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Unit 4

Chapter 3

Modals (p. 447)

Will ---------- future ..... I will see you there.
Can ---------- ability ..... I can do anything.
---------- permission ..... Can I see you soon?
May ---------- " ..... May I see your I.D. card?
---------- possibility ..... She may not live long.
Might ---------- " ..... I might come visit you.
Should ---------- obligation ..... We should study hard.
Must ---------- probability ..... He must be a fool.
---------- necessity ..... You must stop here.

I. Activity

Identify modals and their meanings in the Comprehensive Reading.

II. Exchanges

A: May I borrow your lighter? I must have lost mine.
B: Sure. But you might lose mine.
A: Never. I'll give it back in a minute.

A: Can anyone buy pencillin?
B: No. You must have a doctor's prescription.

A: Should we have another cigarette?
B: Why not? One more won't hurt.

A: Can I see you for a minute, sir?
B: Yes, come in. But I may have to leave soon.

III. Reading

The Last One?

After reading an article titled "Cigarette Smoking Can Be Dangerous To Your Health," I lit a cigarette to calm my nerves. "I really should stop smoking," I thought, "And I can." I smoked with pleasure since I was sure this would be my last. For a whole week I did not smoke at all, and I could not have suffered more. I was so hungry that I ate all the time. I had such a bad temper that my wife couldn't stand me. My friends might have been more help, but they weren't. They would offer me cigarettes and fill the room with smoke. I thought they should be more considerate because when they would smoke, I wanted to. It seemed that everywhere I went, everyone was smoking.

After seven days of this, I went to a party. Everyone around me was smoking. I might have been healthy, but I felt miserable. My old friend Nick held out his cigarettes and said, "You must try at least to be sociable," and I gave in. I took one, lit it, and smoked with satisfaction. My wife must have been delighted, because she was smiling. But I may quit again. As Nick says, "Anyone can stop smoking. I've done it lots of times."

IV. Writing

A. My unstated facts may be inferred or reasonably supposed from stated ones. Make reasonable suppositions from the following.

MUST ex. Mr. Lee Man Hee is a Korean.
He must speak Korean.

1. For a Peace Corps Volunteer, he speaks Korean relatively well.
2. There is smoke in this room.
3. Mr. Park's hair is wet.
4. Recently, the Korea Herald reported that TB control alone would cost Korean taxpayers billions of won next year.

MIGHT ex. His mother is very sick.
She might die.

5. The doctor is going to give him a shot.
6. She doesn't feel well.
7. Mr. Graber has a lot of time on his hands.
8. Frequently we infect each other in schools, offices, and other public places.

SHOULD ex. Smoking is bad for your health.
You should stop smoking.

9. He didn't get a vaccination yet.
10. Rat control is a matter of public concern.
11. "Safety First" is prevention against accidents.
12. Healthy citizens are the greatest asset any country can have.

B. Answer the questions, basing them on inferences from the Reading III.

  1. How could his friends have been of more help?
  2. Why weren't they?
  3. Why did he think that everyone was smoking?
  4. Is smoking a social habit?
  5. Can anyone stop smoking?

C. Write 4 reasons, using a modal and "because" discussing

1. why you might quit smoking


2. if you don't smoke, why your friend should quit smoking

ex. I might quit smoking because it is a dirty habit.

V. Proverbs

Early to bed, early to rise

Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

- Clark, 1639

Early to rise and early to bed

Makes a male healthy, wealthy and dead.

- Thurber, 1940