubbed, and there are leather falls to keep the dust out. In the Radcliffe iron bookcase, invented by Dr Acland, the framework is of iron, and the shelves of wood, faced with leather. It is 7 feet high, and stands on any floor-space 48 inches by 18 inches; books are placed on both sides to the number of 500 octavos. Banner's revolving bookcase is useful for reference books; it is square, stands about 5 feet high, occupies no more space than a chair, and holds about 250 volumes. Economy of space is also a feature in Mr Virgo's bookcase, in the front of which is a door, itself shelved, which, on being swung round, discloses another row of shelves behind. The Eastlake portable bookcase can be taken to pieces, and is made to stand against a wall. In providing for shelf room it is usual to allow about 110 square feet of shelving to 1000 volumes; and in giving directions for presses and shelves it is well to have them planned upon a uniform scale. Perhaps the best supports for the shelves are Tonks's movable shelf-fittings, consisting of two rows of metal strips, with oblong perforations at intervals of 3 inch, in which are inserted small metal plates. The tops of reading tables, trays and barrows for carrying books, and such shelves as may be intended for heavy or choice books, should be padded. Very large volumes had better be kept flat in sliding trays. There is much diversity of opinion as to whether the fronts of the presses should be glazed or not, or whether they should be protected by wooden doors, curtains, or wire screens; many librarians object to glass doors as harbouring dry rot, and to any opaque screen as concealing the books.Bookcases and Shelves, Furniture and Appliances.
The arrangement of the reading-room of the British Museum furnishes a good example of perfect supervision combined with every consideration for the comfort of readers. The tables are here arranged as the spokes of a wheel, with smaller square tables between them for large volumes. Each reader at the radiating tables has a separate place 4 feet 3 inches long, and is screened from his opposite neighbour by a division running along from one end to the other; in front is a hinged desk, with racks, inkstand, and a folding shelf for books. The framework of each table is of iron, forming channels by which air is conveyed through screens at the top of the longitudinal divisions. A tubular foot-rail affords facility for warming the feet in cold weather. The catalogue-stands (with presses of special bibliographies near them) are placed in two concentric circles around the enclosure of the superintendent, who can thus observe every reader in the room.
A speedy supply of books is ensured by the use of the automatic book-delivery contrived for the Harvard bookstore (of six stories) by Mr Justin Winsor. At the delivery-desk a keyboard shows the digits which combine the various shelf-marks; and the number of the book wanted, being struck upon it, is repeated at the floor on which the work is located, where it is sought for by an attendant and placed in a box attached to an endless belt, which carefully deposits it on a cushioned receptacle close by the delivery-desk.
For the purpose of stamping the name of the library on the books, &c., some persons prefer the embossing stamp, and some the ink stamp now very conveniently made in india-rubber. Props, either to screw upon the shelves, or made of thick blocks of wood, or of tin folded at right angles, are useful for preventing books falling about in a slovenly manner. Reading cases are necessary for periodicals and choice bindings; periodical cases are made conveniently of wood with strong leather backs. In order to keep the consecutive numbers of current periodicals and newspapers clean and in perfect order, some kind of temporary binder is required. The contents of the different shelves or recesses may be printed on labels made of leather or cloth. The "Van Everen" printed numbers and letters for the marks on the shelves and the backs of the books are to be purchased at a small cost.
Memoirs of Libraries, he gives a number of schemes both on philosophical and on natural or practical principles; and Petzholdt, in his Bibliotheca, Bibliographica (Leipsic, 1866), has drawn up an account of no less than one hundred and seventeen different methods of classification, a number which could now be largely increased, as the practical ingenuity of American librarians alone has added many to the roll. Some of these schemes have been elaborated with great care, but, however interesting on account of the useful hints they may now and then supply, most of them are useless either for the catalogue or the shelves. All these are systems to classify the whole range of literature, but there are many classified bibliographies and other guides useful for the scientific arrangement of special departments.Classification and Shelf-Arrangement.—The defect of most classificatory systems, especially of those which profess to be particularly philosophical and logical, is that they are better adapted for a systematic review of human knowledge than for the arrangement of a miscellaneous collection of books. A small library will not require so extensive a scheme as a larger one, and a popular library needs less minute classification than one for reference or for the use of more learned readers. Again, the classes which are best represented in the library, and its special or local collections, deserve more elaborate treatment than the classes in which it possesses but few volumes. The same system cannot invariably be used in all respects both for the shelves and for the catalogue, as a book can have but one position in the presses, but the title may appear under any number of headings in different parts of the catalogue. For these reasons, the natural order should be followed as far as possible. That is to say, the books should suggest their own classification, which should be made to harmonize with the requirements of the library, and the various classes should not be strained to fit some arbitrary method, however logical in theory. As the title of a book is often an unsafe guide to its contents, no one should attempt classification by the help of the title alone. In vol. ii. of Edwards's
Books are usually arranged upon the shelves either in order of (1) their sizes, (2) authors' names, (3) subjects, or sometimes (4) of accession, or by a modification of two or more of these systems. The arrangement by subjects is that which displays most conveniently the richness or poverty of the collection. Although a library may possess the most complete of subject catalogues, it cannot be considered in perfect order without classification on the shelves. In carrying out shelf-arrangement ample space should be left for additions, and in fixing upon the places of the bookcases those containing the works in most demand should be nearest the point of delivery. In some libraries the books are located without any classification, and the shelf marks are all in all. At Munich and many other Continental libraries there are thirty or forty classes, designated by single or double letters, and the books are arranged in sets of octavo, quarto, and folio in the different classes under the names of their authors, so that Macaulay's History of England would be found in the octavo alphabet under M of the class "history." Mr Richard Garnett supplies an interesting description of the system of classifying books on the shelves followed at the British Museum in the Trans. of Conf. of Libs. (London, 1878, pp. 108, 188). There are ten classes: (1) theology, (2) jurisprudence, (3) natural history and medicine, (4) archæology and arts, (5) philosophy, (6) history, (7) geography, (8) biography, (9) belles lettres, (10) philology; and the classes have five hundred and fifteen divisions. Periodicals, academical publications, state papers, the Oriental departments, the Grenville Library, and the reference library are all distinct, but the principle of classification is practically identical. By allowing intervals in the numbering of the presses space is allowed for new ones to contain additions, and as the different presses are alike in size, they may be shifted at will and no alteration of press-marks is wanted. Mr Edwards (Mem. of Libs., ii. 814) proposes a system for a public free library of upwards of thirty thousand volumes to be arranged under (1) theology, (2) philosophy, (3) history, (4) politics and commerce, (5) sciences and arts, (6) literature and polygraphy. A novel scheme, marked with many practical advantages, is the Amherst or Dewey system,  according to which the library is divided into ten classes, the first being a zero or general class, including bibliography, polygraphy, general periodicals, &c., while the others are philosophy, which is numbered 100; theology, 200; sociology, 300; philology, 400; natural science, 500; useful arts, 600; fine arts, 700; literature, 800; and history, 900. These classes are then separated again into nine special divisions of the main subject, preceded by a zero or general division. Each of these divisions again has nine sections (preceded by a zero). Thus 513 is the third section (geometry) of the first division (mathematics) of the fifth class (natural science). This is the classification or class number, and is affixed to every book and pamphlet belonging to the library. The zero in a class number has its normal power, and signifies a general treatise, so that 500 is a book on natural science in general. The system was devised in the first instance for classifying and indexing, but it can also be used for numbering and arranging books and pamphlets on the shelves. For this purpose the absolute location by shelf and book marks is wholly abandoned, and the relative location by class and book-number used instead. Accompanying the class-number is the book-number, which prevents confusion of different books on the same subject. Thus the first geometry catalogued is marked 513 1, the second 513 2, and so on. The books of each section are all together, arranged by book-numbers, and these sections are also arranged in simple numerical order throughout the library. The number 513 11 will therefore mean the eleventh book in subject 513, or the eleventh geometry belonging to the library.—A representative specimen of the philosophical method is that devised by Dr W. J. Harris for the catalogue of the Public School Library of St Louis, which is classed in a modified form of the Baconian plan. The main classes are (1) science, including philosophy, theology, social and political sciences, and natural science and the useful arts, (2) art, (3) history, (4) appendix, including polygraphy, cyclopædias, and periodicals. These main classes are again divided into one hundred subclasses, many of which are divided still further. Thus, under natural history, class 50 is zoology; 50a, vertebrates; 50a i., mammals, &c.—The divisions Médecine and Histoire de France in the great printed catalogue of the Bibliothèque Nationale are excellent examples of classification. 
Every volume upon the shelves should have a mark to indicate its position. One system is to designate each press by a number, each shelf by a letter, and if necessary, each volume on the shelf by another consecutive number, so that 13 D 16 is the sixteenth volume on the fourth shelf of the thirteenth press. The principles underlying numbering systems as well as shelf-arrangement are discussed by Mr Melvil Dewey (see Library Journal, iv. 7, 75, 117, 191), and the combined system of numbering and arranging of Mr J. Schwartz, as well as his mnemonic system of classification (ib., iii. 6; iv. 3), are also well worth attention. The new scheme of classification devised for the use of the Boston Athenæum by Mr Cutter is also described in the Library Journal, iv. 234. A catalogue for the Winchester Library (1879) was prepared by MiCutter on the principles there detailed.
Many authorities strongly recommend that, instead of a fixed mark for the shelves, the location of books should be indicated by a running number or combination of letters and numbers; so that, although the books should not always remain in the same place, their relative position would be unaltered, and, while they could be found just as readily by means of the number, any quantity of additions could be introduced without affecting the whole scheme.
In a circulating library it may be found convenient to designate each press by letter, and to omit to number the shelves from top to bottom, but number each volume consecutively. The shelf-notation may be placed inside each volume or on a label upon the back.
—The best binding is the cheapest in the end, since it lasts longer under all circumstances, and is always better treated by readers. Morocco resists wear and tear and the action of gas and heated air better than any other leather. Vellum is the most durable material, but it is not suitable for all purposes. Then follow in order of merit calf, russia, basil, roan, buckram, and cloth. Morocco should be used as much and russia as little as possible. Buckram, linoleum, cretonne, leatherette, &c., have met with favour from time to time, but are not recommended. Olive, light brown, and red are said to be the most lasting colours; then come dark blue and green, light blue and green. Black is a lasting colour. Some persons assign a particular colour to each class of literature, but, as there are more classes than colours to suit them, such an arrangement consistently carried out can only lead to confusion; besides, a want of variety on the shelves destroys at once the individual appearance which it is always desirable to give to each set of books in order to make them easily distinguishable. The council of the Library Association have suggested as a pattern for ordinary library binding that the volumes should be sewn all along, with the first and last sheets overcast, on strong cords, the slips to be drawn in all along, and the backs made close (flexible); half-bound, with corners of same material; smooth cloth sides; edges cut, sprinkled, and burnished, or, if so directed, top edge only cut, &c., the others trimmed and left with proof; end-papers of stout Cobb's paper, with cloth joints in quartos and folios; lettered with author's name, short title, and date; gilt fillets, but no other tooling; two-page plates to be guarded so as to open out flat; all materials of the best quality, and the work to be done carefully. In making contracts some such specification as that suggested by the Library Association should be decided upon. Full instructions should always accompany work sent out, and a copy must be kept in a binding-register. Rare and valuable books demand special treatment and a special binder. The British Museum authorities have adopted a style of binding in half-morocco, with the leather coining only just over the back to act as a hinge, the sides whole cloth, the corners tipped with vellum.Binding.
How to deal with pamphlets is a troublesome question. At the British Museum each was formerly done up separately in slight binding. This is certainly the best system, but out of the reach of most libraries from its cost. Failing this, the pamphlets can be arranged in solander cases as they come in, and afterwards bound up in volumes according to size and subject, with the contents marked on the fly leaf of each. The rebinding of a MS. is to be avoided; it is better to preserve the old cover and place the book in a case. Drawings and prints are best preserved in sunk mounts, and maps, charts, &c., should be backed with thin linen.
Practical Hints.—Collate every volume when it comes in, so as to prevent binder's imperfections; remove plate-paper when the book is quite dry; strings and silk registers are to be avoided, as they tear the leaves; preserve old bindings as far as possible, and do not permit book-plates, the names of former owners, and MS. notes of any kind to be destroyed; be careful with metal clasps and corners; let gilding be used sparingly; do not hurry the binder overmuch, as he may retaliate by returning his work insufficiently dried and pressed; be careful with letterings; index dictionaries and works of reference on the fore edges; bind up paper wrappers; never let a binder exercise his fatal proclivity to cut away full margins.
For the removal of grease and ink-spots, and the restoration of old bindings, prints, &c., consult L'art de restaurer Ies estampes et les livres (Paris, 1858) and La réparation des vicilles reliures (ib., 1858), both by A. Bonnardot, and Rouveyre, Connaissances nécessaires à un Bibliophile (Paris, 1880). To restore calf-bindings which have become impoverished, it has been recommended that they should be lightly washed with a soft sponge dipped in a preparation consisting of 1 oz. of the best glue, dissolved in a pint of warm water, to which add a teaspoonful of glycerin and a little flour paste. Should the state of the leather be very bad, a second dressing may be found necessary. The volumes must be rubbed with chamois leather when dry. Neat's-foot or olive oil has been suggested for the same purpose, but it ought to be used with a sparing hand. Much has been written about the effect of gas and heat upon binding. The question is still undecided, but it seems likely that the deterioration of the leather is caused more directly by the over-heated air, so that thorough ventilation, especially as regards the upper shelves, is most important for the well-being of a library. Morocco, vellum, and buckram resist this action best, and calf, russia, and roan worst. Professor H. A. Hagen has studied the various kinds of bookworms and other insect pests of librarians. Most libraries of the first class bind on the premises, and M. Hipp. Gariel of the Bibliothèque de Grenoble is persuaded, after a very careful inquiry, that any library which binds as many as nine hundred volumes a year will save largely by keeping up a binding establishment of its own.
Catalogues and Cataloguing.—A library is useless without a proper equipment of good catalogues, which to be thoroughly efficient should be compiled upon a well-considered plan, carefully kept up to date, and made accessible to every reader. The variety of different catalogues is very great, and no one form can be adopted alike by libraries for study and those for popular reading, nor yet by those which combine the two functions in whatever proportions. As regards the amount of information necessary to be given, the titles of the books may be either short, or not more than a single line to each, as in the London Library Catalogue (1875); medium, or several lines to each, as in the Royal Academy Library Catalogue (1877); or full, as in the Catalogue of the Huth Library, 5 vols. large 8vo (1880), where the title is copied in extenso and a quantity of bibliographical details are added.
The chief questions to be answered by a catalogue are:—1. Has the library a certain work by a certain author? 2. What has it by any given author? 3. Has it a certain book of which the title only is known to the inquirer? 4. Has it a certain book of which the subject only is known to the inquirer? 5. What has it on a given subject? 6. What works in certain classes or languages has it? To supply this information, catalogues are arranged sometimes under the names of the authors in alphabetical order (1 and 2); or under the first words of the titles (3); or classified under subjects, whether in alphabetical or systematic order (4 and 5); or by a combination of two or more of these methods. A dictionary-catalogue answers all six questions under the names of authors, the titles of books, the subjects and forms of literature (i.e., essays, or French, German, &c.), which are arranged in one alphabet and connected one with the other by a complete system of cross-references. A modified form of short-title dictionary-catalogue, with the names of authors, titles of books, and subjects in one alphabet, is a useful type for a popular library to adopt. No author catalogue can be considered complete without an index of subjects, and every classified catalogue requires an index of authors, if alphabetical, and of both authors and classes if systematic. An ideal catalogue would furnish references under each name and subject to every work, part of work, or even magazine article contained in the library which illustrated it. This can rarely be attempted, but a near approach to perfection is shown by the new catalogues of the Boston Athenaeum and the Brooklyn Mercantile Library; the last is a model of thoroughness. It is becoming a laudable practice to give the contents of collected works and periodicals in catalogues; and good examples of the value of annotations are the catalogues of the classes of history, biography, travel, and historical fiction in the Boston Public Library.
In making choice of a form of catalogue the way is sufficiently plain should the alphabetical system under authors be adopted, neither can there be much cause for discussion in fixing upon an alphabetical subject-catalogue; but, should it be decided to compile a systematic subject-catalogue, the question becomes a much more serious one. A subject-index of some sort is an indispensable supplement to any catalogue merely arranged under authors. The references had better be strictly alphabetical in form; for instance, a work on ants should be indexed under that word and not under the general heading of insects or entomology; but there is no reason why there should not be cross references under the larger to the smaller headings. In an appendix to Mr Cutter's article on "Library Catalogues " there is a descriptive list of more than a thousand printed catalogues of American libraries, among which many useful types might be selected. All the printed catalogues of European libraries which were published before 1840 are mentioned in Vogel's Literatur europ. öff. u. Corporations-Biblotheken (Leipsic, 1840).
Librarians should take a share in the compilation of their catalogues at any sacrifice of time and trouble, for by no other means can they obtain so exact an acquaintance with their collections. No cataloguer should be allowed to prepare a title except from the very copy of the book which he is cataloguing.
In order to secure precision and uniformity in the descriptions of the books and in the headings under which they are placed, some well-considered code of rules is absolutely necessary as a guide to the cataloguer. All such rules are founded more or less upon those of the British Museum, printed in 1841, which have been followed with modifications by Professor Jewett (in the Smithsonian Report on the Construction of Catalogues, 1852), by Mr E. Edwards (Memoirs of Libs., 1859, vol. ii.), by Mr F. B. Perkins (in the American Publisher, 1869), with many additions by Mr C. A. Cutter (in his Rules for a printed Dictionary-Catalogue, 1876), by the condensed rules of the American Library Association (Library Journal, iii. 12), and by the Library Association of the United Kingdom (as finally agreed upon and printed in their Monthly Notes, ii. 81). The authorities of the Cambridge University Library have also printed their rules. In drawing up a set of rules the special wants of the library and the readers should be first considered, and then the most suitable rules chosen from one or other of the schemes mentioned above. But when rules are decided upon, no alteration should be permitted during the compilation of the catalogue, as bad rules uniformly followed are better than good rules without uniformity.
Among disputed questions, that of how best to describe the sizes of books is perhaps the most difficult. What is wanted is a system that can be understood by every one, and which is capable of being applied to old as well as to new books. For books printed before the introduction of machine-made paper about the beginning of the century, the correct bibliographical size may be derived from the fold of the sheet, that is, roughly speaking, a quarto is a sheet folded four times, an octavo eight times, &c. The great variety of modern papers (a different scale of sizes being used in each country) renders this method no longer available, and it seems generally admitted that some system of fixed measurements of heights to denote certain sizes is wanted for library purposes. A report on the subject, giving details of three rival schemes, including that of the American Library Association, an ingenious adaptation of the "demy" scale paper, and one following the ordinary binder's scale, may be found in Trans., &c., of Manchester Meeting, 1880 (p. 11), of the Library Association. A committee of the same body subsequently devised a plan which endeavoured to embrace the different merits of all three schemes, but it has not yet been generally adopted.
Printed catalogues are doubtless costly, and they soon become out of date, but they are much easier to consult than manuscript volumes, and possess the great advantage that they admit of being used away from the library. On the whole the balance of convenience is strongly in their favour, and few libraries of any importance fail to print as soon as they can. For free public libraries printed catalogues are absolutely necessary, and they are extremely useful in those of a more learned or special character.
As regards the form of catalogue most suitable for library reference, card-catalogues are used comparatively little in England, but are found to act satisfactorily in many American libraries. They possess many peculiar advantages, among others being the facility with which titles may be added, withdrawn, or rearranged. Readers do not object to turning over the cards, as the labour is shortened by indexes standing above the rows; and there are many contrivances to prevent the unauthorized removal of the titles.
It is obvious that, if a universal catalogue of printed literature existed, it would be only necessary for each library to mark in a copy the particular works it chanced to possess. Such a plan on a small scale has been adopted in many cathedral and college libraries, where a copy of the Bodleian printed catalogue is used for the purpose. A satisfactory step in the direction of co-operative cataloguing has been made by Mr Henry Stevens in his proposals for a bibliographical clearing-house, which shall supply exact copies of the title pages of rare (and eventually of more common) books by means of photography. Mr Stevens has now many thousands of these "photograms" of titles, which are all reduced to a uniform scale, with the full titles and collations added in ordinary type. They are very convenient for card-catalogues.
Thus far the wants of readers have been principally considered; but librarians ought to possess two other kinds of very important catalogues, which they must keep up in their own interests. The first is the accessions-catalogue, or record of every book, part of book, pamphlet, or periodical as it comes in; and the second the shelf-catalogue, or stock-book of the library, a register of the contents of every press and every shelf. These tell the source and date of every addition, and enable all the books to be checked at any time. A novel form of accessions-catalogue is that of the Liverpool Free Public Library, which is a sort of large photographic album to show printed titles of accessions in alphabetical order; loose sheets are laced into the body of the catalogue to provide for any number of additions as quickly as possible. In the same library the titles of new books are also pasted upon blocks arranged in a frame for the information of readers.
Administration.—In any library which manages its own financial matters, however small, all accounts should be as carefully kept as those of a trading establishment. In the same way a periodical stock-taking should be made by means of the shelf-catalogue. It is a great convenience to display recent accessions for a short time in some place put apart for the purpose. A recommendation and complaint-book are both useful. The rapid and efficient supply of books is greatly promoted by requiring that all demands should be made in writing and not verbally. The books should be carefully dusted from time to time by experienced persons; and the leaves of all new books, &c., should be cut by the library staff.
In issuing and taking note of books lent, either the ledger or the slip-system may be used, or a combination of the two, something like a shelf-catalogue. Accounts are kept either against the borrower, against the book, or against time; the first, with the ledger system, may be well for small libraries, but in larger institutions the slip-system must be resorted to, and it is better to keep the accounts against the books, with perhaps a ledger-index of borrowers. Where more than one volume is lent at a time a small card is sometimes placed in a pocket in each book; the card, whether marked with borrower's name, &c., or not, being retained as a voucher, as in the " card-ledger " spoken of on p. 537, which is on the slip-system with the account against the borrower. The special feature of the " card-ledger " is that no writing whatever is required. It is necessary to introduce some device for overdrawn or reserved books.
Besides furnishing the materials for reading, it is now recognized that a popular library has also the function of indicating the method of reading and study. A collection of well-chosen books suitable for girls and boys is now a good feature in many English free libraries. At the Providence Public Library, Rhode Island, Mr W. E. Foster issues daily notes on current topics and events, with detailed references by which the subject maybe illustrated by the resources of the library; more complete special lists, e.g., on Herbert Spencer, Irish landlord and tenant, &c., are also issued from time to time. Library lectures are now given at several free libraries in, but, to make these efforts distinctly useful in adding to the good work of the institution, they should be restricted to lectures on books and courses of reading, so that, by illustrating certain works or departments of the library, these lectures may gradually lead readers to a more careful consideration of literature. Aimless and purposeless reading is the bane of a free public library, and it should be the desire of its authorities to do what can be done to induce people to use with due circumspection books of a higher class and of a more useful and informing character. The admirable catalogue of history, biography, and travel of the Boston Public Library, with its suggestive notes and illustrations, had the effect of lowering the reading of fiction from 74 per cent, to 69 per cent. In the same library even the reading of novels has been elevated by the catalogue of English prose fiction arranged on the same plan.
Experience shows that in all that relates to such questions as preliminary forms, age of readers, days and hours of admission, Sunday-opening, access to catalogues, shelves, and librarians, fines, loans of books, guarantees, number of volumes allowed, time of reading, &c., a liberal tendency is always beneficial both to the library and the public.
In view of an outbreak of fire, some well considered plan should be fixed upon. Extincteurs and hand-pumps should be kept ready for use in central positions. The means for extinguishing fire should be familiar to the members of the staff, who should all be practised in fire-drill, in order that each may know his proper place and duty in case of emergency. Full directions should be suspended in conspicuous places. In the case of fire breaking out after library hours, it should be thoroughly understood where the keys are to be found, what officials should be sent for, and what apparatus is ready for use within the building.
Librarians.—Without insisting upon quite so wide a range of subjects as did F. A. Ebert in his Bildung des Bibliothekars (Leipsic, 1820), one may expect the librarian of a great library to be a man of liberal education, and specially endowed with sympathy with books and reading; a practical acquaintance with bibliography, including palæography, and bibliology, is also necessary, as well as with the theory and practice of library management. To be thoroughly qualified, a librarian should have had the practical experience of library-work which it is impossible to obtain from any amount of book reading. Besides this, he ought to be a man of business habits and a good administrator.
These acquirements imply qualifications of a somewhat higher character than may perhaps be necessary in all public libraries; but some knowledge of languages and literatures, bibliography, bibliology, and general library management should be possessed by any person holding the chief position in the administration of any library, however small. As regards the qualifications of the librarian of a popular institution or of library-assistants, it may be useful to give the outline of a plan recently proposed by a committee of the Library Association for their examination (see Monthly Notes, vol. ii. ). There should be a preliminary examination, chiefly in the subjects of a sound English education, special attention being paid to English literature; proficiency in the elements of one or more classical or modern languages would be specially indorsed upon the certificate, one language to be necessary. The suggested subjects for the preliminary examination are—arithmetic, English grammar and composition, English history, geography, and English literature. After having been engaged in library work for not less than one year, a second-class certificate might be awarded to any librarian or assistant who should pass a satisfactory examination in English literature, especially of the last hundred years, some one other European literature, principles of the classification of the sciences, elements of bibliography, including cataloguing and library management,—a cataloguing knowledge of at least two languages besides English to be necessary. A first-class certificate would be given, after a satisfactory examination, to a librarian or assistant of at least two years' experience, for an advanced knowledge of the subjects last mentioned, with the addition of general literary history. A cataloguing knowledge of at least three languages would be necessary for the higher certificate,—an acquaintance with any others, as well as proficiency in any subjects (not more than two in number) offered by the candidate, being specially indorsed.
Women are gradually making their way in libraries. At Manchester and elsewhere they are successfully employed as assistants; and in several other places in England the chief charge of the library is maintained in a very efficient manner by a lady. In the United States the majority of the librarians are ladies (at the Boston Public Library no less than two-thirds of the staff), and many of the most accomplished cataloguers are of the same sex.
The first general meeting of librarians took place at New York, September 15 to 17, 1853, upon an invitation signed by Professor C. C. Jewett, Mr W. F. Poole, and others "for the purpose of conferring together upon the means of advancing the prosperity and usefulness of public libraries, and for the suggestion and discussion of topics of importance to book collectors and readers." About eighty persons attended, many questions were debated, and the suggestion to form a permanent association met with considerable favour. Nothing came of it, however, and twenty-three years had elapsed when, having in view the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, a second meeting was convened on October 4 to 6, at Philadelphia, which was attended by one hundred and two Americans and one English representative. At the Philadelphia conference of 1876, the American Library Association, which has since done so much good work in practical librarianship, was founded. In October 1877 a conference of librarians was held in London, under the presidency of the late Mr J. Winter Jones, and attended by two hundred and sixteen librarians and others, including representatives of the French, German, and Greek Governments, all the chief libraries of the United Kingdom, as well as certain of those of the United States, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, and Australia. Altogether one hundred and forty different libraries sent representatives, and nearly the whole field of library-science was reviewed at the different sittings. The Transactions and Proceedings of the Conference of Librarians (London, 1878) is the title of the official report of the meeting. The chief result of the conference was perhaps the foundation of the Library Association of the United Kingdom, of which the "main object shall be to unite all persons engaged or interested in library work, for the purpose of promoting the best possible administration of libraries; it shall also aim at the encouragement of bibliographical research." Monthly meetings of the association take place at the London Institution, and the members hold an annual conference in some one or other locality, where the different libraries are inspected, various questions of library economy are discussed, and new library appliances are exhibited. Full reports of these meetings have been published; Monthly Notes are also issued. Every important British library is now represented in the association, which numbers over 360 members.
 So necessary is bibliography in library selection that Dr Cogswell, as a preliminary step to collecting books for the Astor Library, formed a bibliographical apparatus of five thousand volumes to help him in his arduous task. To assist librarians and collectors in their choice, among earlier works may be mentioned that of G. Peignot, Manuel du Bibliophile, ou traitf du choix des livres, Dijon, 1823, still interesting on account of the descriptions of the favourite reading of eminent men. Catalogue of my English Library (London, 1853) is the title of a little volume prepared by Mr Henry Stevens to assist in getting together the best editions of the standard English authors. The idea was followed on a larger scale by M. Hector Bossange in Ma Bibliotheque Française (Paris, 1855). The best guide for ordinary purposes, but far from perfect, is The lest Heading: hints on the selection of books, on the formation of libraries, public and private, by F. B. Perkins (4th ed., New York, 1877). The list is restricted to books now in the market; prices are appended. The titles are very brief, and are arranged in an alphabet of subjects; and a selection is appended of the chief French, German, Italian, and Spanish authors. A new edition of Porter's JBooks and Heading appeared in 1881. Current German literature is well looked after in G. Schwab and K. Kliipfel's IVegiceiser durch die Litcratur der Deutschen (4th ed., Leipsic, 1870), with several supplements. The leading literary reviews, as well as the publishers trade journals, will guide in the acquisition of the books of the day. The careful cataloguing and excellent descriptive notes in the New York Publishers Weekly are good examples of what book committees are glad to have before them. An examination of the authorities quoted by authors of repute will frequently help in deciding upon the merits of rival treatises, and the printed catalogues of well-chosen libraries are also useful. To his practical little treatise, Free Libraries and Newsrooms, Mr J. D. Mullins appends a list of books he considers desirable for free public libraries, and to form the basis of a collection of high-class fiction, Mr F. B. Perkins has drawn up a list of the best hundred novels procurable in English (Library Journal, i. 166). The Coming Catalogue, about which we hear now and then from America, will contain selected lists of books, with short notes.Guides to Selection of Books.—As it is not only necessary to find out the best treatises on given subjects, but also to decide upon the respective merits of different editions and even of different states or copies of the same edition, an acquaintance with bibliography, or the science dealing with the technical features of books and MSS., and with bibliology, or that which deals more especially with their literary aspect, is to be expected in those forming a library.
Acquisition of Books.—Public libraries must look to purchases as their chief means of getting the books they want. The best system is to draw up lists of the desired works and editions, and circulate the lists among the leading booksellers, who will notify the prices and conditions of the copies they may be able to supply; announcements of books wanted can also be inserted in the book sellers trade organs. Second-hand booksellers will willingly furnish their catalogues, which, if they are not required to purchase from, are always useful for reference. It is usually more convenient to give commissions for books at sales than for the librarian to attend in person; but an occasional visit to the auction rooms will give much information as to current prices of books, a matter which, coupled with frequent visits to the shops of second-hand booksellers and the diligent study of their catalogues, will be carefully attended to by the capable librarian. The, works of Brunet, Lowndes, and Graesse may also be consulted for the prices of old books. It is perhaps needless to add that the state of condition and binding makes a great difference in the market value of copies of the same book. Libraries will frequently dispose of their duplicates or surplus copies to other institutions at a low price. For new books, periodicals, newspapers, &c., special terms may always be arranged with local tradesmen.
From time to time the Governments of Great Britain, France, and the United States have had under consideration various schemes for the international exchange of books upon a systematic basis, but the proposals were never carried into effect, and it was left to the public spirit of a French gentleman, M. Alcxandre Yattemare, to devise and carry out for some years a large scheme for the inter change of books among the chief public institutions of Europe and America. In 1853 M. Yattemare was able to state that one hundred and thirty such establishments had participated in the benefits of the system, but unfortunately it gradually fell off. Earlier than 1851, however, a similar agency was in full working order at the Smithsonian Institution, and it has been kept up with efficiency to the present time. The institution acts as a medium for the exchange of their publications among the chief learned bodies and other public institutions of Europe and America, and undertakes the cost of receiving and sorting the parcels, and the enumeration of the agents in the chief centres of the Old World to whom the} are sent, and by whom they are distributed free of charge. The corresponding societies are only required to deliver their parcels without expense at Washington.
On several occasions the United States Congress has passed special Acts directing the exchange of Government publications with those of other countries, and in 1818 the joint committee on the library was authorized to appoint agents for the exchange of books and public documents. As the scheme did not appear to work satisfactorily, the Act was repealed four years later. But since 1867 it has been ordered that fifty copies of all documents printed by either House of Congress or by any Government department be placed with the joint committee on the library, to be exchanged for foreign works. It is most unfortunate that this enlightened policy is not followed by the English authorities.
Many learned bodies which issue their proceedings willingly present them to libraries, and authors find this a useful means of spreading a knowledge of their works, when they are not of sufficient public interest to ensure a large or rapid sale. Library committees may often secure valuable additions by a discreet application; indeed, privately printed works and local publications (unless given spontaneously) are almost only to be had in this manner.
Many valuable works are issued at the expense of Governments. It might be naturally expected that these should be sent, free of charge, to all public libraries of any importance. In England, however, this is not done. In countries where the public libraries are subject to the minister of public instruction, as in France and Italy, more is done in this direction, especially as regards expensive volumes. In 1853 a select committee of the House of Commons recommended that parliamentary papers should be sent free of charge to free public libraries, but the recommendation has never been carried out.
In America official publications can be obtained without charge by public institutions from the secretary of the interior upon the order of a senator or representative, but the system is said not to be in a satisfactory condition.
Many valuable English Government publications, notably the state papers and chronicles, and the fine art handbooks of the South Kensington Museum, are easily to be had at less than the cost of production, and parliamentary papers are neither inaccessible nor highly priced. Although there is no fixed rule as to distribution, some of the departments may now and then be induced to present copies of their publications on being applied to in a proper manner.
As instances of the variety in practice in different countries, it may be mentioned that in France the Bibliotheque Nationale is entitled to a copy of every book, &c., printed within the dominion of the republic; in Belgium and the Netherlands one copy must be sent to the respective national libraries in order to secure the advantages of copyright; in Spain the Biblioteca Nacional of Madrid enjoys the privilege of one copy; in Portugal two copies are claimed, one by the Bibliotheca Nacional at Lisbon, and one by the Bibliotheca Publica of Oporto; in the United States a copy of every work must be sent to the library of Congress; the Imperial Library at St Petersburg receives two copies of every book printed in Russia; by the Brazilian law the Biblioteca Nacional of Rio de Janeiro is entitled to a copy of everything published within the municipality; and in Mexico two copies have to be delivered to the National Library.
Authorities.—There have been many books written about library-management; a complete list of those published down to about 1865, with critical notes, is given in Pctzlioldt's Bibliotheca Bibliographica (Leipsic, 18G6). Among recent treatises the valuable works of Mr Edward Edwards Memoirs of Libraries (1859, (Leipsic, 1871) is a practical little volume. The report of the Bureau of Education on Public Libraries of the U.S. (Washington, 1876, 2 parts 8vo), besides giving an exhaustive account of all the American libraries, also includes a great variety of valuable information on library economy. The six volumes of the Library Journal contain much that is useful for practical librarianship; it is a well edited periodical. Petzholdt's Anzeiger is of a more bibliographical character. The different publications of the Library Association include a great deal of interesting matter.
TABLES OF THE PRINCIPAL LIBRARIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
In compiling the following tables officials of each of the libraries have been personally applied to, and in most instances the information has been supplied by them. An attempt has been made to give particulars of all libraries of general or special interest in the United Kingdom. As regards those of other countries the list has been usually limited to those of 30,000 vols. and upwards, with a few exceptions. In India and the British Colonies there are few collections of that extent.
The abbreviation L. A. in the United Kingdom signifies that the library is under the Public Libraries Act; o. b. l. means open by leave.
Name. i Special Character and No. of v ols. To whom
o fn L508 L4 Remarks. Print. MSS. Accessible. CAMBRIDGE contd. Christ s Coll. Lib. Clare College Lib. Corpus Christi Col 16th and 17th cent. Lit. Clas., Hist,, Theol. ; MS. 13,000 7,500 5,000 Few. Few. 484 1 Mem. Hem. Mem.
lege Library. Downing Coll. Lib. Emmanuel Coll. L. Fitzwilliam Mus. L. 1800 1816 coll. notable. Largely Law and Hist. I heol. and Lit. Art, Archl. ; engravings 1,700 20,000 9,760 30 250 159 (o. b. L). Mem. tfem. Mem. of IT.
and music. (o.b.l.).
Gonville and Caius College 1348 Pr. cat. of the MSS., 1849. 13,500 700 Mem.
I. GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. Jesus College Lib. King s Coll. Lib. c. 1441 Gen., Clas., Theol.; 300 Oriental MSS. 9,500 17,000 100 320 Mem. fn > 1 a "Vrt ^f "Vfila Magdalene Coll. Pepysian Library. (0. D. 1.). Name. 1 Special Character and rs o. 01 v ois. To whom Accessible. Newnham Coll. L. Pembroke Coll L. 1872 2 branches. 1,240 14 000 <>nrt Mem. 1 Remarks. Print. MSS. Peterhouse Library . 1418 Gen., Theol. 9^000 ouu 300 Hem. Philosophical Lib. 1881 Sci. Trail. <fcc. ; based upon 6,000 ^lem. anc ABBEY TAVISTOCK : Lib. of Cam. Phil. Soc. Stud. Public Lib. 1799 10,000 Sub. Public Free Library 1 QKO Gen., Camb., Shakespeare; 24,747 Open. ABERDEEN: L. A; 1 brch. Free Ch. Coll. Lib. Theol., Hist., Rabbin. 20,000 Mem. Queen s Coll. L. o. 1448 Chiefly Clas., Theol. 30,000 Mem. Mechanics Inst. 1824 Gen., Engl. and Fr. 16,000 jMem. Ridley HallCarr.L. 1881 Theol. 2,800 Mem. University Lib. Gen. and Sclent. 90,000 400 Mem. St Catherine s Col. ABERYSTWITH : St John s Coll. Lib. 1624 Gen., early prints ; pr. cat. 35,000 500 Mem. Municipal Free Lib. 1874 L. A. 1,710 )pen. of MSS., and rare books. University College. 1872 Gen., Wales. 3,000 klem. Sidney Sussex Col. 1598 Chiefly Theol. and Clas. 5,000 100 Mem. AlRDKIE : Taylor Library. 17 Math, and Sci. ; separate!) 2,000 Mem. Free Public Lib. 1856 L. A. 4,500 Open. administered. ALDERSHOT : Trinity Coll. L. c. 1546 Gen.. Theol., Clas. ; Hare 90,000 1,918 Mem. Prince Consort s L.1S59 Milit. (Privy Purse) ; also 4,500 Officers. and Capell collections. one at Dublin. Trinity Hall L. c. 1350 Law ; original desks to 7,000 Mem. ARBROATH : which the books were Public Library. 1797 13,000 Sub. chained. ARMAGH : Union Society. 1816 Gen. 20,000 Mem. Public Library. 1771 Foundation L. 17,000 150 Open. University Library 14 Copyright privilege. 200,000 5723 Mem. ASHTON : (0. b. 1.). Mechanics Inst. 1825 7,500 Sub. CANTERBURY : ASTON MANOR: Dean and Chaptci Gen., Div., Hist. ; Earh 9,900 110 Open. Free Public Lib. 1877 L. A. 6,253 Open. Library. English Bibles. AYE: Free Lib. and Mus. 1800 L. A. 4,000 Open. Public Library. 1870 6,926 8 Sub. St Augustine s Col. 1848 Theol., Missions. 15,000 150 Mem. BANGOR : CARDIFF : Free R. Room and 1873 L. A. 1,500 Open. Free Library. 1862 L. A. ; sci. and art school. 14,000 Open by Museum. guarantee. BATH : CARLISLE : Royal Literary and 1825 Ref., Sci. ; Agriculture. 10,000 30 Sub. Cathedral Library. 3,500 25 Open ; Scientific Inst. books lent. BEBINGTON : CHELTENHAM : Mayer Free Lib. 1866 Polit. andRelig. excluded; 23,000 MSS. Open. Cheltenham Lib. 1863 Gen., Sci. 11,265 Sub. maintained by Mr Mayer. CHESTER : BEDFORD : Cathedral Library. Monastic. 1,100 Few. Clergy. Lit. and Sci. Inst. 1832 12,000 Sub. Free Public Lib. 11876 L. A. 10,000 Open. BELFAST: C HICHESTER : Queen s Coll. Lib. 1849 Gen., Orient. 35,797 Mem. Cathedral Library. 1660 Gen., Clas., Div.; earliei 4,000 Clergy of (o. b. L). coll. destroved 1642; cat diocese. BILSTON : pr. 1871. Free Library. 1873 L.A.; branch reading-room 8,000 Open. Library Society. 1794 6,500 Sub. BlRKENHEAD : CLITHEROE : Free Public Lib. 1855 L. A. 60,000 Open. Free Library. 1878 L. A. 3,110 Open. BIRMINGHAM : CORK: Free Library. 18 Gen., Shakes^., Birmingh.; 100,000 200 Open. Queen s Coll. Lib. 1849 Gen., Orient. 25,000 Stud.; lit. L. A. ; 5 branches. inquirers. Friends Library. 1829 Gen. 2,600 Mem. Royal Cork Inst. 1807 Gen., Sci., Hist. 14,000 Open to in Library (Union St.). 1779 Gen. 45,000 Sub. quirers. Queen s Coll. Lib. 1828 Gen. 2,000 Mem. COVENTRY : BLACKBURN : Free Library. 1868 L. A. 22,000 Open. Fr. L. and M. 1862 L. A. 26,000 Open. DARLASTON : Stonyhurst Coll. L. 1794 Gen. ; printed cat. of early 50,000 MSS. Mem. Free Library. |1876 L. A. 2,2G9 Residents. books. DARWEN : BOLTON : Free Public Lib. 1871 L. A. 8,000 Few. Open. Public Library. 1853 L. A. ; section for sub- 46,466 Open. DERBY : cribers; 2 lending de Free Lib. and Mus. 1877 L. A. 13,000 Open. partments. DEVONPORT : BRADFORD : Free Public Lib. 1881 L. A. ; mus. in connexion 8,500 Open. Free Public Lib. 1871 L. A. 32,056 Open. DONCASTER : Lib. and Lit. Soc. 11774 Gen. 17,500 Mem. Borough Free Lib. 1869 L. A. 10,628 Open. BRIDGWATER : DUBLIN : Free Library. 1860 L. A. 2,000 Open. King s Inns Lib. 1787 Leg., Gen. 58,000 Few. Law.Stud., BRIERLEY HILL : &c. Free Library. 1875 L. A. 800 Open. King and Queen s 1711 Med., Sci.; founded bj 12,000 Few. Mem., &c. BRIGHTON : Coll. of Physns. Sir Patrick Dun s will. Free Library. 1875 Gen., Class., Med., Shake 26,000 Open. Law L., Four Courts 1816 Law. 9,000 Sub. speare ; L. A. Mechanics Inst. 1838 BRISTOL : National Lib. of Ire- 1877 Form, by Royal Dub. Soc. 85,000 Open by Bristol Baptist Col 1770 Gen., Theol. ; incunabula 12,000 200 Open. land. under S. and A. Dep. introd. lege. English Bibles, incl. onl} Pub. L., St. Patrick s UV. Chief. Theol. ; little used. 18,000 200 Open by known copy of 1st edition ,tM. introd. of Tyndale s N. T., and Royal Coll. of Sci. 1867 Sci. ; succeed. Museum o: 8,500 Open to in MSS. of Wicklifflte trans (Ireland). Irish Industry, 1850. quirers. lations. Royal Coll. of Surg. 1784 Med., Sci. 25,000 Mem. Cathedral Library. 16th Burnt 1831, except 1000 1,000 Mem. Royal Dublin Soc. 1731 Trans, and Periodicals 10,000 By introd. cent vols. (o.b.l.). body of L. transferrec Free Library. 1613 Gen., Bristol ; Acts adoptee 46,000 Few. Open. to Nat. L. of Ireland. 1875 ; 3 branches. Royal Irish Acad. 1785 Gen., Ireland. 40,000 1,400 By introd. Mus. an 1 . Library 1772 Gen., Hist., and Top. 50,000 Few. Sub. Trinity Coll. Lib. 1602 Copyright privilege ; cat 192,000 1,880 Graduates BURSLEM : Chatterton MSS. DUNBLANE ; printed. (o. b. 1.). Free Library (Wedgwood Inst.) BURY: 186C Gen., Sci.; L. A. 3,500 Open. Bibl. Leightoniana. 1684 1701 Theology ; bco,uest b} Archbishop Leighton. 2,000 MSS. Clergy ; others by payt. Co-operative Pro 186( 13 newsrooms ; 2 smal 11,000 Mem. DUNDALK : vision Society s L CAMBRIDGE : branch libraries. Free Public Library DUNDEE : 1 v> L. A. 6,000 Open. Cavendish Coll. L. 188- Small. Mem. Free Lib. and Mus. 186f Gen.; old Scot. Musie.: L. A 85.500Opon.
a Name. a G Special Character and No. of Vols. To whom Name. T3 c 3 Special Character and No. of Vols. To whom g tfi Remarks. Print. MSS. o UH Remarks. Print. MSS. Accessible. DURHAM: HULL: Bishop Cosin s Lib. 1669 Chief. Theol. ; little used 4,456 188 Open; cler. Lyceum Library. 1807 .17,000 Sub. borrow. Subscription Lib. 177: Cat. printed 1876. 40,000 Sharehold. Cathedral Library. Monastic; pr. cat. of MSS 15,000 570 0. b. 1. INVERNESS : University Lib. i-.T Maltby, Routh and Winter 31,168 Mem. Free Public Lib. Act adopted 1877. bottom bequests. (o. b. L). IPSWICH : EDINBURGH: Free Lib. and Mus 1852 Sci. ; ref. lib. only ; L. A. 3,000 20 Open. Advocates Lib. 1680 Copyright priv.; pr. cat. 265,000 3,000 To inquir. KEIGHLEY : Facul. of Actuaries 1856 Professional ; large col. o 1,200 Mem. and Mechanics Inst. 1825 7,000 Sub. pamphlets. Stud. KELSO: Literary Institute. 1872 8,000 Sub. Kelso Library. 1751 8,000 Sub. Mcch. Subs. Lib. 182 22,500 Sub. KIDDERMINSTER : New College Lib. 1843 Theol., &c. ; cat. pr. 1868 40,000 200 Stud. Free Library. 1857 Ref. lib. with newsroom. 1,000 Open. Philosoph. Inst. 184f 30,000 Sub. KlLMARNOCK. : Roy. Coll. of Phys 1681 Med. ; cat. printed 1862. 26,000 Mem. Libraiy. 1797 14,000 Sub. Royal Medical Soc Med. ; MS. dissertations. 20,000 Mem. LANGHOLM (Dum 180C I alfourd bequest. 7,000 Sub. Royal Society Lib. 1737 Sci. Trans. ; Hume s MSS. 15,300 Mem. fries) : Select Subscrip. L. 1800 Gen.. Pamph. 31,000 Sub. LEAMINGTON : Signet Library. 1755 Gen., Law ; cat. printing. 65,800 Mem., lit. Free Public Lib. 1857 L. A. 11,249 inquir. LEEDS : Soc. of Antiquar. L Chiefly Scot. Arch. ; Drum 9,000 Mem. Leeds Library. 176S 85,000 Few. Sharehold. mond and Riddell MSS Mechanics Inst. 1842 20,000 Sub. S.S.C. Library. 180S Law., Gen. Lit. 12,000 Mem. Public Library. 187C L. A. ; 21 branches. 109,202 Open. Subscription Lib. 179-1 40,000 Sharehold. Yorkshire College. 1874 Chiefly Sci. 2,000 Stud. United Pros. Coll. L 1847 Mainly Theol. ; classe 21,000 Stud, and LEEK. : cat. printed 1868. Ministers. Lit. and Mech, Inst 1837 Gen., Local. 4,500 Sub. University Library 1580 Drummond,Halliwell-Phil 140,000 2,000 Mem. LEICESTER : lipps, and Laing coll. Free Library. 1869 Gen.,Leicest ; L. A. 20,000 Free. Watt Inst. anc 1825 Chietly Scientific. 2,500 Stud. Permanent Lib. 1779 10,000 Sub. School of Arts. LEWES : ELY : Library Society. 1790 In Fitzroy Memorial. 6,000 Sub. Cathedral Library. Monas., Misc. ; little usec 6,000 By leave. LICHFIELD : EXETER : Cathedral Library. 6,000 20 Clergy Cathedral Library. ante Theol. and Hist. 6,000 Clergy (o. b. L). 900 only. Free Lib. and Mus 1874 L, A, 5,000 Residents. Dev. and E. Free L. 1870 L. A. 12,076 Open. ILINCOLN : Devon and Exeter 1813 22,000 Sharehold. Cathedral Library. Monastic ; Theol. ; politica 7,400 Clergy of Institute. and Sub. tracts, Eliz. to Chas. I. diocese. FORFAR : LlNLITIIGOW : Free Library. 1870 L. A. 4,450 Open. Mechanics Inst. 1850 3,000 Sub. GALASHIELS : LIVERPOOL : Public Library. 1874 L. A. 3,800 Open. Athenajum. 1798 30,000 Propr. GALWAY : Free Public Lib. 1852 L. A.; one central ref., 2 R72.406 Open. Queen s Coll. Lib. Gen., coll. course. ; town 23,000 Mem.; lending brchs. ; pr. cat. L43.285 council records. househo. Lib. (Lyceum). 1758 72,000 Sub. GARTMORE : b. 1. Medical Institute. [1823 Med., Sci. 8,000 Med. men. Gartmore Library. 1871 2,700 Sub. LONDON : GLASGOW : Admiralty Library. Naval and Geog. ; cat. pr. 25,000 Anderson s Coll. Anthropolog. Inst. 1844 Anthropol.; Ethnolog. Soc 4,000 Mem. (l)Ewing sMus.L 1878 Music ; printed cat. 5,500 -63 1844, Anthrop. Soc (2) Managers L. 2,870 1871 1863, united 1871. (3; Mech. Class L. 1808 7,138 Mem. ; or Architectur. Assoc. 1862 Arclutee.,<fcc.; lending only 1,100 Mem. by payt. Athenajum Club. 1824 Gen. ref., Art, Hist ; pam 48,000 Mem. Coll. of Sci.and Art. 1823 For use of Students. 8,000 Stud. ; or phlets ; pr. cat. by payt. Baptist Coll. 1810 Theol. and Gen. 10,000 Stud. Faculty of Phys. 1690 Med., Sci., Loc. Arch.; cat 20,000 50 Med. men ; (Regent s Park). and Surgeons. printing. fellows Bethnal Green Fr.L. 1875 10,000 jOpen. borrow. Birkbeek Inst. 1823 Educational. 9,000 Mem. Faculty of Procur. 1817 Gen., Law; books lent. 10,861 Mem. Brit, and For. Bible 1805 Chiefly Bibles; cat. pr. 10,000 280 (1 brancli). j Society. 1855. Free Cli. Coll. Lib. rheol. ; N. T. critic. ; Tis 24,000 Mem. and British Arch. ABS, Archseol., Hist. ; many 500 chendorf s lib. Stud. drawings of antiquities. Mitchell Library. 187 ! Stephen Mitchell s beq. 36,000 Few. Fr. pub. British Museum. 1753 Universal ; many special 1,500,00 50,000 Free by Scot.poet.; Glasgow col ref. coll.; copyright priv. and ticket, Philosophical Soc. .80:. Chiefly Scientitic. 9,000 Mem. 45,000 over 21. Stirling s and Glas 171), i ounded_by Stirling s beq. 50,000 Fr. ref. ; char gow Public Lib. Sub. bor. Charterhouse. ters. University Library. 5th Also a Divin. Hall Lib. and 125,000 350 Mem.; lit. Chemical Society. 1841 Chemistry, &c. 8,000 Mem. cent Ilunterian Mus. Lib. inq. by Christ s Hospital. payt. Colonial Office. Colonial. 12,000 Officials. GLOUCESTER: Compositors Lib. 1853 Gen., Printing. 8,000 Mem. Cathedral Library. 2,700 Corporation Lib. 1824 Gen., Lond.; Dutch lib. of 80,000 300 Open. GoDALMING: (Guildhall). Austin friars ; Clock- Charterhouse Sch. 804 Also 11 boarding-houie 10,000 Open to maker s Co. Library. libraries. the boys. Dr Williams s Lib. 1716 Mainly Theol.; cat. pr. 30,000 1,000 By introd. GHEENOCK: 1841-78. (ireenook Library. 783 Gen. ; printed cat. 20,000 Sub. Dulwich College L. 1619 Alleyne Papers. 7,000 1,173 Masters & M"chanics Inst. 832 4,000 Sub. 6th form GREENWICH : Entomological Soc. 1833 Entomology. 2,400 Mem. Roy. Naval Coll. L. 873 Gen., Sei., Math., <tc. 5,000 Staff, Stud. (0. b. 1.). HADDINGTON : Foreign Office Lib. Elistory, Dip!., &c. 70,00 > Officials. Free Library. 717 Chiefly old books from 3,355 Free. Geological Society. 1807 Sci., Geol., Min.; geol. 17,500 Fell. Gray bequest. maps ; cat. pr. 1880. HALIFAX : Gray s Inn. ante 1555 Law, Gen.; cat. pr. 1872. 13,000 25 Mem. Mechanics Inst. 825 12,000 Sub. Guy s Hospital. 1825 Med. and Sci. 5,197 Staff.Stud. IlANLKT : Herald s Coll. Lib. Potteries Mech. Inst 826 Gen., Local. 7,000 Sub. Home Office. 1800 Law, Hist. 5,000 Officials. HARROW : House of Commons. 1818 Gin., Law, and Hist.; 40,000 U.P. s. School (Vaughan)L. ante 8,000 Few. Open to pr. cat, 1857. 1819 the boys. House of Lords. 3en., Law. 30,000 "eers. HAWIOK : Incorporated Law 1831 Law, Gen. ref. ; private 30,000 Few. Hem. and Public Libraiy. 1878 L. A. 3,000 Open. Societv. acts; pamphlets. Sub. HEREFORD : India Office. 1801 Mainly Indi. and Orient. 40,000 0,000 Indian Cathedral Lib. c. 13SO Chiefly Theol. and Hist. ; 2,000 230 So rules. Officials admission difficult. (0. b. ].). Fr. Pub. L. and Mus. 1872 L.A. 7,018 38 Dpen. Inner Temple. inte ^aw, Gen., Petyt, Adol- 36,000 COO lem. Permanent Library 1815 7,000 iub. 1540 phus. Crawford, and HERTFORD : Austin colls. Free Libran . 85C L. , 1,000 Inns of Court Lend 866 1,500 ?arristrs Haileybnry Coll. L. SCS WO vols. of E.I. Comp. slib. 4,000 Jpperboys ing Library. clerks. HEYWOOD : Institution of Civil 818 J >ci., Engin. ; cat. pr. 17,000 lem. and Public Free Lib. 874 Bending lib. onlyj.L. A. 6,000 )pen. Engineers. Stud. HIGH WYCOMBE : King s College Lib. 830! larsden, Wheatstone, and tud. Free Libraiy. 872 kip. by J.O.Griffith, Q.C. 2,500 Ipen. Medical Libraries. HoRNCASTLE : Lambeth Palace L. 6101 Tieol. and Hist. ; books 30,000 4,000 )pen. Mechanics Inst. 838 3,500 iub.lent bv leave.
Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print, MSS. LONDON contd. Lincoln s Inn. 1497 Law, Gen. Lit.; cat. pr.; 45,000 Many. Mem. Hale MSS. Linnean Society. Linnteus s lib. apart. London Institution. 1800 Hist., Topgr. ; cat. pr. 70,000 Few. Sub. (0. b. 1.). London Library. 1S41 Cat. pr. 1875-81. 90,000 Sub. Medical Society. 1773 Med. Sci. 11,200 300 Mem. Meteorolog. Office. 185.0 Meteorol. and Magnet! -m. 6,000 Officials. Middle Temple. 1G41 Law, Miscel. ; cat. pr. 1880. 30,000 Few. Mem. Museum of Practi 1843 Sci., Geol., Min. ; cat. pr. 30,000 By introd. cal Geology. 1878. Netting Hill Free 1874 Supported by Mr J. Hey- 5,000 Open. Public Library. wood. Numismatic Soc. 1S36 Numismatics. 2,000 Few. Mem. Obstetrical Society. 1859 Obstetrics. 3,000 Med. men. Oratory, Brompton. 1849 Mainly Theol. 18,000 Mem. Parent" Office Lib. 1855 Sci.; cat. printing. 80,000 Open. Phannaceutic. Soc. 1841 I harm., Chem., Bot; br. 8,000 Few. Mem. in Edin. with 700 vols. Reform Club. 1841 30,000 Mem. Roy. A cad. of Arts. 1769 Fine Arts ; pr. cat. 1877. 5,500 Mem. (0. b. 1.). Roy. Acad. of Music. 1822 Music. 850 Mem. Roy. Archaeol. Inst. 1845 Antiq., Hist. 3,000 Few. Mem. Roy. Asiatic Soc. is-. :) Chiefly Oriental. 12,750 750 Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc.
Astronomical. 8,000 300 Mem. Royal Coll. of Phy 1525 Medical. 16,000 200 Mem. sicians. Royal College of 1801 Med.; 40,000 pamphlets and 42,500 Mem. Surgeons. dissertations. Roy. Colonial Inst. 1869 Colonial, Indian. 2,000 Fell. (0. b. 1.). Roy. Geogr. Soc. 1832 Geograph., Maps; cat.pr. Over Fell. 1881. 20,000 (0. b. 1.). Roy. Historical Soc. 875 Hist. 2,000 Fell. Roy. Inst. of British 1834 Architecture; al>o a loan 6,700 Mem. Architects. coll. (.). b. ].). Rojal Institution. 803 lief.; classified pr. cat. 40,000 Few. Mem. Royal Medical and 1805 Med., <fec.; cat. pr. in 3 32,000 Few. Fell.; on Chirurgical Soc. vols. 1879. introd. Royal Society. 16C5 Sci. : trans, and periodicals. 40,000 Fell. Roy. Soc. of Lit. 1820 8,000 Mem. Roy. United Service 1831 Milit. and Naval; cat. pr. 20,000 Few. Officers of Institution. 1865. A. and N. Russell Institution. 1808 17,500 Sub. Sacred Harmonic So. Music ; pr. cat. 4,851 By leave. St Bartholomew s 1667 Med., Gen.; new lib. builr 8,000 Stud. Hospital. 1870. St Paul s Cath. L. Theol.; pamphlets. 8,700 3ath. body Do. School. 1670 Milton edns. and edns. of 3,300 Few. Masters <fc Lily s gram. 8th class. St Thomas IIosp. Med. 5,000 Stud. Sion College. 1639 1 heol., Hist.; interleaved 50,600 Few. London Bodleian eat. in use. Clergy by sub. Sir J. Soane s Mus. Soc. of Antiquaries. 1707 Antiq., Topog. 20,000 500 Fell. Soc. of Bib. Arch. 1870 liibl. Archa-ology. 2,000 Mem. Soc. of Telegraph 1876 Electric, and Magnetism ; 3,000 Open. Engineers. form, by Sir F. Ronalds; cat. pr. 1880. S. Kensington Mus. (1) Educational L. 1857 Education ; cat. pr. 42,190 Teachers, Stud., bub. (2) National Art L. 852 Art ; drawings, itc. 56,000 Do. (3) Dyce Lib. 1809 Gen., English Drama; beq. 14,600 MSS. Do. of Rev. A. Dyce. (4) Forster Lib. 187G Gen., Hist., Antiq., Ac.; 19,000 MSS. Do. beq. of Juhn Forster. South London Fr. L. 1878 Newsroom. 2,000 3pen. Statistical Society. 1834 Statist. 10,000 Few. Mem. University College. 1828 Chiefly Clas., Sci., Med.; 100,000 Stud. ; oth. Chinese, Icelandic.Math.. by inlrod. and Dante coll. University of Lond. 1837 Grote and De Morgan col!. 11,000 Mem. Victor! i Institute. 1855 Theol. 800 (o. b. L). Mem. War Office. Milit.,Topogr.; MS.records. 25,000 Officials. Westminster- Free Public Lib. 1857 L. A. ; 1 branch. 13,527 Open. Dean & Chapter L Theol., Historv. 11,000 Chapter. Working Men s Coll. 1854 Chiefly Sci. and Hist. 4,360 Mem. Zoological Society. LYNN : Zoological. 9,000 25 Mem. Stanley Library. MACCLESFIELD: 1854 Founder 15th Earl Derby. 17,000 Sub. Free Library. MADELEY: 1876 L. A. 10,000 Open. Free Library. L.A. MAIDSTONE : Mus. and Pub. Lib. MANCHESTER : 185S Gen. ref. ; L. A. 10,000 Open. Athenajum Library Cathedral Library. Clietham s Library 1835 18H9 1653 Lib. partly burnt in 1873. Mainly Theol. Chieriy older Lit. ; Popery 18,511 500 40,000 Few. 800 Sub. Cath. clor. Open. tracts ; Halliwell coll. Free Public Librar> 1852 Central ref. L. and 6 R65.000 Few. Open. Grammar School. branches; pr. cat. LS5,000 5 000 Boys Lancashire Indcp College Library. 1S1C Chief. Theol. 11)000 20 Stud. (n Vi 1 "l Mech. Inst. UKAA ^o. u. l.}. Medical Soc. Lib. Owens College Lib 1834 1851 Med. ; at Owens Coll. Coll. Course. j JUU 24,000 31,000 Many. MrtlT, em. Sub. Stud. (o. b. 1.). Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print. MSS. MANCHESTER cont. Portico Lib. 1804 Many pamphlets. 30,000 Sub. Radford Lib. (St 1853 Med., Obstet. ; pr. cat. 1877. 3,500 Staff. Mary s Hosp.). MARLBOROUGH COL. Adderley Lib. 1S4S 7,400 5th and 6th forms. MAYNOOTH COLL. 1795 Chiefly Catholic Theol. 40,000 Few. Stud. (0. b. 1.). MlPDLESBOROUGH : Free Libraiy. 1871 L. A. ; Ibrch.read.-room. 9,500 Open. NEWCASTLE-ON- TYNE : Literary and Philo 1793 Gen. ref. ; printed cat. 60,000 Sub. sophical Society. Public Libraiy. 1874 L. A. ; new building erect 25,000 Burgesses ing. and Resi. NEWPORT : Free Library. 1870 L. A. ; also art school. 6,734 Resi. NORTHAMPTON : Free Library. 1876 L. A.; also mus. and school* 11,000 Resi. of art and sci. NORWICH : Cathedral Library. Monastic; diieflyDiv. 5,700 Oioc. cler. Free Library. 1854 Gen., Local ; L. A, 6,000 Open. Norfolk & Norwich Lit, Inst. Public Library. 1784 Gen., Clas. 45,000 Sub. NOTTINGHAM : Free Public Lib. 1867 Gen., Local (Byron) ; L. A. ; 26,000 Open. 2 branches. OSCOTT : St Mary s Coll. Lib. 1839 Largely Theol. and Clas. ; 20,238 70 pui chased >y Bp. Walsh. OXFORD : All Souls Library. 1443 Gen.. Law ; Codrington 40,000 300 Grad., <fcc. bequest, 1710. Balliol College Lib. 1 5th Undergiad. merged with cent Coll. Lib. Bodleian Library. 1C02 Copyright privilege. 400,000 30,000 Grad. (o.b. 1.). Brazenose Coll. L. ante Cndergrad. lib. of 1000 12,000 Fell. 1520 vols. (o. b. 1.). Christ Church L. Div., Clas., Top. ; Morris 33,000 337 Mem. coll.; Wake MSS. (o. b. 1.). Corpus Coll. L. Exeter Coll. Lib. 1314 Also an undergr. lib. 25,000 Fell. (o. b. 1.). Hertford Coll. Lib. Jesus Cull. Lib. c. 1621 Also an undergrad. ("Mey- 7,000 141 Fell. rick") lib. (o. b. 1.). Keble Coll. Lib. 1870 Chief. Theol. ; Keble MSS. 8,600 10 Mem. Lincoln Coll. Lib. Iheol. 15,000 Magdalen Coll. L. 1458 22,500 250 Fell. (o. b. 1.). Merton Coll. L. r. 1370 Has lately specialized in 12,OCO 350 Mem. mod. hist, (foreign). (o. b. 1.). New College Lib. l:j.% Gen., Clas., Theol. 17,000 350 Mem. Oriel College Lib. Comp. Phil, and Myth. 82 Pembroke Coll. L. 3,000 Public Library. 1854 L.A. 7,000 By guar. Queen s Coll. Lib. 1400 Gen., Theol. .Hist.; under 50,000 400 Fell. grad. read.-room (o.b. 1.1. Raddiffe Library. 1749 Sci. and Med. ; now at Mus. 30,000 M. of Univ. St Edmund Hall. I atristic Lit. Small. Mem. St John s Coll. Lib. 20,000 210 Fell. (o. b. L). Taylor Inst. Lib. 1848 Mod. Europ. Lit. ; Dante S0,000 110 Mem. of Lit,; Mazarinades; Lui her Univ. pamphlets. (o. b. L). Trinity College Lib. 1554 Also an undergr. lib. Fell., &c. (o. b. 1.). Unattached Stud. L. 1872 Stud. Lib. 2,000 Stud. by fee. Union Society. 1836 17,000 Mem. University Coll. L. "Vadham Coll. Lib. 1613 Coll. on Bot. and Spanish 16,000 Reformers (Wiffer.j. Worcester Coll. L. 1714 Chiefly Clas. and Theol. ; 23,000 Resident specialties in clas.ardia;o. M.A.s. PAISLEY : Free Public Lib. 1870 L. A.; mus, art galleries, 19,000 ICO Open. and observatory. PEEBLES : Chambers Inst. 1859 Founder Dr W. Chambers. 15,000 Sub. only. PENZANCE : Public Library. 181S 15,400 Sub. PERTH : Mechanics Lib. 1823 Gen., Local ; burnt 18C9. 7,000 Sub. Perth Library. PETERBOROUGH : Cathedral Library. Monastic ; mainly Theol. 4,000 By introd. PLYMOUTH : Free Public Lib. 1876 Gen.,Dev. and Corn. Coll.; 15,000 Open. L. A. (1871). Proprietary and 1820 CoMonian Mus. and Lib. 16,084 Proprie. Cottonian Lib. annexed 1853. and Sub. PORT-GLASGOW: Public Libraiy. 179S Closed 1868 ; reop. 1872. 2,500 Sub. PRESTON : Free Public Lib. 1879 Harris bequest ; L. A. 10,000 Open. Dr Shepherd s Lib. 1762 Ref. ; bequeathed by Dr 11,622 54 Order from Shepherd to town. alderman. READING : Free Library. 1875 Xot under L. A. ; A. re 6,000 Open.cently adopted, however.
Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print. MSS. RICHMOND : Free Public Lib. 1881 L. A. 7,000 Resi. Wesleyan Theologi 1843 Chief. Theol. 14,000 cal Institute. Staff and RIPON : Stud. Minster Library. 1824 Misc. 5,340 Clergy (o. b. L). ROCHDALE : Equitable Pioneers 1849 Central Lending L. and 17 14,475 Mem. Society. newsrooms, each with small ref. lib. Free Public Lib. 1872 Gen., Local Lit, ; L. A. 30,175 Open. ROCHESTER : Cathedral Library. Misc. ; printed cat. 1,100 Dioc. Cler. ROSSALL : School Library. ROTHERHAM : Free Library. 18St L. A. 3,200 Inhabit. RUGBY: 1 School Library. ante Temple reading-room 1879 5,000 Few. Masters fc 1813 Boys. ST ANDREWS : University Library. 1C 12 Includes the three coll. 90,000 200 Mem. lib. (1455, 1512, 1537). (0. b. ].). ST HELEN S: Free Library. 1S54 Gen., Local ; L. A. 6,000 Few. Open. 1877 -iALFORD : Royal Mus. and L. 1S49 L. A. ; 4 branches. 70,000 150 Open. SALISBURY : Cathedral Library, llth Chiefly Theol. ; pr. cat. 4,877 187 Open. cent SHEFFIELD : Free Lib. and Mus. 1855 L. A. ; 3 branches. 66,000 Resi. SHREWSBURY : School Library. Older Lit. 5,000 Few. Masters (0. b. 1.). SMETHWICK : Free Library. 1876 L. A. 4,036 Open. SOUTHAMPTON : Hartley Institute. 1862 Ref. ; coll. of old French 18,000 Few. Sub. ; pub. lit., mud., clas. in eveng. SOUTHPORT : Atkinson Free Lib. 1875 L. A. ; 1 branch. 10,350 By guar. SoUTH SHIELDS: Public Library. 1871 L. A. ; 1 br. newsroom. 13,250 Open. STAFFORD : William Salt Lib. 1872 Gen. ref., Archseol. 7,500 Num Open. Staffordshire coll. erous. STOCKPORT : Free Public Library. 1875 L. A. 16,400 Open. STOKE-UPON-TRENT: Free Library. 1878 L. A. ; also a Mus. 6,186 Open. SUNDERLAND": Public Free Lib. 1862 L. A. 10,000 By guar. SWANSEA : Public Library. 1874 Gen. ref., Welsh Lit. 26,500 20 Open. L. A. ; 3 branches ; Rowland Williams beq. Roy. Inst. of Soutl 1835 Gen., Wales ; printed cat. 13,000 Few. Sub. Wales. THURSO : Free Library. 1875 L. A. ; Robert Dick s coll. 2,500 Resi. TRURO : Bishop Phillpott sL. fheol. 5,000 Dioc. Cler., or Sub. Cornwall Library. 1792 7,000 Sub. Roval Inst. of Corn 1818 Science and Archasol. ; also 1,750 Mem. wall. Mus TYNEMOUTH : Free Library. 1868 L. A. 19.083 3y guar. WALSALL : Free Library. 1859 L. A. ; 1 branch. 10,850 Open. WARE : St Edmund s Coll. L. 1794 Gen. .Theol.; inlSC9many 20,000 Mem. books removed to St Thomas Seminary, Ham NV VUHI VGTON mersmith. Museum. 1848 Gen., Local ; L. A. 18,000 100 Sub. for lend. lib. WARWICK Free Library. 1866 L. A. 8,000 Open. WEDNESBURY ) Free Library 1878 L. A. 7,000 Open. WELLS: Cathedral Lib. c. 1660 Chiefly Theol. 4,000 Few. Open by 1. WEST BKOMWICH .- Five Library. 1874 L. A. 12,000 Open. WlGAN : Free Public Lib. 1877 Gen., Mining ; L. A 27,000 1 Open. WlI.LF.NHALL: Public Library. 1875 U A. ; lending library 3,200 Jy guar. only. WINCHESTER : Cathedral Library. 1684 Chiefly Theol. 4,500 15 Dioc. Cler. College. Moberley L. ! - 7 3,750 Boys. Public Library. 1S77 L. A.; old lib. existed in 2,170 Rest by Guildhall before. guarant. WINDSOR: Eton College Lib. 15th Chiefly Clas. and Tlieoi. 23,000 100 Masters ; cent Par. Cler. Eton School Lib. 1 - L 1 8,000 Joys. Royal Library. By Prints, <fec., coll. by Geo. 70 COO Wil. III., and Raphael coll. IV. of Prince Consort. a Name. 3 C Special Character and No. of Vols. Towhonl 1 Remarks. Print, i MSS. Accessible. WOLVERHAMPTON : Free Library. 1860 L. A. ; Field Club and 24,500 Winter Lectures. WORCESTER : Cathedral Library. 1640 Chiefly Theol. 4,085 251 Dioc. Cler. Public Library. 1SSO Gen., Soi., Worcester; 12,000 (0. b. 1.). Non-resi. WKEXHAM : L. A. ; Hastings Mus. by sub. Free Library. 1879 L. A.; reading-room ant ref. lib. Open. YORK : Minster Library. Subscription Lib. 1794 Monastic; printed cat. Gen.. Local. 11,000 40,000 300 Open by 1. Mem. II. FRANCE. ABBEVILLE : 1 Bibliotheque do la 1685 Printed cat. preparing. 40,000 Few. Open; bks. Ville. lent. AGEN : Bibliotheque. Largely monastic; cat. to 30,000 Few. Open. be printed. Aix: Bibliotheque Me- 1786 Me janes bequest of 80,000 150,000 1,100 Open; bks. janes. 1810 vols. 1. to prof. AJACCIO (Corsica) : Bibliotheque. 1800 Founded by Lucien Bona 30,000 200 Open; bky. parte. lent by 1. AMIENS : B. Communale. 1791 Printed catalogues. 70,000 800 Do. ANGERS : 1 B. Communale. 1791 Gen., Anjou ; twopopulai 44,000 1,500 Open. libs, in connexion. ARRAS : Bibliotheque. 40,000 1,200 AUCH : B. Communale. 1793 15,000 Open. AUXERRE : BiblioUiequc. Gen., Local. 40,000 224 Open ; bks. lent by 1. AVIGNON: Bibliotheque. 1791 93,000? 1,200 BEAUNE : B. de la Ville. 1794 39,000 500 Do. BESANgoN : B. de la Villa. 1694 130,000 1,800 Open; b. 1. BLOIS : B. Communale. 1792 30,000 Few. Open ; bks. 1812 lent by 1. BORDEAUX : Bibliotheqne. 18 Succeeded lib. of Acad. 190,000 1,500 Open. estab. in first half of 18tl cent. ; cat. partly pr. BOULOGNE : B. Communale. 1798 50,600 90 Open. BOURG : B. Communale. 1790 Gen., Theol., History. 30,000 60 Op.; bks.l. BOURGES : B. publique. 1792 Largely older lit. 25,000 327 Op.; bks.l. BREST : B. do 1 Ecole dc 1802 Med., Sci. 15,200 Med. staff. Medecine Navale. CAEN : Bibliotheque. 1809 Succeeded the Unirer. L 80,000 524 Open. founded 1431. C AMBRAI : Bibliotheque. 1791 Rich in monastic coll. 40,000 1.300 CARPENTRAS : Bibliotheque. Gen., Local; Peiresc JISS 25,000 1,000 Open. CHALONS-SUR- MARNE: Bibliothcque. 1800 30,000 80 CHARTRES : B. Communale. 1794 Rich in early MSS. and bks. 65,000. 1,673 Op. ; bks. 1. CHAUMONT : Bibliotheque Publ. 1790 Gen., Loc. ; rich in incun. 32,000 300 Open. CLERMONT- FERRAND : Bibliotaeque. 40,000 400 DIJON : B. Publique. 1708 Rich in Hist. 79,427 1,106 Open. DOLE (Jura) : Bibliotheque. ante Printed cat. 27,853 Open. 1786 DOUAI : B. Publique. 1789 Rich in theology and law. 100,000 1,297 Dpen. EPINAL: Bibliotheque. 30,000 220 GRENOBLE : Bibliotheque. .772 Gen., Local. 170,000 7,000 3p. ; bks.l. HAVRE : B. Municipale. 1790 36,121 59 Do. LA ROCHELLE : B. de la Ville. 1604 Gen., Hist., Local. 30,C46 569 Do. 1797 LAVAL : B. Municipale. 1822 28,000 3pen. LE MANS : Bibliotheque. 80,000? 700 LILLE: B. Municipale. 1790 Sen., Local ; pr. cat. 75,000 800 < Jp. ; bks. 1. LYONS : B. de la Ville. 530 120,000 1,500 B. du Pal. des Arts.
- 06 Sci. and Art ; printed cat.
65,600 46 Ipen.XIV. --69
Name. 1 Special Character and No. of Vols. To whom (2 Remarks. Print. MSS. Accessible. MARSEILLES : Bibliotheque. 1796 Gen., Provence. 95,000 1,530 Open. MONTPELLIER : 15. de la Ville. 179- Printed cat. 80,000 Open. Ecole de Medecine. 40,000 GOO By leave. NANCY : Bibliotheque. 1790 In old univ. buildings. 62,221 717 Open. X ANTES : Bibliotheque. 1588 Gen., Local. 150,800 200 Open. XICE : B. Munieipale. 1790 46,000 Few. Op.; bks.l.
T IMES :
Bibliotheque. Aft. Printed cat. 75,000 200 Open. 1792 ORLEANS : B. Communale. 1714 Gen., Orleans. 50,480 C49 Op. ; bks. 1. PARIS : B. de 1 Arsenal. 1790 200,000 6,000 Open. B. du Corps Le gisl. 1793 Law, &c. 50,000 B. de la Cour de Law and History; partly 30,000 Many. Judges Cassation. burnt, 1871. (o. b. L). B. du Ddpot dc hi Military. 80,000 Many Open by 1. Guerre. B. du DepOt de hi Mainly Sci. 36,000 258 Open by 1, Marine. B. de 1 Ec. Nat. dc 1648 Fine Arts, Arehseol ; pr. 15,000 Stud. Beaux Arts. cat. (0. b. 1.). B. de la Facultd dc 1733 Commentaries of deans of 55,000 Open. Me dccine. fac. 1324-1786. B. de 1 Institut. 175f Jen. Sc. and Lit. 100,000 Open by 1. B. Mazarine. 164- J Public since 1G88. 150,000 6,000 Jpen. B. du Muse uni Zool. ; over 7000 drawings 30,000 d Hist. Naturelle. on vellum. B. Nationale. 1595 2,290,000 SO.OOO Open. B. Polonaise. I8.-JH Poland, <fec. 50,000 Open. B. Ste Genevieve. 1624 Public since 1790. 120,000 2.392 Open. B. de rUniversite" Class., Theol., Sc., Hist. 125,000 1,000 (Sorbonne). B. de la Ville. 18th Paris ; entirely burnt in 60,000 Open. cent 1871. POITIERS : 30,000 420 Bibliotheque. QUIMPER : Bibliotheque. 1794 30,360 120 Op. ; bks. 1. RENNES : B. de la Vi .le. 1733 Cat. printed 1880. 48,289 221 Open. 1803 RHEIJIS : B. de la Ville. 1809 Cat. partly printed. 60,000 1,300 Op. ;bks. 1. ROUEN : B. Publique. 1792 Printed cat. ; card cat. 122,500 2,500 Open ; 1809 books lent. SOISSONS: B. Publique. 1794 Much older lit. 30,000 300 TOULOUSE : B. Publique. 1804 Gen., Local. 70,000 Open. TOURS : Bibliotheque. 1791 Gen., Touraine ; pr. cat. 50,000 2,000 Open. of MSS. TROYES : B. Communale. 1691 Jansenist coll. 100,000 3,000 Open. VERDUN : B. Munieipale. 30,000 438 Op.; bks. 1. VERSAILLES : B. Munieipale. 1799 Rich in fine bindings ; 80,000 Open. cat. partly pr. III. GERMAN EMPIRE. AlX-LA-CHAPELLE : Stadt-Bibliothek. 1556 Cat. pr. 1834. 30,000 120 Strangers ALTENBURG : by guar. Herzogl. Landes-B. 1686 Cat. pr. 1872. 50,000 Open. AMBERG : Oberpfiilz. Provin- 1805 Formed from Monastic 31,000 200 Open. zial-B. collections. AROLSEN : FUrstl. Hof-Bibl. AUGSBURG : 30,000 By leave. K. Kreis-u. Stadt-B. 1537 Largely f r. Monastic colls. ; 150,000 800 Students. accessions almost entirely in history. BAMBERG : Kijnigliche B. 1G11 135,000 3,200 Strangers BERLIN : by guar. Konigliche B. Kb . Kriegs-akad. Kb . Obertribunal. 1G61 1765 ?opy privilege. Iilit., Hist., Geogr. 750,000? 65,000 35,000 16,000 52 Op.; bks. 1. Kb . Pr. General- Military ; printed cat. 52,000 Staff and stabs-B. Officers. Kb. Statistisches 1810 Cat. printed, 2 vols. 4to, 82,500 400 Bureau. 1874-79. Universitats-B. 1831 Copy privilege. 200,000 353 Stud, by BONN: guar. Universitats-B. 1818 Printed cat. of MSS. 250,000 974 Non-priv. persons BREMEN : by guar. Stadt-B. 166C Gen., Local. 100,000 Citizens ; others by guar. Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print. MSS. BRESLAU : Kb. u. Universila! s- 1811 Strongest in Hist, and 350,000 4,000 Stud. ; B. Theo. ; 250,000 pam oths. by phlets, <fec. guar. Schles. Gesellsch. f. 1810 Nat. Sci.. Med. 50,000 Mem.; oth. Vaterl. Cultur. by giuir. Stadt-B. ISG: Formed from several libs. 200,000 2,400 Open. of 16th and 17th cent. CARLSRUHE : Grossh. Hof- u. Landes-B. Accessible to the public since 1766. 134,400 3,000 Open ; books lent. CASSEL : Landes-B. 1580 Gen., Hesse. 165,000 1,500 Open. COBURG : Herzogl.-B. Aft. 50,000 350 All educat. 1699 persons. COLOGNE : Gymnasium am 1804 37,500 800 Open. Marzellan. Stadt-B. Re- Sci. and Pop. ; existed 36,000 500 Open ; est. earlier with the town books 1880 archives. lent out. COLMAR : Stadt-B. 1791 75,331 Open. CONSTANCE : Wessenberg sche 1800 40,000 Open. Stadt-B. DANTZIG : Stadt-B. 1580 Formerly learned; now gen. 83,000 Many. Open. DARMSTADT : Grossh. Hof-B. 1817 Med. & Jur. Diss. ; music. 500,000 3,000 Op. ; bks.). DESSAU : Herzogl. B. 1820 70,000 Some. DETMOLD : FUrstl. Lanaes-B. 1824 Formed out of earlier colls. 50,000 100 All educat. persons. DlLLIXGEN : K. Kreis- u. Studien- 1554 Earlier lib. of a university ; 75,000 200 Open by B. DONAUESCHINGEN : strong in Jesuit lit. guarant. FUrstl. Hof-B. 1752 Gen., Hist., Old German 90,000 1,000 Open. Lit. ; formed fr. earliei colls. ; pr. cat. of MSS. DRESDEN : Kb. Oeffentliche B. Enc 350,000 6,500 Open ; 10th books lent. cent Prinzl. Secundo- 1767 Saxonica ; Dante (pr. cat). 50,000 300 By introd. gcnitur-B. DUSSELDORF : Kb. Landes-B. 1770 Gen., Theol., Hist. 35,000 400 Op.; bks. 1. ERFURT : Kbnigl. B. c. 1400 Formerly the Univer. L. 60,000 1.000 Open. ERLANGEN : Universitats-B. 1743 147,000 1,900 Op. ; bks. 1. FRANKFORT : Senckenbergischc B. 17G3 1840 Sci., Med. ; growing fust. 40,000 Open. Stadt-B. 1484 150,000 300 Op. ; bks. 1. FREIBURG IN BREIS- GAU : Universitats-B. Earlier coll. soon aft. 1460. 270,000 500 Open. GIESSEN : Universitats-B. 1612 Pr. cat. of MSS., 1840-62. 160,000 1.370 Open. GOTH A : Herzoglichc B. 1647 245,000 G,000 Open. Gb TTINGEN : Kb . Universitiits-B. 1737 Also the Lib. of theGb ttin- 400,000 4.SOO Open by GREIFSWALD : ger Ges. d. Wissen. guarant. Kb . Universitiits-B. HALLE (Wittenberg) 1456 120,000 812 Open. Universitats-B. 1699 Hist, predominates ; also L. 220,000 Few. of D. Morgenl. Gesells. HAMBURG : Commerz-B. 1735 Commercial ; Hamburg 70,000 Op.; bks.l. coll. 10,000 vols. ; pr. cat. by introd. Stadt-B. 1610 350,000 5,500 HANOVER : Kb nigl. Oeffentl. B. 1649 Brunswick and Leibnitz 170,000 4,000 Hooks lent MSS.; pr. cat. of MSS. by guar. Societats-B. 17S9 45,000 Members. Stadt-B. 15th Exclusive of Fiction ; rich 30,000 250 Open. HEIDELBERG : cent in Reformation theology. Universitiits-B. HILDESHEIM : 1386 130,000 pamphlets. 300,000 4,700 Op.; bks. 1. Beverinsche B. JENA : 1673 Belles Lettres excluded. 33,000 S3 Open. Universitiits-B. 1502 Removed 1548 from 180,000 Op.; bks. 1. Wittenberg. KIEL: Universitats-B. K6NIGSBERG : 1G65 180,000 2,000 Op.; bks. 1. Kbnigl.- und Uni 1534 25 books lent at one time. 184,000 Stud.; oths. versitats-B. 1544 bv cruar. KORNIK (Posen).: B. Kornicka. e. 182S Polish Lit.; founded by 50,000 1,200 Open by Graf Dziatynski. leave. LEIPSIC : Stadt-B. Universitats-B. 1677 1409 Politz Library (pr. cat.). Books lent. 100,000 500,000 1,500 4,000 Op.; bks. 1. Mem. LiJBECK : Stadt-B. LUNEBERG : 1620 Largely Hist. 100,000 250 Op.; bks.l. Stadt-B. 1555 32,000 350Open.
Name. a Special Character and No. of Vols. To whom
o St, Remarks. Print. MSS. ccessiblc. LUXEMBURG : Bibliotheque. 1798 Reference. 80,000 Students. MAIHINGEN : Oettingen-Waller- 1812 100,000 1,507 Jooks lent. stcinsche B. MAINZ : Stadt-B. 1477 Over 4000 incunabula ; 150,000 1,200 }pen; L804 several libs, combined. books lent. MANNHEIM : Oeffentliche B 1870 Based upon Kurpfalz. 40,000 Open Hofb., est. 1761. MARBURG : Universitats-B. 1558 Rich In dissertations. 140,000 109 Uem.o un. MEININGEN : Hurzopl. Oeff. B. 1680 Includes engravings, &c. 160,000 Books lent. METTEN : Benediktiner Klos- 1830 Existed earlier with the 60,000 250 Mem. ter-B. convent. (0. b. 1.). METZ : B. Municipalc. 1811 Theol., Sci., Local ; pr. cat. 60,000 1,084 Open ; of MSS. and incunabula. books lent. MUNICH : Benedikt. Stiff. S. 1850 30,000 150 Open to Bonifaz. scholars. Ko.Hof-u.Staats-B. 16th Besides over 3GOO music 1,000,000 26,000 Open. cent MsS. Universitats-B. 1472 322,800 1,744 Mem. (o. b. 1 ). MUNSTER : Ko. Paulinische B. (1588 Bibliotheca Fttrstenber- 123,175 808 Stud., Ac. gica separate. (0. b. 1.). NUREMBERG : Germanisehes Nat.- 1852 Hist, of Germ, to 1G50, Art. 90,000 Jookslent. Mus. Stadt-B. [445 Gen., Norica. 50,000 1,012 Op. ; bks. 1. OLDENBURG : Grossherzog. Oeff. B. 1792 100,000 Open. PADERBORN : Theodorianische B. 1618 Earlier Univcr. Lib. 30,000 Some. Teachers and Stud. PASSAU . Ko. Kreis -u. Stu 1G12 rheol., Hist. ; formerly a 33,276 121 Open to dien-B. Jesuit Lib. Stud. RATISBON : Fiirstl. Thurn- u. 1775 40,000 Open by Taxissche B. leave. Ko. Kreis-B. 1430 Rati.-bon coll. ; Reforma 35,253 Open. 1877 tion Lit. ROSTOCK : Universitiits-B. Aft Gen., Mecklenburg. 140,000 800 Open by 1419 guarant. RUDOLSTADT : Oeff. B. Gen., Local. 63,000 Few. SCHWEIDNITZ : Griifl. v. Hoch- 17 40,000 1,300 Open. bergsche B. SCHWERIN : Regierungs-B. 17 30,000 Open. STRALSUND : Raths-B. 1709 Pr. cat.; chief acces. Hist 60,000 400 Open. STRASBURG : Kath. Seminar. Theol. 30,000 Stadt-B. 1872 Gen., Local; lib.burnt 1870. 50,000 250 Open. Universitiits- u. 1871 Lib. burnt 1870. 513,000 Open. Landes-B. STUTTGART : Centralstelle fur Also an art lib. of 2700 50,000 Open; Gewerbe u.Handel. vols. books lent. K. Oeffentl. B. 1765 Bible coll. (7200 vols.). 425,000 3,800 Open. Nos. TREVES : Stadt-B. 1815 80,000 2,300 Open. TUBINGEN : Kb . Universitiits-B. 1547 Classed cat. printing. 235,000 3,300 Mem. (o. b. I.). L LM : Stadt-B. 1443 Uhn coll. 49,624 Incl. Open 1570 works MSS. WARMBRUNN : V. Schafftfotsch Frei- Gen.. Siles. ; founded by 50,000 Some. Open. standesherrl. B. Graf v. Schaffgotsch. WEIMAR : Grossherzogliche B 17th Has large dramatic coll. 180,000 2,000 Open ; cent bks. 1. WERNIGERODE : Stolb^rg-W. B. 1370 Largely TheoL; public 87,163 1,100 Open by since 174G. introd. WIESBADEN : Ko. Landes-B. 1814 Gen., Nassau. Over Open. 100,000 WOLFENBUTTEL : Uerzogliche B. Bef. MSS. and early books ol 300,000 9,000 Open 1-38! Reform, times. WURZBURG: Universitiits-B. r. l. .S-. 300,000 2.000 Op ; bks. 1. IV. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. ADMONT : B. der Abtei. 1074 Theol.. Hist 80,000 966 Students. BRUNN : Franzens Mus.-B. ISIS- 31,000 1,176 Students. BUDA-PEST : Szechdnyi sche 180-2 Hungarian ; founded by. 400,000 G3,000 Open. Landes-B. Graf F. Szeche nyi. | Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Vccessible. Print. MSS. BUDA-I EST contd. Ungar. Akad. d. 1826 Founded by the Grafen 90,000 lem. Wissenschaften. Teleki. (o. b. 1.) Universitiits-B. 1635 30,000 dissertations. 186,000 1,000 )pen; 1780 >ook.s lent. CRACOW : Uni>-ersiiats-B. 1364 Re-cst. in 1400. . 01,831 4,781 )pen. GOTTWEIH : Benediktiner-Stif : s- llth Manv incunabula ; val. 43,387 1,100 Hem. B. cent MSS. GRAZ: Landesreg.-B. 1811 68,594 Universitiits-B. 1776 Formed of monastic libs. 120,000 2,005 Op.; bks.l. HERMANNSTADT : Kational-B. Founded by Graf Kemeny. 60,000 700 HOHENFURTH : Cisterc. Stifts-B. 1756 Many incun. ; val. MSS. 39,010 600 Op. by 1. INNSBRUCK : Universitiits-B. 1745 Gen., Tirolensia. 92,000 1,027 Op.; bks.l. KLAGENFURT : Studien-B. 1563 40,000 250 Open. 1784 KLOSTERNEUBURG : Chorherren-Stifts-B. 1107 55,000 1,400 KoNIGSWART : F. Metternich-Win- Attached to the Mus. 35,000 Open. neberg sche B. formerly in Vienna. KREMSMUNSTER : Benedikt.-Stifts-B. 1012 Also a scien. lib. of 900C 50,000 1,800 Mem. vols. (0. b. ].). LAIBACH : Studien-B. 1791 Gen., Slavica ; formec 47,423 419 Open to from convent lib. ; no^ Stud. scholastic. LEMBERG : Ossolinski sches 1817 Founded by Graf Ossol- 78,000 2,897 ~>pen. National-Institut. inski. Universitiits-B. 1784 Formed from convent lib. 80,000 Ipen. 42,000 vols. burnt 1848. LINZ : Oeff. Studien-B. 1774 Managed by Krems 33,000 200 Open. miinster Benedikt.-Stift MAROS-VASAR- HELLY : Oeff. Teleki sche B. 1812 Founded and endowed b 90,000 Graf Teleki v. SzcJk. MARTINSBERG : Benediktiner- Formed at restitution o 98,000 800 Mem. Erzabtei. the order in Hungary. MELK : Bened.-Stifts-B. 1189 60,000 1,000 Private. OLMUTZ : Oeff. Studien-B. 1774 From monastic, <kc., libs. 62,000 1,000 Open. OSSEGG : Cisterz.-Stifts-B. 1725 30,000 100 By leave. PRAGUE : F. v. Kinky sche B. 40,000 Open. F. Lobkowitz. B. Does not grow. 30,000 600 Hooks lenl K. K. u. Univer 1366 Formed out of pre-exist 74,122 3,818 Open. sitiits-B. 1777 ing libs. Piiimonstrat.-Stift 1565 Over 500 am Strahow. 60,000 Vaterl. Museum. 1818 Exact Sci., Bohemica. 125,000 3,000 Open. PRESSBURG : Appony sche B. Given to the town by Gra 60,000 Open. G. Appony, 1825. Ungar. Gelehrte 1844 60,000 Mem. Gesellschaft. RAUDNITZ : Fiirst. Lobkowitz - 1510 Rich in old Classics ; valu 51,410 600 sche B. able MSS. and incun. ST FLORIAN : Chorherren-Stift B. lltl Many incunabula. 63,545 869 Mem. cent SALZBURG : Bcnedikt.-Stift St 6th In 3 divisions (1) olde 65,000 900 Mem. Peter. cent bks., (2) mod., (3)theol. (o. b. 1.). ascet. Landes-u. Studien-B 1617 Till 1810 Univ. Lib. 82,000 1,400 Open. SEITENSTETTEN : Benedikt.-Stifts-B. 35,000 Mem. TEPL : Chorherren-Stifts-B 1197 Many incunabula. 42,075 189 Mem. TRENT : B. Civica. 1841 Hist, and Lit.; public sine 40,500 1,548 Open. 1846; mus TRIESTE : Stadt-B. 179" Gx?n., Loc., Marine ; 2 divs 30,000 Open. (1) town, (2) public. TROPPAU : Museum s-B. 1814 Schol. ; is also gymn. lib. 85,249 Open. VIENNA : Benediktin.-Stift 115? Many incunabula ; rich in 60,000 600 Bv leave o Schotten. Austr. hist. t he Abbot. Erzhcrzogl. Al 179i Chiefly Hist, and Milit 40,000 Open. brecht sche B. Sci. F. Esterhdzy-B. 1791 40,000 Fiirstl. Liechten- Bef Old Classics, Med., Art 50,000 0. b. 1. stein sche B. 178C History, Milit. Sci. K. K. Familien-u 179i Founder Francis II.; parti) 80,000 By special Privat-B. priv. pr. of emper. lenre. K. K. Finanzminis 35,000 550 Op. ;bks.l. K. K. Kriegsminis 1801 Milit. Sci. and Hist. 40,000 Officers terium. (o. b. I.). K. K. Ministerium 1849 50,000 Easily ac des Innern.cessible.
Name. 1 Special Character and Xo. of Vols. To whom
o Remarks. Print. MSS Accessible. VIENNA contd. K. K. Obergym- 1726 38,000 130 Open to nasium der Tlie- strangers ; resianischen Akad.
books lent. K. K. Oeffentl. B. 1405 Copy priv.; 6461incun. 440,000 20,000 Op.; bks. 1. K. K. Technische 1816 40,000 Open. Hochschule. K.K.Universitiits-B. 1777 Much used; copy-privilege. 271,070 190 Op.; bksl. K. K. Zoologisches 1780 Sci., espec. Zoology. 30,000 Few. Books lent. Cabinet. Mechitaristen-B. 1773 Armenian congrcg. lib. 38,243 78 Mem. WEISSKIRCHEN : Militiir-Schulen-B. 1860 Military Sci. 40,000 Staff A Off. V. SWITZERLAXD. AARAU : Aargauische Kan- 1803 60,000 1,200 Open. tons-Bibliothek. BASEL : Allg. Lesegesellsch. 1787 Gen., Local. 40,000 Sub. Oeffentl. B. (Univ.). 1460 Belles-lettres excluded. 120,000 4,000 Op. ; bks 1. BERN : Lesegesellschaft. 1701 42,000 |Sub. Stadt-B. 1528 Also the univer. lib.; Prof. 50,000 3,000 Sub. and Stud. free. ElNSIEDELN : Stifts-B. 946 Chiefly Theol. and Hist.; 40,000 1,200 Mem. 500 incunabula. (o. b. 1.). FRAUENFELD : Thurgauische Kan- 1807 Printed cat. 35,000 By buying tons-B. catalogue. FREIBURG : Cantonale B. 1848 38,000 Open. GENEVA : B. Publique. 16th Nucleus Bonnivard s bks.; 110,000 1,800 Open. " cent pr. ca*". LAUSANNE : B. Cantonale. 1536 Largely Theol. 62,000 Op.; bksl. LUCERNE : Cantons-B. 1832 Based on lib. of Jesuit col. 83,000 Op. ; bks. 1. XEUCHATEL : B. de la VUle. 1793 Gen., Xeuchatel. 80,000 Op. by gu. ST GALL : Stadt-B. l.WO Many incunabula. 60,400 500 Open. Stifts-B. 830 Pr. cat. of MSS. and 41,700 1,800 Adults. the 1700 incunabula. 3CHAFFHAUSEN : Stadt-B. 1636 30,000 450 Small sub. SOLOTHURN : Stadt-B. 1761 37,500 200 Open. ZURICH : Kantonale Lehran- 1835 55,000 800 Open. stalten. Stadt-B. 1620 Managed by a Society. 97,000 3.000 Small sub. VI. ITALY. BOLOGNA : Biblioteca della 1712 Sci., lately ; MSS. of Aldro- 160,000 6,000 Open; Universita. vandi and Marsigli ; MS. stud, only chron. in winter evenings. B. Comunale. !l801 120,000 Open. 1839 CAGLIARI : B. Universitaria. 1793 30,000 MSS. Open. CATANIA: B.dell Universita. 1755 Gen.. Catania 42,000 Open. B. Ventimiliana. |l783 20,000 Open. CAVA DEI TIRRENI : B. della SS. Trinita. llth Gen., Theol. <fcc. ; now 10,000 Open. cent under min. of public instr. CREMONA : , B. Governativa. 1 774 40,000 Open. FERRARA : B. Comunale. 1753 Gen., Ferrara; Ferrarese 100,000 Incl. Open. MSS. and incunabula. FLORENCE : B. Marucelliana. ; 1752;Cen., Fine Arts; bequest of 136,500 3.000 Open. Mgr. F. Marucelli; 80,000 prints and drawings. B. Nazionale. ,171-1 Union of B. Magliabe- 400,000 15,000 Open
chiana and B. Palatina. (over 18). B. della R. Accad.lSOl Fine Arts. 15,000 Open to delle Arte. Stud. B. Riccardiana. 1815 Valuable MSS. 28,000 3.500 Onen. Librcria Medi.- 15th Remarkable MSS. 3,000 7,000 10t>en. Laurenziana cenl GENOA : B. della Cong, della Missione Urbana 1727 Gen., Fine Arts. 50,000 300 Open. B. Franzoniana. 1778 Theology ; first lib. open 16,000 32 at night. B. della Universita 1773 Lit., Sci. ; Archoeol. mus 116,492 1,363 Open (over attached. 18); Stud. LUCCA : B. Pubblica. MACERATA : 1791 50,000 1,268 Open. B. Comunale Mozz Borgetti. 177: 185; Found, by B. Mozzi, 1773 T. Borgetti, 1835, united 50,000 680 Open. in 1855. MANTUA : . B. Governativa. 30,000 Open. Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. Xo. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print. MSS. MESSINA : B. dell University 1783 University Course; Greek 40,000 700 Open degli Stuclii. MSS. from Mon. del (over 18). SS. Salvadore. MILAN : 13. Ambrosiana. 1609 Milan incunab. ; found, by 164,000 8,100 Open. F. Borromeo. B. Xazionale dc 1770 Collection of Classics. 162,123 3646 Open Brera. (over 18). MODENA : B. Estense. 1508 90,000 3.000 )pen. B. Universitaria. 1844 20,000 Open. MONTE CASSINO : B. del. Monast. 10th Theology ; early MSS. and 40,000 1,000; By leave. cent archives. 30,000 chris. .NAPLES : B. Brancacciana. 1673 150,000 3,000 Open. B. del Girolumiui. 1690 30,000 Open. B. Xazionale. 1804 Gen. ; Vesuvius and vol 275,000 8,000 Open 1863 canoes. (over 18). Jl B. di S. Giacomo. 1863 Chiefly modern ; br. of 35,000 Open B. Xazionale. (over 18). B. dell Oratorio. 10th Theology. 26,420 355 Open. cent B. dell Universita. 1812 Gen.,Xat. Sci. ; Dante lit. 150,000 25 Open. 1827 XOVARA : B. Civica. 1847 30,000 Open. PADUA : B. Universitaria 1629 Univ. course. 158,240 2,458 Op.(ov.lS). PALERMO : B. Comunale. 177.5 Gen., Sicily ; Arabico-Sicil- 140,941 2,640 Open. ian coins; portraits, fec., of Sicilians. B. Xazionale. 1804 110,000 12,000 Open. PARMA : Regiu B. 1779 De Rossi s Orient. MSS. 213,995 Incl. OIH II (over 18). PAVIA : B. dell Universita. 177* Gen., Med. and Nat. Sci. ; 185,000 7D1 Open publications of societies. (over 18). PERUGIA : B. Civica. 1852 Founded by P. Podiani. 30,000 915 ( )pen. PISA: B. della K. Uni 1742 Univ. course. 120,000 Open versita. (over 15). RAVENNA : B. Classense. 1710 Gen., Hist., and Ascetic 65,000 1,200; Open. Theol. ; founded at ex 7,000 pense of P. Canneti. deeds. RIMINI : B. Gambalunga. 1619 Theol., Math.. Jurisp., 36,000 Incl. Open. Hist, of Rimini. ROME : li. della R. Acca- 18C7 Soc. publns. ; founded on 12.500 Mem. demiadei Lincei. lib. of X. Cavalieri. B. Alessandrina dell 1CC7 University course ; pr. 80,000 235 Open Universita (or B. books of lib. of dukes oi (over 18). della Sapienza). Urbino. B. Angelica. 1605 Theology; founder Mgr 65,696 2,453 Stud. Ang. Rocca. B. Baiberiua. Private lib. 70,000 7,000 By leave. B. della Camera dei 1848 Laws and acts of parl. of 34,000 Deputies. Deputati. 1871 all countries. B. Cusanatense. 1700 Joined to B. Vit. Em. 130,000 2,500 Open (over 18). B. Chigiana. 1660 Private lib. founded by 30,000 3,036 Leave ot Alex. VII. Pr. Chigi. B. Corsini. Engravings ; priv. lib. ; 60,000 1,300 By leave. founder Clement XII. B. della Propag. 1626 Theology, Orient. MSS. 47,000 3.000 Mem. B. del Senato. 1872 Gen., Law; Statutes of 25,000 Senators. Ital. cities; Munic. Hist. B. Vaticana. 5th MSS. and rarities ; priv. 220,000 25,600 By leave. cent lib. of pope. 1453 B. Vit. Emanuelo. 1876 Gen., Theol.; national lib. 360,000 5,000 Open. SASSARI: B. Universitaria. 1556 Univ. course. 25,000 Open. SIENA : B. Comunale. 1757 Gen., Hist.; Fine Arts; 55,750 4,250 Open. founded by S. Bandini. SUBIACO : Monastero di S. 1350 Gen., Theol.; incunabula 6,000 400 Open. Scolastica. pr. in the monastery. TURIN : B. dell Universita. 1723 Founder, Vit. Amcdeo II. 240,000 3,300 Open. B. Xazionale. 1720 Gen., Sci.; Aldines. 170,000 Incl. Open (over IS). URBINO : B. dell 1 Universith. 1826 10,000 6 Open. VENICE-: B. Marciana. 1362 Incunab.; Venetian docu 260,000 9.036 Open 1468 ments. (over IS). Museo Civico. VERCELLI : B. Agnesiana. 1746 Found. G. B. Morosini. 35,000 40 Open. VERONA : B. ed Archivi 1792 124,303 Open Comunali. (over 18). B. Capitolure. 1723 Gen., Theol.; early MSS.; 20,000 1,080 Open. property of chapter. VlCENZA : B. Bertoliana 1706 Gen., Vicenza; archives of 105,000 2,000 Open. Comunale. 1710religious corporations.
Name. Founded. Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible.
Name. g .5 Special Character and Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print. MSS. Print. MSS. SANTIAGO : B. Publica Univer- sit. y Provincial. SEVILLE : B. Columbina. B. Universitaria. TOLEDO : B. de la Catedral. VALENCIA : B. del Arzobispado. B. Universitaria. VALLADOLID : B. de la Univer- sidad. 1532 1560 1767 1598 1785 1480 Gen., Theol. ; Spanish lit. and books of chivalry. Founder, Fernando, son of C. Columbus. Founded on Jesuit libs. Theology. Theology. Inctin. ; destroyed in 1812. Gen., Theol., Law ; in cludes lib. of Santa Cruz (1480) and that of the univ. (1767). 37,000 18,000 60000 30,000 105CO 42,000 27,180 271 MSS. 100 MSS. 308 Open. Open. Open. By leave. Open. Open. ANTWERP : B. Publique de la 1609 Ville. BRUGES : B. Pub. de la Ville. 1798 BRUSSELS : B. Royale. 1837 GHENT : B. de 1 Universitc . 1797 LIEGE : B. del Universite. 1817 LOUVAIN : B. de ITniversite. 1636 MAESTRICHT : B. de la Ville. 1662 MONS : B. Communale. 1802 NAMUR : B. de la Ville. 1797 TOURNAI: B. Publique. 1755 Books lent ; includes B. Populairc, 4435 vols. Books lent. MSS. and incunabula. Gen., Jurispr., Hist., Phil., Med. ; books lent ; 1 branch. Gen., Lie ge; periodicals and publications of soc. Theol. ; univ. course. 42,213 100,000 350,000 250,000 105,746 250,000 12,000 30,000 20,000 40,000 MSS. 30,000 1.600 , 393 100 275 Open (over 16). Open. Open. Open (over 18). Open (over 17). Open. Open. Open. Open. Open.. XIV. PORTUGAL. C OIMBRA : B. da Universidadc. EVORA : B. Archiepiscopal. LISBON : B. da Acadcmia. B. Xacional. MAFRA : Bibliotheca. OPORTO : B. Pub. Municipal. 1591 1780 1796 1730 1833 Gen., Univ. course ; aca- dem. diss. Theology. Science. Gen., Portug. General; books not lent; libs, of suppr. convents. 84,000 30,500 60,000 200,000 30,000 100,000 MSS. MSS. 9,415 1,300 Mem. (0. b. 1.). By leave. Open. Open. By leave. Open. VIII. HOLLAND. AMSTERDAM : Univ. Bibliotheek. 15th cent HAARLEM : B Communale. l596 HAGUE (THE) : De Koninklijke 1798 Bibliotheek. LEYDF.N : Bibliotheca Acad. 1575 ROTTERDAM : Bibl. der Stad. ! 1870 UTRECHT : Univ. BiMiotheek. 1582 Gen., Med.; Libs, of Dutch Geogr. and other Soc. Lit. and Hist.; incunabula. Hist., Polit., Law; books lent; Dutch incunabula. Univ. course; books lent. Netherlands. Gen.; incunabula. 100,000 25,000 200,000 160,000 40,000 150,000 500 150 4,000 4,9-50 Few. 950 Open. Open. Open (over 14). Open. Open. Open. XV. GREECE. ATHENS : University Lib. CORFU: Public Library. 1837 1800 National Lit. Univ. course. 150,000 40,000 600 Open. < ipi n. XVI. RUSSIA. IX. DENMARK. DORPAT: University Lib. HELSINGFORS : University Lib. KAZAN : University Lib. KHARKOFF : University Lib. KIEFF : University Lib. Moscow : Golitzin Museum. Public Mus. L. of the Patriarchs. University Lib. ODESSA : Public Library. ST PETERSBURG : Academy of Scien.
- Hermitage Lib.
Imperial Public L. Monastery of St Alexander Nevski University Lib. 1801 1828 1804 1805 1833 1865 1861 1650 1755 1830 1726 1824 Univ. course. Univ. course ; Finland ; separate Russian lib. Univ. course; lib. of Prince Potemkin. Science. Formerly at Wilna. Lit. ; rare editions. Gen., Hist., Russica; in cludes Rumianzoff lib. Slavonic; pr. books have been removed. Univ. course; Hist. Hist, and Sci. ; 12,000 arc in lib. of Asiatic M. Gen., Russica ; copy pii vilege. Russian lit. Sci., Orient. Phil. 143,500 140,000 80,000 56,000 110,000 20,000 300,000 170,000 40,000 150,000 1,000,000 10,000 138,677 730 30 5,000 1,500 MSS. 26,000 .MSS. Mem. Residents. Mem. Mem. Mem. Open. Open. By leave. By leave. Open
- (over 12).
By leave. Open (over 12). Mem. (o.b.U. COPENHAGEN : Athenaeum. Det Store Kongelige 1670 B.bliothek. " 1793 Kongens Haandbib- 18 liothek. Univcrsitetsbiblio- 1482 thck. 17-> Gen. reference, Danish ; national lib.; bks. lent. Gen., Modern; personal property of king. Gen., Nat. His.; bks.l.; Bib. Classense; Scand. MSS. 50,000 482,000 40,000 250,000 18,000 4,000 Mem. Open by voucher. King s perm. Open. X. ICELAND. REYKJAVIK : College L. Stiptisbokasafn. Hist., Phil. Sci., Iceland. 9,000 30,000 Mem. Open. XI. NORWAY. C HRISTIANIA : Deichmannske 1780 Bibliothek. Univcrsitetsbiblio- 1811 thek. THRONDH.JEM : K. iiorske Videns- 1767 kab. Selskab. B. Gen., Pop.; founded by C. Deichmann. Univ. course ; Sci.; books lent ; early Scand. lit. Science. 15,200 230,000 50,000 300 1,170 1,000 By vouch. By vouch. Residents. XII. SWEDEN. LUND : Universitetsbib. 1688 STOCKHOLM : KongligaorRiksJ). 1585 UPSAI.A : Univei-Mtcfshib. 1620 Univ. course, Sci. ; books 120,000 lent; Delagardie MSS. ! Gen., Swedish, Nat. Hist. 250,000 Univ. course ; books lent. 220,000 3,000 8,000 10.000 Mem. (o. b. 1.). Open. Open. XVII. EGYPT. CAIRO : Public Library, c. I860 Includes the Wakf of Cairo Mosques. Set Aeadfinii. 18711, xv. p. 53. 40,000 Incl. Open XIII. SPAIN. XVIII. INDIA. CHINA, AND JAPAN. BARCELONA : Arcliivo de , Corona deAragoii. , Mnseo y llibliotee.i Provincial. CADI/, : li. Provincial. ESCORIAL : P.iblioUca. 157" MADRID : B. Nacional. 1711 B. del PalacioReal. B. de San Isidro. B. delaUniversid. SALAMANCA : B. de la Universid. 1254 Gen., incunabula ; val.MSS Gen.. Span. Property of kin::. Founded by Jesuits. Univ. course. Incunabula. 50,000 50,000 30,000 400,000 100,000 65,000 30,000 70.514 MSS. MSS. 4. (ill 10,000 870 By leave. By leave. Open. By leave, i Open. By leave. Open. Open. Open. BENARES :
- College Lib. 1805
BOMBAY : Roy. As. Soc. 1804 CALCUTTA: Calcutta Public Lib. 183t Geol. Survev. 185C Indian Mus ISfil Roy.As. Soc.lViiL al 1784 St Paul s Ca li. 1S5S Sanskrit Coll. j!824 Sanskrit Coll., 2,500 v. Oriental ; books lent. English ; prop, lib.; books lent; pr. cat. Sci., Geol., Memoirs, /oology, Arch. Oriental. I heol.; book-club attached Sanskrit. 10,000 40,000 45.000 i 10.000 6,000 15,000 11,300 i 4,800 2,500 200 Few. 9,500 2,769 Mem. Mem. Sub. Open. By leave. Mem. By leave. Mem.. (o. b. 1.).
Name. H3 Special Character and Remarks. Xo. of Vols. To whom Accessible. (2 Print. MSS. MADRAS : Free Pub. Lib. 1855 Sci.,0rien.; mus. attached. 10,000 Open. I860 Liter. Soc. 1818 Oriental ; br. of Roy. As. 26,000 Mem. and Soc. Sub. ROORKEE : Thomason Coll. 1856 Engineering, incl Addis- 14,000 Mem. combe lib. TANJUR : Lib. of Raja. beg. Sanskrit ; prop, of raja ; 18,000 By leave. 17th cat. by Dr Bumell. cent SHANGHAI : N. China Br. of R 1857 Or., 1100 Chinese bks. ; 2,500 1,100 Mem. As. Soc. cat. pr. Raffles Lib 1844 Gen. Malay and Far East ; 11,000 Open. books lent on payment. BATAVIA : Batav. genoots- Dutch Settlements, Indian 20,000 1,630 Open chap. Archipelago. TOKIO : Lib. of Tokio Fu. 1873 Chin, and Jap.. 5000 Europ. 68,000 Incl. Open. XIX. BRITISH COLONIES. Australia. SYDNEY : Free Pub. Lib. (1 1869 Gen., Australasia. Books 51,163 Open. branch). lent; open on Sunday. (over 12). Parliamentary Lib. 1844 Legislation, Documents. 27,000 Mem. BRISBANE : Free Public Lib. ADELAIDE : S. Austr. Institute. 1836 Gen., Australasia ; 105 30,000 Open ; 1855 country inst. affiliated. bks. lent MELBOURNE : j on payt. Pub. Lib. of Viet. lS53Gen., Australasia. 111,644 10 Open. (over 14). British Guiana. GEORGETOWN : R. Agr. and Com. 1844 Gen., British Guiana. 25,000 Mem. Society Lib. 1864 Canada, OTTAW r A : Lib. of Parliament. 18I5 ! Canada; books lent. 100,000 50 Mem. QUEBEC : (o. b. I.). Bibl. de la Legis 1867 Law ; Canada ; books 30,000 Mem. lature. lent (o. b. L). TORONTO : Mechanics Inst. 1831 Reference by small fee. 10,403 Mem. University Lib. 1858 Univ. course ; reading- 24,000 3 Mem. room open. Jamaica. KINGSTON : Free Pub. Lib. (3 1874 Books lent ; in conn, with 0,i en branches). Inst. of Jamaica. (over 15). Mauritius, PORT Louis : Municipal Lib. lS51Gen., French. Lit., Med., 10,000 Open . and Music ; bks. not lent. New Zealand. OTAGO : Univ. Lib. 10,000 Mem WELLINGTON : Athenaeum and 184S 10,050 Sub Mech. Inst. South Africa. CAPE TOWN : S. Afr. Public Lib. 1818 Gen.,Africa, Australia, &c.; 38,875 125 Open. Dessinian and Grey libs. GRAHAMSTOWN : Free Public Lib. PlETEKMAR IT/BURG : 1866 Books lent on payment. 7,800 Open. Free Public Lib. PORT ELIZABETH : 10,000 Open. Free Public Lib. 1848 Books lent on payment. 12,000 Open. Tasmania. HOB ART TOWN : Tasm. Pub. Lib. 1870 Parliamentary Lib. 11856 Gen., local. 8,500 9,000 Open. Mem. XX. UNITED STATES. ALBANY (N. Y.) : N. Y. State Lib. 1818 Gen. rcf., Law; law lib. 116,000 ?40 Open AMIIERST (Mass.) : of 29,500 vols. (over 15). Amherst College L. 1S21 Gen. ; coll. lib. ; includes 42,180 Mem. ANDOVER (Mass.) : 2 soc. libs., 5425 vols. (o.b.l.). Thcolog. Sem. ANN ARBOR (Mich.): 1807 Theology. 38,800 Few. Mem. Univ. of Michigan Lib. ANNAPOLIS (Md.) : 1841 Gen. ref. ; books lent only to professors. 40,000 Open. Maryland State-Lib A.UGUSTA (Me.) : 1826 Law chiefly. 60,000 Open. i Maine State Lib. 1832 Gen. ref., Law. 35,000 Mem. of gov t. Name. 6 Special Character and Xo. of Vols. To whom 1 Remarks. Print. MSS. Accessible. BALTIMORE (Md.) : Johns Hopkins Un. 1876 Science. 12,000 Mem. Maryland Hist. Soc. Mercantile L. Assoc. 1844 History. 1839 Gen., Popul. ; 12,000 pam- 17,000 36,600 Open. Sub. (S3). of B. phlets ; books lent. Peabody Institute L. 1876 Gen. ref. 72,000 Open (over 1C). BOSTON (Mass.) : dictionary cat. Congregational L. 1853|Theol., Hist,, 125,000 pam- | phlets; life privilege. Mass. Hist. Soc. 1791 Hist. ; Amer. local hist. j and civil war. New Eng. Hist,- 1845 Hist., Biog., Geneal.; MS. Genealogical Soc.) genealogies. Public L. (8 brehs.). 1852 Books lent. State Lib. of Mass. 1826 Ref., Law, and Hist, ; best collect, of U. S. statutes and reports. 122,000 BROOKLYN (X. Y.) : Brooklyn Lib. Long Island Hist. Soc. BRUNSWICK (Me.) : Bowdoin Coll. Lib. 7 Books lent. 1863 lief., Hist., Fine Arts. 1802 BUFFALO (N. Y.) : Young Men s Lib. 1836 Books lent. CAMBRIDGE (Mass.): Harvard Univ. 1632 216,000 pamphlets; ballads, (central coll. and 1764 folk-lore, Americana, 9 depart, libs.). maps, law, divin., and zoology. C HARLOTTESVILLE (Va.). I Univ. of " irginU. 1825 Coll. course. ; mem. bor. CHICAGO (111.) : Public L:b. 1872,Books lent. CINCINNATI (Ohio) : Public Lib. 11856 Gen., Med., Theol.; Rcsid. Gen. ref. ; incl. soc. libs. Young Men s Mer- 183; bor. free, others pay Books lent. 2(5,000 1,000 17,000 395,478 50,000 [ Few. 01,103 35,000 Prop.; bks. bor. ($5). Open. Mem. (100). Open. Open (above 14). Open. Mem. (5). Mem. Mem. Sub. (3). Open for ref.; mem. borrow. cantile Lib. CLEVELAND (Ohio) : Pub. School Lib. 1868 Books lent to residents. COLUMBUS (Ohio) : I Ohio State Lib. 1817 Gen. ref., Law. DETROIT (Mich.) : | Public Lib. ;1865 Books lent. EVANSTON (111.) : North-western Uni. 1857 Gen., Clas., Phil. FRANKFORT (Ky.) : I Kentucky State L. 1821 Gen. ref., Law. GEORGETOWN (D.C.);i Georgetown Coll. 1791 Theol. and Coll. course ; Observatory lib. 800 vols. HANOVER (X.H.): Dartmouth Col. L. jl769C.cn. rcf.; books lent. IlARRISBURGH (Pa.):| Pennsylvania State Bef. Gen. ref.. Law; docn- Lib. :1777i mentary hist, of State. HARTFORD (Conn.) : i Connecticut Hist, 1825 History. Soc. Hartford L. Assoc. 1839 Books lent. WatkinsonL.of Ref. 1858 Gen. ref. ; connected with j Conn. Hist. Soc. L. HAVERHILL (Mass.); Public Lib. 1873 Books lent. INDIANAPOLIS (Ind.): | Public Lib. 1872 Books lent. ITHACA (N. Y.) : Cornell University. 1868 Rff., Univ. Lib.; contains 1 lib. of Goldwin Smith, F.
- Bopp. and C. Anthem.
LANSING (Mich.) : Michigan Stale L. 1828 Gen. ref., Law; offi. bor. LOUISVILLE (Ky.) : I Pub. L. of Kentucky. 1871 MADISON (Wis.) : i | Wis. State Hist. Soc. 1849 Gen., Amer. Hist. MlDDLETOWN Mem. and visitors. Many, (Conn.): AVesleyau Univ. NEW BEDFORD (Mass.): Free Public Lib. 1833 Coll. course ; Amer. Hist., early Wesleyan Hist. 1853 Books lent. NEW HAVEN (Conn.): Vale Coll. (and libs. 1700 Gen. ref.; Linonian and of depts. of law, 1 j Brothers lib., 23,000. sd.,and divinity). NEW YORK: Apprentices Lib. 1820 Gen., Trades and Useful i Arts ; apprentices and ! working women bor. free, others 2. Astor Lib. 1849 Gen. ref., Tech. and
Columbia College 1754 Gen. ref. ; books lent ; Lib. | includes Phuenix Lib. Lenox Lib. 1870 Rare books ; founded by i James Lenox. Open. Open. Mem. (82). Mem. Open (over 16). Open to appr. and journeyin.j Open (over 16).Mem.
Name. | Special Character und Remarks. No. of Vols. To whom Accessible. Print. MSS. XEW YORK contd. Mercantile L. Assoc. 1820 Books lent. 193,000 3ub. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 1804 History. 66,000 Mem. (o. b. L). X. Y. Society Lib. 1700 Gen., Art, Novels pubd. 80,000 Prop. 1754 1720-1820; books lent. Union 1 heol. Sem 1836 Theology; H. B. Smith 40,800 161 Mem. Memorial Theol. Lib.; (o.b.p.). bks. lent; 39,000 pamph. PHILADELPHIA: Acad. of Nat. Sci.. 1812 Kat. Hist.; books not 35,000 Mem. lent; 40,000 pamphlets. (o.b.p.). Brotlicvliead Lib. 1861 39,200 3ub. Lib. Companv <.f 17-il Log.mian lib. held in trust. 112,000 74 Sub.; ref. Phil. (1 branch). free. Lnuunian Lib. 1750 11,000 Open. Mercantile Lib. Co. 1821 Books lent. 141,000 200 Sub. ($4). PRINCETON (X.J.): College of New Jer 174G Gen. ref.; includes so 72,000 Mem. sey Lib. ciety libs. Presbyterian Theol. 1S12 Ref., Theol.; books lent; 40,000 Mem. Sem. Lib. endowment,?60,OCO. PROVIDENCE (R.I.): Brown University. 1768 Coll. course; rich in hist., 54,000 Mem. clas., and patr. lit. (o. b. p.). Providence Athe 1836 Books lent; 687 share 39,500 Sub. ($6). na-urn holders (*15). RALEIGH (X. ( .): N. C. State Lib. 1831 Gen. ref., Law. 42,000 Open. RICHMOND (Va.): Virginia State Lib. 1822 Gon. ref., Law. 44,000 Open. SACRAMENTO (Cal.): California StateLib. 1850 Gen. ref., Law. 53,000 Open. ST LOUIS (Mo.): Public School Lib. 1865 Books bor. for 8-3 yearly. 50,000 St Louis Mercan 1846 Gen., Amer. Hist.; bks. 1. 5,000 Sub. tile Library. propri. $5, clerks!. SALEM (Mass.): Essex Institute. 1848 Ref., Hist.; special coll 34,800 1,200 Mem. rel. to Essex co. (350). SANFRANCISCO(CaL): Free Public Lib. Mercantile L. Assoc. 1*79 Hooks lent. 1S.-,:J Books lent 30,000 50,379 Open. Sub. (812). 1863 SPRINGFIELD (Mass.): City L. Assoc. 1864 Books lent for 81 yearly. 46,307 Open. WASHINGTON: Bureau of Education 1868 Education and libraries. 12,000 Use of Dept. Department of State 1789 Ref., Law, Hist.; orig.docs 36,000 Use ol of founders of U. S. Dept. House of Represent. ITSn I ub. doc. 131.000 Mem. Library of Congress,1800 National; senatois and 396,000 1,000 Open repr. bor.; copy prlvll. (over 16). Patent Office. 1*39 Technical, Patents; officers 34,000 Open. alone borrow. Surgeon-General's 18C5 Med., Sci.; journals and 52,000 Open. Office. trans.; 57,500 pamph. U. S. Senate Lib. lfi.V2; Pub. doc. 30,000 Senators. Name. V o C Special Character and No. of Vols. To whom C t. Remarks, Print. MSS. Accessible. WATERBURY(Con)].): Silas Bronson Lib. 1870 Gen., Fine and Indnst. Alts; 28,200 Open. books lent; endow. WEST POINT (N. Y.): U.S. Military Acad. 1812 Military and scientific; 28,208 19 Mem. Library books lent. WlLLIAMSTOTVU (Mass.): Williams College 1793 Gen ref.; includes 30,000 Mem. Library WORCESTER (Mass.): society libraries American Anti 1812 Ref., Amer. Hist.; news 75,000 Open. quarian Society. papers from 1704 to 1881, 5000 vols. Free Public Lib. 1859 Books lent to residents. 49,624 Open (over 15). XXL SOUTH AMERICA, ETC. Argent. Conf. BUENOS AYRES: B. Nacional. Gen. 8. Am. 40,000 )pen. B. Provincial. 1810 25,000 Open. B. Universitaria. Uni. course. 20,000 Brazil. Rio JANEIRO. B. P. Nacional. 1807 Brazil. 120,000 1,000 Open. Chili SANTIAGO: b. Nacional. Br. at Autofagcstafornav. 65,000 MSS. Open. and military Mexico. GUADALAJARA: B. Publica. 1861 Gen., Theol.; snp. conv.; 24,000 190 Open 1874 pr. cat. 1873-74. MEXICO: B. de la Catedra . Theology. 20,000 500 By leave. B. Nacional. J1867 Gen., Mexico. 100,000 MSS. Open. B. Universitaria. 1762 Uni. course. 25,000 600 By leave. PUEBLA: B. Publica. 26,211 Few. Open. Nicaragua. MANAGUA: B. Nacional. 1881 15,00( OP Peru. LIMA: B. Nacional. 1821 Said to have been takei 35,000 MSS. Open. Uruguay. by Chilians to Santiago. MONTEVIDEO: B. Nacional. 1816 National lit.; S. Am. re 17,000 1000 Open. 1838! publics. Venezuela. CARACAS . B. de la Univers. 187"): Gcn., Theol., Med.; pr. cat 29,000 Open. (h. r. t.—e. c. t.)
- 1 See Menant, Bibliothèque du Palais de Ninive, Paris, 1880.
- Wuttke, Entstehung der Schrift, p. 531, Leipsic, 1872.
- Lepsius, Chronologie der Aegypter, p. 42, Berlin, 1849.
- Wilkinson, Ancient Egypt, i. 111 sq.
- Lepsius, Chronologie, der Aegypter, p. 39.
- Grote, History of Greece, iv. 37, following Becker.
- Ritschl, Die Alexandrinischen Bibliotheken, p. 22; Opusc. Phil., i. § 123.
- N. A., vi. 17.
- De Tranq. An., 9.
- This view as to the smallness of the ancient book before Callimachus has been pushed perhaps a little too far. See Theodor Birt's ingenious suggestions in Das antike Buchwesen, Berlin, 1882, p. 489 sq., &c. Birt, indeed, agrees that these large numbers must be discounted, but only on the ground of the very considerable number of duplicates in the Alexandrian libraries.
- Ritschl, loc. cit., 19.
- Parthey (Alexandrinisches Museum) assigns topographical reasons for doubting this story.
- Some of the authorities have been collected by Parthey, op. cit.
- Pliny, H. N., xviii. 5.
- Antiq. Ital. Med. Æv., iii. 817-24.
- Diarium Italicum, chap. xxii.
- Catalogue printed in Edwards, Memoirs of Libraries, i. 297-301.
- By Hearne in his edition of John of Glastonbury.
- Many such catalogues may be found in the collections of D'Achery, Martene and Durand, and Pez, and in the bibliographical periodicals of Naumann and Petzholdt. The Rev. Joseph Hunter has collected some particulars as to the contents of the English monastic libraries, and Mr Edwards has printed a list of the catalogues known to exist (Libraries and Founders of Libraries, 1865, pp. 448-54). There are said to be over six hundred such catalogues in the Royal Library at Munich.
- Among the Arabs, however, as among the Christians, theological bigotry did not always approve of non-theological literature, and the great library of Cordova was sacrificed by Almanzor to his reputation for orthodoxy, 978 A.D.
- For a very complete account of the chief public and private musical collections both at home and abroad, see the article "Musical Libraries", in Dr Grove's Dictionary of Music, ii. 417.
- In 1877 a questionnaire was issued in order to obtain materials for a more complete report, but the results have not yet been made public.
- The Statistica describes 210 libraries, of which 164 were open to the public and 46 not accessible; 171 were general and 39 special libraries, the latter including 25 devoted to ascetic theology, 11 to science and literature, and 3 to the fine arts. Tuscany, Sicily, and Emilia were the richest in books, the latter province alone containing one quarter of the whole number.
- See the "Regulations of Italian Public Libraries," by Count Ugo Balzani, Library Journal, iv. pp. 183-87.
- Lists of foreign accessions to the biblioteche governative are published by the minister of public instruction from time to time. In 1877 E. Narducci made proposals for a general catalogue of their contents, and issued a specimen of Boccaccio.
- The books have never been actually counted, and this estimate has been reduced by some persons to half the number.
- See Collegio Romano, Discorso di Ruggiero Bonghi, Rome, 1876.
- Signor E. Narducci produced a catalogue of the MSS. other than Oriental in 1877. The Casanatense, Vitt. Emanuele, Angelica, and Alessandrina are Governmental, and in 1878 the minister of public instruction published a catalogue of the Oriental MSS. in the three last. The Oriental MSS. of the other biblioteche governative will be treated in subsequent volumes.
- A pamphlet by the present chief librarian, Vito Fornari, Naples, 1874 gives many useful details, although he there overstates the number of MSS. as 10,000 (there may be some confusion between volumes and works)
- Notices of other libraries of this class will be found in the tables.
- Ceriani has published many of the unique treasures of this collection in his Monumenta Sacra et Profana.
- This, as well as the Brera library, is exhaustively described in Gli Istituti scientifici, letterari, ed artistici di Milano, published by the Societii Storica Lombarda in 1880; a. special treatise on the Brera was published in 1873 by the librarian G. Sacehi. See also Boscha, lie oriyine et statu BMiotheae Ambrosianx, 1672.
- A most interesting account of the history of this library may be read in the introduction to Catalogue des MSS. de la libliotheque royale des ducz de Bourgogne, by M. Marchal, Brussels. 1842, 3 vols. 4to.
- Gachard, Les bibliothèques de Madrid et de l'Escorial; notices et extraits des MSS. qui concernent l'histoire de Belgique, Brussels, 1875, 4to; Ch. Graux, Essai sur les origines du fonds grec de l'Escurial.
- Plans of most of the chief libraries of Europe may be seen in the Memoirs of Libraries of Mr Edwards (2 vols., 1850), and in the Katechismus der Bibliothekenlehre of Dr Petzholdt (1871); the volumes of the Library Journal contain representations of many new American libraries.
- 2 A recipe to make wood incombustible, and other suggestions, are given by C. Walford in Manchester Trans. Libr. Assoc., 1880, p. 65.
- Details in the works of Edwards and Petzholdt, the Library Journal, the publications of the Library Association, and of the Library Bureau (Boston, U.S.).
- See Oxford Trans. Lib. Assoc., 1879, p. 76; Manchester Trans., 1880, pp. 71 sq.
- For instance, in the class of fine arts may be consulted the Bibliographie des Beaux-Arts (Paris, 1874-8), which the late M. Ernest Vinet left incomplete; and botany may be classified with the help of Mr B. D. Jackson's Guide to the Literature of Botany (London, 1881). In the Memoirs of Libraries (ii. 922) may be found a useful classification for MSS., and further on an account of perhaps the best systems for prints and maps, being those of the Blbliothèque Nationale
- See A Classification and Subject-Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library, by Melvil Dewey, Amherst (Mass.}, 1876.
- A proposal for a new co-ordinative catalogue and subject-index is made by Mr. Hy. Wilson in his contribution, "Classification in Public Libraries." to the Transcations, &c., of Library Association at Manchester (London, 1880, pp. 79, 155); and in the same work (p. 85) may be read some remarks on the various classifications used in reporting statistics of issues in the chief public free libraries.
- For an account of the history and practice of binding consult the article Bookbinding (vol. iv. p. 41 sq.); also Marius-Michel, La Reliure, Française artistique (Paris, 1880), and La Reliure Française depuis l'invention de l'imprimerie jusqu'à nos jours (Paris, 1881); La Reliure, ancienne et moderne, Paris, 1878; J. W. Zachnsdorf, The Art of Bookbinding, London, 1880.
- Monthly Notes of Lib. Assoc., vol. ii. p. 52.
- By Mr C. P. Russell, Oxford Meeting of Library Association, p. 100.
- See Conf. of Lib., 1878, p. 232; also Library Journal, i. 124; iii. 64, 229; iv. 255, 435; v. 50, 213.
- Ib., iv. 251. see also p. 376, 448.
- La Bibl. de Grenoble, Paris, 1878. 8vo, pp. 19, 20.
- Of such an index a very complete specimen may be seen in the Catalogue of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society's Library. 1879, 3 vols. 8vo.
- See U.S. Report, p. 577
- Prefixed to the printed catalogue of letter A. The rules, which were compiled by Sir A. Panizzi, Th. Watts, J. Winter Jones, J. H. Parry, and E. Edwards, have been conveniently arranged by Mr Nichols in Handbook for Readers at the British Museum, 1866, and have been reprinted with additional rules by Mr Hy. Stevens in his Catalogue of the American Books in the British Museum.
- Second part of Report on Public Libraries of U.S., Washington, 1876.
- See C. Evans, in Library Journal, i. 58; and W. Blades, in Monthly Notes, 1. 2. 9.
- See Monthly Notes. i. 61, 62.
- The Bonnange and other systems of card-catalogues are described in Report on Public Libraries of U.S., pp. 555, &c.
- Transactions of Conference of Librarians, London, 1878, p. 70.
- The article Bibliography (vol. iii. p. 651 sq.) will afford a general idea of the immense extent of this literature; in addition to the special works there mentioned, reference may be made to Sabin's Bibliography of Bibliography, New York, 1877.
- In the recent Report of the Royal Commission on Copyright, 1878, a recommendation is made that the privilege should in future be granted to the British Museum alone.