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Junius Henderson
Field Notebook
No. 1
1905 - April 7, 1907

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Junius Henderson
Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, Colorado   Colorado.

Field note book
Ornithology, Mollusca
Fossils etc
No. 1

1905 - Apl. 7, 1907.  April 7, 1907

Florissant tripEdit

Trip to w:Florissant, Colorado from July 31 to August 9, 1905.

Boulder, Colo   Boulder, Colorado.

July 28, 1905  July 28, 1905. Saw Say Phoebe   Sayornis saya and siskins   Carduelis pinus, Robins   Turdus migratorius, flickers   Colaptes auratus.

July 29  July 29, 1905, Saw Say Phoebe   Sayornis saya, Heard a robin   Turdus migratorius at 11:30 last night.

July 30  July 30, 1905, Saw Say Phoebe   Sayornis saya

July 31  July 31, 1905, heard siskin   Carduelis pinus at noon at Court House. Have seen none for a week. Expense University Florissant   Florissant, Colorado trip, 2 tickets to Denver   Denver, Colorado Dr. Ramaley and I ----$2.00. Saw a kingbird   Tyrannus and robin   Turdus migratorius on way to depot. Left Boulder   Boulder, Colorado with Dr. Ramaley at 5:15 p.m., reached Denver   Denver, Colorado about on time. Stayed at Oxford Hotel   Oxford Hotel (Denver, Colorado) to be near depot in the morning. Went to City Park   City Park, Denver and heard band and saw moving pictures including “Stage Robbery” which, to say the least, was not an elevating spectacle, nor helpful to venturesome boys, apt to be carried away with the wildness of such a life.

Aug 1, 1905  August 1, 1905. Special rate, Denver to Florissant, $4.50, pd $9.00 for Ramaley and I.
Hotel for both $4.10
Left Denver at 9:40 a.m. (40 min. late) on Colo. Midland (via C. & S.) for Florissant.
A few miles before reaching Castle Rock   Castle Rock, Colorado appeared scrub oaks on dry hills and long leafed pines in valleys. In valleys we saw perfectly stratified unconsolidated horizontal formations, with hills capped by hard horizontal rocks. Further north recognized Niobrara ridge, Dakota ridge and Triassic ridge to the west of R.R. In one place, rocks like Boulder Red Rocks – possibly a short resistant zone in the Jura, apparently the oaks are southern species pushing northward from New Mexico   New Mexico, hence occupying dry positions, while the pine   Pinuss, pushing out from the mountains seek more moist situations, but a little further south the pine   Pinuss mingle with the oak   Quercuss in dryer situations and also appear on rocky ridges, as at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. The oak   Quercus line is sharply drawn. They do not encroach at all upon the lower part of the valleys, which are open, brushless meadows, with occasional sharply defined patches of oak   Quercus brush.
A few miles before reaching Palmer Lake   Palmer Lake, Colorado trees disappear to some extent from the valleys. The rocks to NW of R.R. are abrupt and carved into turrets and monuments. Do not recognize the formation. Palmer Lake   Palmer Lake, Colorado is right up against the foothills, but does not seem an attractive place. The foothills appear to be Dakota sandstone. Only birds recognized to Colo. Springs   Colorado Springs, Colorado were magpies   Magpies, and a few redwing blackbirds   Red-winged Blackbird and many Mourning Doves   Zenaida macroura. Left Colo. Springs   Colorado Springs, Colorado at 12:20, 50 minutes late. Seats all filled. Did not dine but got a little fruit. From Manitou   Manitou Springs, Colorado we traveled through what appeared to be Paleozoic rocks below the Jura Trias. The Paleozoic, if such, resting upon granite, which granite continued from then on, climbing rapidly.

Saw Dippers   Dipper soon after entering the granite gorge. More open above Cascade   Cascade, Colorado alt 7500. 15 miles from Colo. Springs closes in again near Green Mountain Falls   Green Mountain Falls, Colorado but continued even more meadowy beyond there like Estes Park   Estes Park, Colorado. Prairie dog   Prairie Dog town between Green Mt. Falls   Green Mountain Falls, Colorado and Woodland Park   Woodland Park, Colorado about 8000 ft., occurring even among the long leaf pines.

Aspens   Populus tremuloides appeared at 8400 ft. Probably a northern plant, hence not found as low here as at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. Spruces   Picea also appeared at 8400 or 8500 ft. Prairie dog   Prairie Dog again at Edlowe 8950 ft. Top of divide between S. Platte and Arkansas drainage open and rolling along RR with scattered groves of pines and spruces 9200 ft. alt. 1 magpie   Magpies here. Red Gilia   Ipomopsis aggregata and Cleome   Cleome serrulata here with Potentilla fruticosa   Potentilla fruticosa. At Florissant   Florissant, Colorado Lark buntings   Calamospiza melanocorys, Mt. Bluebirds   Sialia currucoides, cliff swallows   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, barn swallows   Hirundo rustica, Brewer blackbird   Euphagus cyanocephalus, lark sparrows   Chondestes grammacus, Flickers   Colaptes auratus, Eng sparrows   Passer domesticus.

Station 2

Lava dyke at N.E. Cor. of town very badly shattered and weathered breaking into rather flat, irregular pieces, very unstable underfoot and in one place greatly broken, opening up crevices from 2 to 10 ft. wide and as deep, filled to that depth with debris, 80 ft. above creek bed.

Station 1

Fossil leaves at point N.W. of hotel in several strata immediately beneath strata of volcanic ash and sand. Prairie dogs   Cynomys at Florissant   Florissant, Colorado 8100 ft.

Station 3

Up first gulch W and N of Station 1. Florissant Lake basin   Florissant Lake is a mountain park divided by a ridge into two portions. The surrounding mountains are not as high and abrupt as at Estes Park   Estes Park but more rolling, and streams are small. Can jump across the two streams at Florissant   Florissant postoffise now. The old lake beds so far as we saw them today are mere remnants of former more extensive beds, and contain many bands of volcanic ash and sand, the main portion of the beds, except in patches along the edges of the marginal hills, having been eroded away. Igneous dykes border the old lake basin at various places, but as yet see no connection between these and the volcanic debris in the lake beds. I believe the igneous rocks are older.

Florissant, Colorado   Florissant, Colorado Aug. 2  August 2, 1905

Went up track to RR cut E of town. River terrace in Lake beds there dissected by numerous gullies cut from top of mesa to base. Bright clear comfortable morning. Heard flickers   Colaptes auratus calling and Brewer’s blackbirds   Euphagus cyanocephalus singing as I worked.

Station 4. RR out just around point E. of Florissant. Leaves plentiful in a narrow stratum half way to top of cut, but few good specimens comparatively. I cut a diagonal furrow from the top of the cliff well down into the talus and found leaf bearing zones an inch or two in thickness alternating with barren zones of greater thickness. The fossiliferous zones were somewhat persistent, so far as I examined. Calcite bands and yellowish strata so and pronounced at Station 1 were absent here. Strata quite wet in places, upon digging in. Station 4 ((5)) next cut above Station 3 ((4)) being through a sort of breccia or conglomerate of (apparently) an igneous rock containing quartz pebbles. Do not exactly understand it. Further up the RR and consequently a little higher appears a 25 foot exposure of coarse, rudely stratified rather angular gravel including at least one continuous bed of water worn boulders. The strata are nearly horizontal and are truncated by the slope of the hill at the west. Next cut up the hill is in granite, the gravels resting upon the granite. Collected about 275 specimens at station 4 ((5)) today. Hot a.m., cool, cloudy p.m. ((in text for Aug 3rd Henderson corrects 3 to 4 and 4 to 5))

Aug. 3  August 3, 1905. Hot, bright morning. Went up creek after breakfast, found another lava breccia on banks of creek west of stations 4 and 5. Packed the remainder of the fossils at station 4 and brought them down.

The bluebirds here are either western   Sialia mexicana or chestnut backed   Sialia mexicana bairdi, instead of mountain bluebirds   Sialia currucoides. Saw a Marsh Hawk   Circus cyaneus, Say Phoebe   Sayornis saya and Sv. g. swallow   Tachycineta thalassina, long crested jay   Cyanocitta stelleri. Started down to Lake George   Lake George, Colorado at 8:40 a.m. with horse and buggy. Lake about 5 miles below Florissant. On way saw rounded knobs which looked as if they were of glacial origin, but have found no moraines here.

At head of Lake George, which is an artificial lake said to have been made ice purposes etc. about 15 years ago, found caddis   Trichoptera larva. Also found Limnaea   Lymnaea similar to those from Meeker, in great abundance, but only on the delta. Found a few dead shells further down the lake shore but none alive there. In the mouth of Twin Creek   Twin Creek, Colorado found a few Physa   Physa, smooth like P. integra   Physella_acuta, lying on the gravel, very hard to see. The Limnaea   Lymnaea were on the muddy bottom of the delta, nearly all adult, but smaller specimens, probably young of same species, were found abundantly for a few hundred feet up the creek.

At outlet of the lake, in a seepage pool just below the dam, were great numbers of Limnaea   Limnaea, alive, mingled with dead shells of a large Physa   Physa, but I could find none of the live Physas. The lake is formed by a dam thrown across the South Platte River   South Platte River shortly below the mouth of the stream which runs past Florissant. At the upper end are forming just such beds of fine mud as compose some portion of the Florissant lake beds. The beds were very much cracked, many of the cracks being an inch or two wide and nearly a foot deep, dividing the mud into blocks from a few inches to 3 feet across. The waters of the South Platte flow through Granite Canyon and enter the lake quite roilly, and leave the lake in about the same condition, but soon gather great quantities of sediment from the fine silt of the valley and becomes very muddy-almost black, which condition continues as far we drove down the river- a mile or two.

Near the western end of Florissant lake basin we found an incline shaft cut to a depth of about 50 feet through the tertiary lake beds, and 30 or 40 feet of the beds exposed above the shaft. The whole capped by what may be a crumbling stratum of volcanic ash 3 or 4 feet in thickness. We found a shaft sunk also at the base of the east wall of the igneous dyke north of Florissant postoffice, which we are told was sunk in search for gold by a man who claimed to have found a shaft already started, presumably by the original inhabitants, with timbers left therein. It is more probable that he found one of the holes left by the crevicing of the rocks before mentioned, and possible found timbers used by Indians or prospectors in preparing the hole for shelter purposes. But I cannot imagine why the shaft was sunk in the lake beds.

Saw a kingfisher   kingfisher. Daniel Nevitt, the hotel keeper says the shaft above mentioned was sunk in search of coal because the shales got blacker as depth increased. He also says the Platte is generally not so muddy.

Saw a bat   bat last night and another this evening.

Aug. 4  August 4, 1905
Yesterday and the day before the sun was intensely hot and dazzling in the forenoon, but clouds relieved the intensity of the heat in the afternoon. In spite of the intense heat and some hard work I have sweat almost none. I feel my skin drying up. It is cool at all times in the shade-almost too cool- even when the sun’s rays are hottest.

This is a very bright morning. Breakfasted at 6:30 as usual. Dr. Ramaley changed dryers on his plants and we started south to the fossil stump with buggy at 8:30 a.m. Terribly hot in the sun. A male and female redwing blackbird   Agelaius phoeniceus passed the hotel before we started-the first we have seen here, though Brewers blackbird   Euphagus cyanocephalus is quite common.

Heard a chickadee   chickadee, but too far away to determine the species.

We found the old trenches near the fossil stump filled with debris. Tried to dig down to the fossil beds we wished to reach with picks alone but it was such slow work I asked Dr. Ramaley to go back to the village with the horse and buggy and bring a shovel and bucket of water as working in the heat without water was too much for me. I dug a diagonal trench at the north end of the hill while he was gone. After lunch we began a cross cut to reach the lowest part of the former workings, which gives us a fine section. Worked hard all afternoon taking turns with pick and shovel, but found only 4 insect   insects, though about 200 good fossil leaves, some of them being very fine. The formation there is capped by several feet of consolidated volcanic ashes.

The fossil stump is about 6 or 8 ft in diameter. 3 saws broken off in the attempt to saw it up for transportation to the World's Columbian Exposition still remain in the stump. Near it is a large fossil log nearly buried. Got back to hotel at 6:30.
Lunch 10¢, cotton 10¢, twine 5¢. The fossil stump above referred to is on a hill left by the erosion of the Lake Beds in the southern portion of the Basin, and tradition has it that his measurements of strata were made at the northwest corner of the hill.

Aug 5  August 5, 1905. Another bright, hot morning. The RR people keep 3 or 4 engines steamed up here all the time to help trains up the steep grade to Divide. They must waste much coal, as the escape valves hiss by the hour.

I had a very narrow escape from the loss of an eye yesterday. While digging in very hard rock with the big pick a piece of rock struck me a terrific blow an inch over the eye, the flat side striking, so that it did not cut much, but dazed me for a moment or two. An inch lower would have struck the right lens of my glasses, the result of which could not be safely predicted.

Saw a sparrow hawk   sparrow hawk. It clouded shortly after noon and sprinkled more or less during the afternoon. We finished the cross cut at the fossil stump, but found comparatively little. Made a cross cut at the northeast corner of same hill, which is locally reported to be the point of which Prof. Scudder gave a section in his monograph, but did not find the strata at all conformable to his section. It seems certain that is not the place.

Went to the S end of the Park and over into the Arkansas drainage. If it be true, as is supposed, that the ancient lake drained at one time southward into the Arkansas, but was afterwards turned westward into the South Platte, the uprising ridge must have crossed the valley either at the very end of the lake or a little way into the lake, as we found lake beds involved with igneous rocks and granite at what we took for the former terminus, showing in at least one place considerable movement just north of the present divide between Arkansas and South Platte drainage. On the Arkansas side of the divide we found a park which may have originally included the lake, but we saw no sedimentary deposits there, while in all portions of what we know to have been included we find numerous outcrops. The topography there is also somewhat different, particularly in respect to the lack of steep slopes and mountain walls. It may be that there are lake beds there, but unexposed on account of gentle slopes not favoring erosion.

Aug 6  August 6, 1905. Fine, bright, Sunday morning, but threatens a hot forenoon. Haven’t slept at all well this trip. Am tired and sore from the hard rock work of Friday and Saturday and my catarrh has been very bad for several days on account of getting heated in the forenoon, then chilled by the sudden cooling of the atmosphere in the afternoon, accompanied by wind and sprinkles of rain, this occurring every day. Mr. Nevitt, the hotel keeper, gave us some specimens of quartz and amazon stone crystals this morning from Topaz Peak, sometimes called Crystal Mt.   Crystal Peak, Teller, CO, due north of Florissant. He also accompanied me to some fossil beds SW of the hotel, about a mile, this morning, where we did a little exploring, preparatory to tomorrow’s work.

In walking past Station 1 this evening I noticed that the dip is NW which conforms to the idea of an uplift from the SE. Have not noticed any dip before. 2 night hawks   nighthawk very tame, apparently nesting, as they circled over one spot and soon alighted after we looked away.

Aug 7  August 7, 1905. Bright warm morning. Started for the fossil beds at 8:15 a.m. Did not succeed very well at the place 1 mile SW of town, but got nearly 100 leaves and a few insect   insects. We closed our collecting at 1:30 p.m. and brought our outfit to the hotel where we began packing. The fossils are all first wrapped in paper and packed in pasteboard boxes, these boxes to be packed in wooden boxes. The rock and mineral specimens are to go into wooden boxes loose.

Discovered strong dip to the NW at our morning station, while nearby it was strong to the SW. Saw mourning doves   Zenaida macroura and house wrens   Troglodytes aedon. Got specimens packed in 4 wooden boxes.

Went to spring in evening and were caught in hard rain. The afternoon was clearer than usual. Am completely used up by the heavy digging for the last week and am heartily glad we are through.

Aug 8  August 8, 1905. Bright morning but soon clouded. Am spending the day chiefly in resting from the fatiguing work recently done.

Saw Robins   Turdus migratorius yesterday and today and a meadow lark   meadowlark Sunday evening. Shore bird common here has tip(illegible text) habit, white belly darker breast and neck, white of belly extending upwards slightly in front of wing-above uniform brownish bill about 1 inch long.

Hotel and livery, Ramaley and I for 8 days- $17.00. Train seven hours late so Mr. Nevin for $2.00 drove us to Divide to catch the Cripple Creek-Denver train. On the road we saw grayheaded juncos   Junco hyemalis caniceps. Just before reaching Divide we saw what appeared to be moraine, the first we have seen on the trip. It is possible that a glacier from Pike’s Peak   Pike’s Peak may have reached as far as this, though the boulders may have been from streams. Train at divide was late, made us miss train at Colorado Springs   Colorado Springs, Colorado, and as the later train was quite late we went to the Alamo Hotel   Alamo Hotel, Colorado Springs and stayed all night, first going to college grounds and to Alamo Hotel   Stratton Park, Colorado Springs where we heard fine music by Colorado Midland band. Supped at Depot restaurant   Depot Restaurant, Colorado Springs, an excellent but high priced place.

Aug. 9  August 9, 1905

Cool morning but got warm. Breakfasted at Depot restaurant, caught train to Denver   Denver, Colorado at 7:30 a.m., half hour late. Lunched at Oxford   Oxford, Colorado and caught 1 p.m. train for Boulder   Boulder, Colorado.

End of Florissant Trip

Silver Lake Arapahoe tripEdit

Trip to Silver Lake-Arapahoe from August 29 to September 6, 1905.
Silver Lake   Silver Lake Arapahoe Trip
Aug. 29  August 29, 1905 to Sept.

List of stuff taken ---
Bedding, tarpaulin, etc. (?) ---
Tents - stakes et poles 2 - 10 X 12
Cameras & plate holders, tripods etc ---
Wire snippers & wire ---
Guns & ammunitions loading & cleaning outfit ---
Instruments ---
Tape ---
Plant press & dryers ---
Insect net ---
Cyanide bottles ---
Alcohol & empty bottles ---
Mollusk strainer ---
Hunting & bird licenses 1.50 (?)
Cork boxes (?) 4 ---
Cascarets 1 box ---
Glycothymoline & {illegible text}
Coffee 2 lb (?) .80
Cocoa 1 Can .35
Jam (?) .35
Sugar (?) .25
Bacon 1/2 slab .85
Ginger snaps etc. 2 @.25 50
Malted milk tablets 1 .50
Brawer (?) isochromatic plate 2doz 1 furnished by Ramaley .60
Raisins 25
Sweetchocolate .50
Bread 8 long loaves .75
Butter 3 lbs in 3 pint jars 90
Beef roast .25
Fruit 1 box peaches 1.75
Eggs 5 doz. in sawdust 125
Potatoes .25
Knives, Forks, spoons (large & small) & cups & plates ---
Pots 3 ---
Coffee pot ---
Salt & pepper ---
Canned beans 1 can .15
" (Canned) hominy (?) 1 can .10
Soap 1 bar ivory .10
Towels ---
Dishtowels ---
Toilet paper 1 pkt. .10
Nightcap, extra socks, handkerchiefs & clothes ---
cup for grease pillows ---
Prunes .50
bawed (?) beans ---
? ---
condensed cream 2 .25
Matches ---
Dissecting outfit ---
Safety pins ---
Spectacle case ---
Toothbrush ---
Buttons needles & thread ---
Whetstone ---
can opener ---
Letter from Maxwell (?) ---
Fishing tackle & bait ---
Drinking cup for pocket ---
Omitted: ? Latrap? for cold sweat (?)

Shy (?) of sugar, cocoa, cream, bacon

Silver Lake- Arapahoe Trip

Aug. 29, 1905  August 29, 1905

Finished packing and loaded wagon in evening-last evening - putting tents over load to keep it dry. The load is a heavy one for two horses over a bad road. This morning opens bright and warm. Saw a phoebe   Sayornis phoebe in back yard before starting. H. F. Watts, F. G. Henderson, Harvey R. Markman, Sievert Rohwer and I started by narrow gauge C & N at 9:35 for Silver Lake Siding, the wagon having gone early – Al Anderson’s wagon and good team. Train consisted of four cars to Sunset, then 2 cars to Silver Lake Siding which we reached at 11:45 p.m. (sic), 15 minutes late. At((e)) lunch at the brook NE of the siding and collected a few Pisidium abditum   Pisidium (No.1) in the brook. Then started up the hill. Began raining on Ralston Peaks before we left the train. Sprinkled at intervals during afternoon and at bed time was warm and sprinkling with no wind. Watts and I reached Silver Lake   Silver Lake, Colorado at 3 p.m. Thinking that the other three and the team would be there but they were not, so Watts came on to select camp and I started back. Soon met Markman who said they had taken the wrong trail soon after leaving us while we were waiting to see if the wagon was coming. He had soon seen some men who had told him his mistake and promised to send others back, but they kept on until their trail played out, then through dead timber till the((y)) struck the Camp Albion road   Camp Albion Road, Colorado where they were directed across to Silver Lake   Silver Lake, Colorado. I walked rapidly until I met the wagon about 4 miles back. We were unable to get to Goose Lake   Goose Lake, Colorado on account of logs across the road but arrived at the new city sawmill, head of Island lake   Island Lake, Colorado about 6 p.m. where the boys had built a leanto, thinking perhaps we might not reach them. We got everything dry, put up two tents, Watts putting his cot and most of the outfit in one tent while we spread pine boughs in the other and laid very comfortable beds of blankets, quilts and canvass (sic). Markman is now putting up a Brewer Sparrow   Spizella breweri as I write these notes by a campfire preparatory to going to bed. Only birds seen were a long crested jay   Cyanocitta stelleri, Clark Crows   Nucifraga columbiana, Rocky Mt. jays   Perisoreus canadensis, chickadees   Poecile, juncos   Junco, Mt. Bluebirds   Sialia currucoides. Sievert saw a flicker   Colaptes. Watts is to sleep on his cot in the supply tent while the rest of us sleep in the other tent.

Aug. 30 –05  August 30, 1905

Rained during the night more or less, and the poor quality of the tents was manifest by the way the drops splattered through. All started for the glacier at 7:15 a.m. and made a slow trip. Collected small caddis cases and larva (No. 2) in stream from North Lake   North Lake, Colorado near High Fall   High Fall, Colorado, and some insects just above High Fall   High Fall, Colorado. The party showed fatigue in the following order: Sievert least, I next, then Watts, Then Markman, then Frank. Sievert and I went on ahead and climbed out of the cirque at The Saddle   he Saddle, Colorado to photograph the glacier and the range. It is a fearful climb, the loose rock sliding at every step. Were much exhausted upon reaching the top and laid down for a few moments, then took two pictures and returned to the cirque to join Frank and Watts. Ate a few malted milk tablets and raisins while sitting on a boulder on the glacier   Arapaho Glacier. We easily found the tablets set last year. They were set as follows: No. 1 100 paces from the bench mark on Country Rock above NE moraine and 100 paces from edge of ice at that point. From No.1 to No. 2 was 89 ft; No. 2 to No.3 was 51.7 ft; No. 3 to No. 4 was 58.6 ft.; No.4 to No. 5 was 65.4; No. 5 to No.6 was 82.8 ft; No. 6 to No. 7 was 84.4 ft; No.7 to No. 873.8ft; No.8 to No.9 was 97.2 ft.; No. 9 to No. 10 was 114.4 ft.; the latter was just below the crevasses near the center of the glacier   Arapaho Glacier where the flow should be greatest. We found the tablets and accompanying boulders had moved as follows: No. 1 -11.15 ft; No.2 -11.9 ft;. No.3 -13ft; No.4 -15.9 ft; No. 5 - 16.75ft; No.6 –18.5 ft; No.7-20.6 ft: No. 8- 20.45 ft; No.9 21.7ft; No.10 - 27.7 ft. We also found unmistakable evidence of waste all along the front of the glacier except just west of the terminal lake, at which latter point it remained unchanged. At the big boulder on the north east moraine it had shrunk away at least 4 or 5 feet vertically. The medial moraine between that point and the terminal lake showed much more plainly and the same was true of the drainage basin west of the terminal lake. More ice was exposed than we have seen except in 1902, while there is more snow in many other places than last year, I believe. The photos will enable us to definitely decide that question by comparison. We found numerous insects, dead and alive, on the glacier, particularly abundant on the dead south branch and collected quite a number. Frank found a good mountain sheep   mountain sheep head in the moraine at a point opposite The Saddle   The Saddle, Colorado and Sievert and I brought it down with infinite toil, as we were already loaded down with cameras, including one big one, tripod, hammer, rocks etc. Just before leaving the glacier it hailed hard and at intervals all the way down it rained and hailed terrifically, with crashes of thunder. The brush was so wet we were soon soaked through. Sievert and I reached camp at 5:30 about half an hour after Frank and Markman, who started down long before us and with Watts whom we had overtaken. Watts and I were on our “last legs” but the others were not so tired. I felt the trip more than I ever have before, though kept up well on the way up. Carrying the heavy load without pack harness used me up and Watts probably felt the altitude, as usual the first day out. Had fried eggs for supper and they were good. Watts ate no supper. Ed Housel and another man from the sawmill called in the evening. It rained again as we were going to bed. Birds seen today Clark’s Crow   Nucifraga columbiana and Rocky Mt jay   Cyanocitta stelleri, chickadees   chickadee and juncos   junco common up to High Fall   High Fall, Colorado. Above there pipits   Anthus common, especially on glacier. At Saddle   The Saddle, Colorado, Leucostictes   Leucostictes (brown capped). Several undetermined hawks   hawk in the gulch. Pikas   Ochotona princeps abundant from Goose Lake   Goose Lake, Colorado to Glacier   Arapaho Glacier.

Aug. 31 –05  August 31, 1905

Bright, windy morning. Boiled and then fried potatoes and bacon with smoke in eyes. Arose at 6:45 soon followed by the others and we spread out our wet clothes and shoes to dry. Markman began collecting crustacea before breakfast and continued after breakfast, while Frank and Sievert played cribbage and Watts started after myxomicetes   myxomycete [sic]. Collected Caddis   Caddis larva & cases No. 3 on rocks not well attached, very loosely constructed of sticks placed horizontally. No. 4 of same style but very small; No. 5 of sand and mica, tapering rapidly less than half an inch long, strongly attached to rocks. No. 6 water beetle   water beetle. No. 7 sticks with something on. No. 8 smooth, large caddis   caddis case of sand found in sand at bottom of lake. No. 9 Caddis   Caddis cases of sand at bottom of water unattached. No. 10 includes one which has just shed its skin. Watts climbed a spruce   Picea tree and cut off its top for a big witche's broom. Got long tailed chickadee   chickadee and mountain chickadee   mountain chickadee, the latter with the first shot from the Gale gun. Collected insect galls from willow   Salix and huckleberry   Gaylussacia, and fungus on birch   Betula. At camp there are 6 ridges, parallel, within 100 yards running N 50˚ E, a characteristic of this entire country from Silver Lake   Silver Lake to High Fall   High Fall, as well as the Camp Albion Gulch   Camp Albion Gulch. The whole valley topography is glacial, but the direction of these ridges was undoubtedly predetermined by the lithology, probably hard and soft zones. Rained for a few moments in afternoon, but sun set nearly clear just as Sievert returned without fish. The sun’s rays have been very hot all day but quite cool after sundown.

September 1, 1905  September 1, 1905

White frost this morning. A pot sitting in the open which contained hot water at bedtime was covered by thin ice at sunrise. Another pot containing less cold water and one containing less hot water, neither of them was frozen. Up to this time (2:25 p.m.) there has not been a cloud in the sky, so far as I have seen. The sun’s rays are hot but a cool breeze makes it almost too cool in the shade. Frank and Sievert went fishing before sunrise, returning at 10:00 a.m. without fish. Watts started to walk to the train just before they arrived. Markman and I started up the canyon just after breakfast. He took the shotgun and auxiliary table I took Gale’s gun, the camp pack, camera, tripod, pick etc. Parted with Markman at Goose lake as he wanted to do some collecting there. I went up the south fork to North Lake   North Lake where I ate a sandwich at 11 a.m., collected two pipits   pipit, some plants and a heavy load of garnetiferous granite, hornblende rock, etc. Had the pack and my hands full, about all I could carry. Took 3 photos and reached camp a little before 2. p.m. Markman not here yet. The snowbanks west of North Lake   North Lake are crevassed, the crack probably being in the nature of the Bergschrund. As they cannot be called glaciers, it shows that crevasses above are not sufficient to indicate a glacier. Found numerous NE dykes similar to those near camp, but larger, some being so situated in the north gulch as to almost cross the track of the former glacier. Found one fair sized empty Pisidium   Pisidium shell and at the same place an empty land snail shell in a small stream near high fall. Markman saw a flicker up gulch and we both saw juncos   junco, (warblers   warbler unidentified) and a sandpiper   sandpiper (spotted?). Markman returned at 4 p.m. having collected only a junco   junco. A few clouds appeared at 5 p.m. Wind has been quite variable today but for the most part easterly. Perfectly clear at bedtime and not cold.

Sep. 2 – 05  September 2, 1905

White frost this morning and thick ice on the water pail between the tents. Cirrus clouds scattered in all directions at 8 a.m. Markman started at 6 a.m. to collect birds. Sievert started at 8 a.m. for the top of ridge south of lake to collect insects and see the country. Frank and I started for Silver lake   Silver Lake Siding at 9 a.m. to meet John Andrews, picking wild raspberries   Rubus on the way and arriving there (7 miles) at 11 a.m.. Took camp pack to carry up stuff. Train was nearly an hour late and John did not come but conductor, without stopping, put off a basket containing cocoa, evaporated cream, bottles, a package for Sievert and 4 cantaloupes. We ate two cantaloupes and a sandwich at the cabin spring, and left there at 1 p.m., reaching the first crossing of North Boulder   North Boulder, Colorado at 2 p.m., where we rested 10 minutes. Reached Silver Lake   Silver Lake, Colorado at 2:36 and camp at 3 p.m. Markman returned at 1 p.m. with a bagful of birds and mammals including Douglas ? squirrel   Sciurrus, , a merlin   Falco columbarius, etc. I saw white crowned sparrows   Zonotrichia leucophrys and what I took for Audubon warbler   Dendroica coronata auduboni. I don’t like the way the clouds are acting. At 3:15 I went down to the Island Lake Dam   Island Lake Dam, Colorado and collected water beetles   water beetle, leaches   leech (sic) and other “beasts”, returning at 5:25. Sievert returned at 4 p.m. with a lot of insects and a cony (sic) which was killed by a hawk   hawk]. Saw flickers   flicker and warblers   warbler. Island lake   Island Lake, Colorado is drained quite low and men under direction of Mr. Buffham are building up the dam, so I did not succeed in getting specimens of Sphagnum   Sphagnum. The dead Sphagnum   Sphagnum made a vertical wall 1 ½ to 2 ft high all around the lagoons.

Sep 3 – 05  September 3, 1905

It cleared in the night and west wind cleared away the clouds as well as the smoke of Denver   Denver, Colorado smelters which had drifted in on the SE wind. Arose at 7:45. Markman started up lake to collect insect larva in a pool near the Goose Lake dam   Goose Lake Dam. At 9:10 Frank and I started for the train to meet John . At last creek crossing at 10 a.m. and at siding at 11:10, only stopping for water twice. Saw several hawks   hawk and collected some butterflies   butterfly and moths   moth. Stratus clouds scattered through the sky. Wind SE. Very warm in sun but breeze tempers suns rays and makes a coat comfortable in the shade. Train again so late as to afford ample opportunity for philosophic meditation upon the motives which inspire railroad people to advertise time which they do not expect to make except under rare circumstances. Train arrived at 1:05, 1 h 35 min. late. I carried the water melon in the pack and Frank carried the telescope containing pies etc. to the cabin spring , where we ate the melon sandwiches eggs etc. and started on at 2 p.m. Reached the creek at 3 p.m. rested 10 minutes and started on, John, Frank and I taking turns with the pack, arriving at camp at 4 p.m. Markman was here with Phyllopods   Phyllopods, worms, larva, leaches [sic], Pisidium   Pisidium etc. from polls above Goose lake   Goose Lake, Colorado (No. 11). I have labelled some larva from Island Lake   Island Lake, Colorado No. 12. The clouds mostly cleared off by sundown and it got cool as usual. West half of sky clouded all over at bedtime.

Sep. 4, 1905  September 4, 1905

At daylight sky overcast with even, gray clouds. Soon after it began raining, continuing for 2 hours. Soon after breakfast rain began again and continued till 10 a.m. and at intervals until noon. Sun at times tried to break through. Violent wind on range from west and fog low on Mts. , but not cold. At 1:20 it looked like clearing, so Sievert and I started for ridge N of camp with camera and pick, Gale gun and insect net. From timber line could see clouds hanging over valley and foothills as well as mts. Collected a fern new to me. Brought back a heavy camp pack load of rocks and several birds. Nearly clear at dark. We returned at 6:15 very tired and had supper at 7. Wind has been west the greater part of the day, but at times easterly.

Sep. 5, 1905  September 5, 1905

Clouds hanging low over Arapahoe and most of the sky partly overcast. With strong west wind, which, however, did not reach camp. Risking a storm, John, Sievert and I, we started for the glacier and peak at 7:05 a.m. Were at foot of high fall at 8:15 and some distance above it at 8:35. Cool delightful travelling. The stream from the glacier shows the effect of cool, cloudy weather in the very greatly diminished flow of water. Clouds have hung over the glacier all day yesterday and today, but last nigh no ice formed at camp. Reached glacier in blinding sleet storm. Visited some of the largest crevasses. Ate lunch on the moraine, collected a lot of rocks and started for the saddle. Had to cut about 50 steps in the ice to reach the saddle. Hard work. Reached top of peak at 1 p.m. in blinding snowstorm but soon cleared. John got sick at the top and vomited on way down. Terminal lake as green with rock flour as the next one below. We carried very heavy loads of rock down which with John’s sickness made a very slow trip down. Heard Moffit (sic) train whistle on the peak. Goose Lake   Goose Lake has fallen 1 ½ ft. since last Wednesday. Reached camp at 4:15 and found Mr. Eggleston here with Al Anderson’s team to take us home in the morning, so began packing rocks, plants, insects etc.

Sept. 6, 1905  September 6, 1905

Arose at 6 a.m. and some began packing while others got breakfast. Got wagon loaded and started at 9:15. John rode to Bluebird road   Bluebird Road, whence we all walked down to North Boulder Falls   North Boulder Falls, Colorado, where we ate lunch at 11 a.m. Were caught in several showers and hail storms, taking shelter under trees and reaching Silver Lake Siding   Silver Lake, Colorado at 1 p.m. where Markman shot an Audubon   Dendroica coronata auduboni or Myrtle warbler   Dendroica coronata coronata. Rained again just after reaching the siding. Hard rains extended clear out in the valley. Lack of sunlight prevented collecting insects on way down as we had hoped. Caught train at 2:20 p.m. Am perplexed by the entire absence of robins   Turdus migratorius on this trip. Reached Boulder   Boulder, Colorado at 4:45, shaved, and after supper went to office for my mail and then to University to see that collections were properly taken care of.

Pawnee Butte tripEdit

Trip to Pawnee Butte from June 6 to July 6, 1906.

1906 Trip to Northeastern Colorado   Colorado

June 2 White Davis 1 bolt cheesecloth 3$ 10c } 4.10
[White Davis] 8 towels 1$ 00c
" " P. L. Johnson 2 doz. flour sacks .80
" 4 Sayre & Graham, spring for wagon 1.75
" 4 Tent, chisels, stove & pipe W. N. Blow 2.55
" 4 camp outfit N. S. Whitly 4.80
" 5 Howard Leo, Co. 4.90
" 5 Strewis & Adams groceries 1.50
" " People's Meat Market 2.45
" " Greuman taxidermists supplies 1.30
" " Traps ?? ?? 1.20
" " shot " " ?? revolver .70
" 6 Bostwisk Co. 2 canteens voucher-Cost 5.00
" 6 McClure Edson groceries .50
" 6 C. E. Coulehan oats ?? .90
" 6 Express no voucher .50
" 7- 4 camp stools W. N. Blow 1.00
" 7- McClure Edson Gro ?? .80
" " Boulder City Bakery .70
" " Sharpening ax .25
" " Jacob Farm fixing dredge rings .25
" 9 Woody Bros. Hygiene provisions & rope .80
" " Fruit -------------------------- .80
" " Burson Meat Market, Loveland Meat .25
" " Loveland Market provisions .80
" " Lloyd Fisher Berthoud 3 doz. eggs .55
" 10 Johnson Bros. Loveland horse feed .25
" 11 Ferguson & son wire & curry Loveland .30
" 11 Model Meat Market meat [Loveland] .25
" " D. L. Jowue oats [Loveland] .80
" " E. L. Smith provisions [Loveland] 2.35
" " Hickman Hdw. Co. stensils [Loveland] .75
" " E. L. Smith fruit [Loveland] 1.20
" 12 Sexton Bros provisions Fort Collins .75
" " Galbraith's Market [provisions] [Fort Collins] .80
" " ?? Rent of wagon see below Fort C. .50
" " ?? Milk (in voucher 15) [Fort Collins] .20 3.45
" 15 Cols. Bakery [Fort Collins] 1.85
" " W. S. Bell oats [Fort Collins] .75
" " Jno E. White packing boxes [Fort Collins] .30
" " C. J. Nelson repairs [Fort Collins] 11.20
" " Rent of wagon Joe Wagons .50
" 18 P. Mosks meat .80
Forward 73.80
June 19 Scott & Kitson Greeley oats ----------- 1.45
" " Marks ?? " Provisions ---- 10.05
" " J. F. Treger " collecting boxes ---- .55
" " a. a. ???bary " setting tire .75
" " Mc?? ?? " Bread pans .15
" " Kittle & Wirthy " supplies .45
" " --------- " cotton ??atting .10
" " Nieser & Dreu??? " meat .50
" " a. scott " Baked goods .45
" " Ben Perry ??? " Hay .25
" " Carkin Bros. Eaton ?? 2.10
" 21 John a. Slayton - team & ?? 1 day 3.00
" 23 Geo. Rv. Parker Grover, Provisions .85
" "" " " " " " 4.75
" 28 " " " " & lumber 5.75
" 29 " " " " 2.75
July 3 Scott & Kitaru Greeley oats .80
" " R. Jones " Eggs & milk .80
" " Mack's Grocery " provisions 1.95
" " P. Marks " meet .60
" " Phoenix bakery " bread etc. .45
" 5 S. g. Register Longmont hay .25
" " " bread .05
" 6 Sardey & Clark Team for 30 days 30.00
" " J. Kleurene Wagon for 30 days 15.00
Pawnee Butte   Pawnee Butte Trip

Wednesday June 6, 1906  June 6, 1906 Boulder, Colo.   Boulder, Colorado

Spent the afternoon sorting camping outfit and began packing wagon at Hale Bldg., University campus, at 8:45 p.m. Got through, took a hasty bath and retired at a little after 11 p.m. Very windy last night and again tonight.

Thursday June 7, 1906  June 7, 1906 Gideon S. Dodds, Harvey C. Markman, Harry Clatworthy and I left Boulder   Boulder, Colorado in a camp wagon at 8:50, two riding in front and two behind. Broke a spring when about two miles north of town. Cut a block, blocked it up and went on, stopping to collect but little except a species of flax which I had not seen before, and some Pupa   Pupa, Vallonia   Vallonia etc. at Six Mile Creek   Six Mile Creek. Some of us walked considerable of the time. Reached Left Hand Creek   Left Hand Creek at 12:10 and dined at 1:30, and were on the road again at 2:07. Went into camp at 4:30 p.m., on the St. Vrain   St. Vrain Creek in a place partially sheltered from the wind by timber. Has been a cold, windy, disagreeable day. Has snowed on the range in the neighborhood of Arapahoe Peak   Arapahoe Peak for two or three days. Saw Pike’s Peak   Pike’s Peak and it was white with fresh snow. Saw redwinged blackbirds   redwinged blackbird, saw numerous young; robins   Turdus migratorius very common, lark buntings   Calamospiza melanocorys abundant, young out; lark sparrows   Chondestes grammacus, killdeer   Charadrius vociferus 12 or 15, mourning doves   Zenaida macroura common, cliff swallows   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota common, yellow warbler   Dendroica aestiva, magpies   magpie a few, meadowlarks   meadowlark abundant, vesper sparrows   Pooecetes gramineus, wren sp.   wren, kingfisher   kingfisher at St. Vrain   St. Vrain Creek, barn swallows   Hirundo rustica common, kingbird   kingbird 1.

Friday June 8  June 8, 1906

Too cold to sleep well last night, so got up late. Finished breakfast at 8 p.(sic) m., Dodds and I collected plants in St. Vrain creek   St. Vrain Creek bottom just below Lyons   Lyons, Colorado all forenoon. Also collected some Mollusca. Zonitoidea arboreans   Zonitoidea arboreans plentiful under a narrow leafed poplar   Populus log. Markman and Harry out after birds etc. Went back up creek and collected Vallonia sp.   Vallonia, Oreohelix strigosa   Oreohelix strigosa and a few O. albofaciata   Oreohelix albofaciata at end of Dakota sandstone ridge. Dodds took pictures of valley. Left camp after a late dinner for crossing of Little Thompson Creek   Little Thompson Creek. Dodds and Markman went to Hygiene   Hygeine, Colorado with the wagon to ship the plant collections (including a fine collection of fungus) to Dr. Ramaley at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado who is to attend to drying, arranging and labelling them. Harry and I crossed the headland formed by the big fold in the Dakota sandstone, travelling afoot. The heat was terrific. By the time we reached the Little Thompson Creek   Little Thompson Creek at the end of the Niobrara ridge we were very tired. We took off our boots, dangled our feet in the stream for ten minutes, got a good drink of water, and went our way much refreshed. Found a cache left by me several years ago when there with Prof. Spangler, containing several very large Inoceramus deformis   Inoceramus deformis, showing great deformity of the shell. Collected some concretions of crystalline marcasite, loaded the Inoceramus   Inoceramus into bags and started down stream to meet the team which was to travel north from Hygiene   Hygeine. Colorado. Our loads were very heavy and we were thoroughly fatigued. We found a ranch but they either knew nothing or were unwilling to part with the information. They told us the road running north from Hygiene   Hygeine, Colorado was a mile further downstream, so we resumed our weary march, quite discouraged. When we reached the road we waited until a team came along. The driver seemed to know the country, and told us the folks would surely reach the creek at the very ranch where we got such bad advice, and that he saw the wagon travelling in that direction. We wearily cached our load and turned back , but soon saw the wagon coming. Reached a camping place in time to set up tents, make beds etc. before dark and ate supper by firelight, or rather lantern light. Then we sat around the campfire until 10 p.m. and then retired.

Little Thompson Creek   Little Thompson Creek Saturday June 9, 1906  June 9, 1906

Slept late in morning. Got a better night’s rest than before. We were some of us so cold in the night, though Harry complained of being cold because he had my tarpaulin under him, when he could well have had two or three folds over him. We emptied the wagon and Dodds and leaving the others at camp, and went up the creek nearly to the basal Niobrara ((Fort Hayes ls.)). The upper Niobrara is badly folded and probably faulted. Dodds went nearly to the basal limestone and reports narrow, sharp folds, the apex eroded into sharp ravines cutting through the yellow upper shales ((Smoky Hill)) into the darker shales. Further east the shales round into abroad fold, then dip away sharply under the Pierre. At one point is a flat topped hill of Pierre Shale close to the creek, capped by sand and boulders, evidently isolated from the debris sheet of the plains border by erosion. A little W of N from the hill, across a broad valley, upper Niobrara dips SW very slightly, then further E it flattens, then dips to SE, then to east for a long ways thus ((drawing in field book)). This causes an escarpment for a long ways along the foothills, most of the way from Little Thompson   Little Thompson Creek, Colorado to Big Thompson   Big Thompson Creek , Colorado and probably further, the upper Niobrara being somewhat resistant, the overlying Pierre being eroded away. ((Drawing in field book)). We found no fossils in upper Niobrara except the bands of Ostrea congesta   Ostrea congesta crowded on flattened Inoceramus sp.   Inoceramus Just as they occur between Boulder   Boulder Creek and Left Hand Creeks   Left Hand Creek. The basal limestone contains large numbers of Inoceramus deformis   Inoceramus deformis covered with Ostrea congesta   Ostrea congesta, some of them (the Inoceramus   Inoceramus) quite large. At the next cut through the Niobrara the shales are badly involved in places vertical, and a small stream cuts through the entire series of lower Pierre, in which I found only three poorly preserved Inoceramus barabini   Inoceramus barabini. In an exposure of Pierre nearly east of the SE point of the upper Niobrara there are many specimens of Baculites ovatus   Baculites ovatus and Inoceramus barabini   Inoceramus barabini, usually poorly preserved, though I found one or two of the latter in good state of preservation. I found one limestone lens about two or three feet in diameter from which had weathered many specimens of small Baculites   Baculites showing the sutures very plainly, possibly young B. ovatus   Baculites ovatus, and a few bivalves, with a fragment of some species of Scaphites   Scaphites and a couple of gastropods. We reached camp at 4:15, hastily broke camp and reached Big Thompson   Big Thompson Creek, Colorado just below Loveland   Loveland, Colorado in time to set the tent before dark. Markman and Dodds went to town for provisions while Harry and I prepared the cots etc. At 9 p.m. Dodds returned and we had a good beefsteak supper, leaving some in the oven of the camp stove to keep warm for Markman, who returned at 10 p.m. just as I was ready to extinguish the light. It has been a hot, clear day. We are getting lots of alkali in the water now.

Big Thompson Creek   Big Thompson Creek, Colorado, near Loveland   Loveland, Colorado. Sunday, June 10  June 10, 1906

Arose late, had breakfast of hot cakes. Got milk last night for first time. Starting in for a warm day, but at times cloudy. A slight breeze. We are camped on an island in a cottonwood   Populus grove. Has been cloudy and sultry this afternoon. We wrote postals and letters and Dodds went to town to mail them. I did not get through arranging, labelling, wrapping, and boxing mollusca   mollusca and fossils collected yesterday and ay before until six o’clock, when we had stewed chicken and dumplings prepared by Harry. Harry is fishing and catching chubs etc. I have spent the entire afternoon in labelling and arranging the collections. Found more stuff stowed away after supper and worked until dark, with Dodds’ help. All retired at 10 p.m. My back was very lame from bending over the specimens so long at a time without proper work table. Put some fish in formaldehyde- two or three species. Markman has put up a few bird skins, young birds, but has not yet obtained any mammals.

Big Thompson Creek   Big Thompson Creek, Colorado, near Loveland   Loveland, Colorado. Monday June 11, 1906  June 11, 1906.

Markman collected a garter snake   garter snake before the rest of us were up this morning. Nothing in his traps. After breakfast, Markman went at his traps again, Dodds looked after camp affairs, while Harry and I took the big dip net and began dipping for mollusks   mollusk, but the creek was high and quite roilly, so we could see nothing, hence worked at a disadvantage. We collected quite a number of Ancylus   Ancylus, however, clinging to the rocks which we fished out with the net, and a few insect larva. The creek was rising so rapidly that we concluded to pack up and get off the island before the water got too deep for fording. This warm weather means water too high for stream collecting. We got off the island at 10 p.m. (sic). Then Dodds drove into town to make some purchases, while the rest of us continued work, but with little success. Bullock orioles   Icterus bullockii very abundant in the timber here. Markman caught a pocket gopher. Harry caught several species of fish in small stream with the net. We saw hundreds of Frundulus sp.   Frundulus Congregated at the mouth of small stream where the clear water flowed into the turbid Big Thompson   Big Thompson Creek, Colorado. Collected several. Also collected Planorbis parvus   Planorbis parvus, Physa sp.   Physa, Limnaea sp.   Limnaea And Pisidium sp.   Pisidium in same small stream. Found a portion of a Strophites   Strophites or Anodonta   Anodonta shell there also. Left Loveland   Loveland, Colorad at 1:30. Collected carp   carp, catfish   catfish and on((e)) specimen of Physa   Physa (perhaps P. virgata   Physa virgata) in a small, filthy brook about two miles N of Loveland   Loveland and some Planorbis trivolvis   Planorbis trivolvis, P. parvus   Planorbis parvus and Physa sp.   Physa in a lake further north where they were very abundant. Dodds and I went west on foot finally to what I thought was an outcrop of the Fossil Ridge sandstone, and found it was so. The wagon went on to Trilby school house   Trilby Schoolhouse and camped in a pasture between the school house and Fossil Ridge. Just as we turned into the pasture, in crossing a furrow, the right hind wheel dished and is a complete wreck. We unloaded, got a pole under the axle, and dragged the wagon to a camping place. Also broke another spring, the front one. All hands take it philosophically and are thankful that there are still three wheels on. Finished labelling specimens at 10 p.m. and retired.

Fossil Ridge, Trilby Schoolhouse   Trilby Schoolhouse June 12, 1906  June 12, 1906, Tuesday Arose at 6:15; got breakfast and had the wagon taken apart and ready to load on a lumber wagon to take to town at 9 p.m. (sic). Then I went to the fossil beds while Harry went for another wagon to go to town, Dodds started out with the plant press and Markman went to town. Either a heavy dew fog or a little rain in the night as things about camp were wet. Am inclined to think it may have been fog, as it evidently creeped into the tent. This morning clouds hung low on the mountains, with an east wind, hot in the sun when sheltered from the wind, but cool and refreshing in the shade exposed to the breeze. Found fine fossils by breaking up big concretions in afternoon, Harry swinging the big sledge. Received mail for the first time since starting. In the evening Dodds and Markman developed photos until 10 p.m. in dark room of blankets thrown over tripod in tent.

Wednesday June 13  June 13, 1906

Markman and Harry both complain of sour stomachs this morning. Took some soda and went without their breakfasts. Refreshing breeze this morning, from the northeast. I peeled potatoes, then chiseled out and wrapped fossils until breakfast. Started for fossil beds at 9:30 a.m. Collected fossils until about 4 p.m., without food or drink, then brought a sackful of smaller ones to camp and wrapped and packed about 150 of them. Collected about 200 specimens today, mostly small bivalves – Callista   Callista, Volsella   Volsella and Pteria   Pteria, selecting only the best Inoceramus   Inoceramus to show variation- also a few Pinna   Pinna and Scaphites nodosus   Scaphites nodosus. Hot all day when sheltered from the breeze.

Thursday June 14, 1906  June 14, 1906

Up at 6 a.m., got to fossil beds at 9:15; Harry going with me. We took a canteen of water and a little lunch this time. Not quite so hot as yesterday. L. C. Bragg came out from the Agricultural College and spent an hour or so. While he was with us it rained hard and we got soaked. Fossil Ridge appears to extend for at least a mile below (south) camp (or perhaps two) and a mile northeast, so far as we have observed it. The formation much resembles the Hygiene sandstone at Left Hand Creek   Left Hand Creek, Colorado, but is full of great concretions of sandstone with an outer coating of iron oxide. It dips to the eastward at a very low angle. This in weathering makes a sloping escarpment to the west, with a rise, followed by a gentle slope to the east. Facing the westward escarpment is the upper Niobrara escarpment skirting the foothills as at Little Thompson Creek   Little Thompson Creek, Colorado. The concretions are filled with fossils, Inoceramus oblongus predominately, Callista sp.   Callista abundant, many Pinna lakesi   Pinna lakesi and Baculites compressus   Baculites compressus, besides other species. A very similar sandstone ridge outcrops to the east half a mile or so.

Friday, June 15, 1906  June 15, 1906 Harry and I took a big load of fossils and some recent mollusca, fungi and bird and mammal skins to Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, packed and shipped them. Had great difficulty finding suitable boxes. Sent four big boxes by freight and one by express. Then got running gear of wagon and reached camp at 5 p.m., very tired. Has been a very hot day.

Saturday June 16, 1906  June 16, 1906

Mosquitos (sic) have been very troublesome at Trilby camp   Trilby, particularly from 6 p.m. to 9 pm. Have not been bothered much by them except between those hours except at the alkali flat south of Little Thompson   Little Thompson Creek where they swarmed as we passed through both morning and evening. Their presence is especially noticeable in the neighborhood of alfalfa   Medicago sativa fields. Very hot morning. We set the wagon bed and top on running gear (a difficult undertaking without proper blocking etc.) and broke camp about 11 a.m. taking roads leading S and E for Greeley   Greeley, Colorado. I hastily examined the ridge paralleling Fossil Ridge to the east and found it to quite strongly resemble the materials of Fossil Ridge, but the concretions are not as rounded. Found a single fossil – apparently a young Inoceramus oblongus   Inoceramus oblongus. Harry and I examined a very small, swampy lakelet N of the head of Poudre Valley Reservoir   Poudre Valley Reservoir and found Limnaea sp.   Limnaea, Physa sp.   Physa, Planorbis trivolvis   Planorbis trivolvis and P. parvus   Planorbis parvus. These occurred in large numbers in the outlet of the lakelet. It was a great breeding place for water fowl and yellow headed blackbirds   Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. In Poudre Valley Reservoir   Poudre Valley Reservoir found no mollusks, but picked up three dead shells of Planorbis trivolvis   Planorbis trivolvis on the beach. Saw an American avocet   Recurvirostra americana, black crowned night herons   Nycticorax nycticorax, and 9 great blue herons   Ardea herodias. We discovered that the tire of the new wheel which we obtained at Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado was not properly shrunken on, so the wheel is weak and we must drive with care, especially as the roads are abominably rough. Also discovered that the new front spring is weak, – nearly broken through one leaf. We blocked this up and went on. Markman shot two young night herons   Nycticorax nycticorax or bitterns   Ardeidae at a lake south of Poudre valley Reservoir   Poudre valley Reservoir and we saw others. In a marsh we saw several Wilson’s phalaropes   Phalaropus tricolor. Near Windsor   Windsor, Colorado we crossed what I believe is Fox Hills sandstone, dipping to east. Found no identifiable fossils. At Windsor   Windsor, Colorado, on N side of Cache La Poudre   Cache La Poudre, we bought provisions, then went on to some bluffs about 4 miles down the river and camped. Had a little rain in afternoon accompanied by wind and lightning. For a mile or two E and W of Windsor   Windsor, Colorado it appeared to have rained hard.

Below Windsor   Windsor, Colorado, Sunday, June 17, 1906  June 17, 1906

Had a very windy night. I slept in the wagon last night and night before, Harry going into the tent. Cloudy this morning and windy. I prepared and catalogued the mollusks   mollusks collected yesterday, then read papers and magazines received at Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado Friday. Harry and Dodds started down the valley soon after breakfast. It sprinkled at intervals, and finally, at 1:30 p.m., rained hard, continuing for half an hour or so, and sprinkling for some time later. Harry and Dodds came in drenched to the skin and we had dinner at 3 p.m. After dinner, I walked across to the bluffs S of the creek and found about 125 Veniella humilis   Veniella humilis, some Cardium speciosum   Cardium speciosum, Mactra sp.   Mactra, Pholodomya sp.   Pholodyma and other fossils in limestone concretions near base of the exposure and Placenticeras sp.   Placenticeras, Cardium speciosum   Cardium speciosum, shark teeth, fish vertebrae and scales, Mactra sp.   Mactra, Tellina sp.   Tellina, Ostrea sp.   Ostrea, Fucoides   Fucoides, etc. in the upper part of the exposure. The lower part of the exposure may be Pierre but the upper part is the typical greenish-yellow Fox Hills sandstone as is exposed below White Rock, with large concretions of sandstone with iron cement, flaking off horizontally in large scales practically the size of the concretions. The sandstone is quite soft, easily excavated with a knife. The Ostrea   Ostrea were well preserved, though thin, and valves were easily freed from sand on both sides with the knife. The other fossils were friable, the shell crumbling, leaving only casts. Some of the Mactra   Mactra are very fine. The lower part of the exposure consists of alternating strata of thin bedded clay shales and sandstones, with limestone concretions from 3 to 6 feet in diameter. The Veniella   Veniella broke out readily in large numbers from some of the weathered concretions, and more confined to concretions to concretions in a somewhat definite zone and to a narrow zone in each concretion. The whole formation looks horizontal when viewed from the north, but an east or west view of a north and south section shows a strong southerly dip.

Monday, June 18, 1906  June 18, 1906

Harry and I worked on the Paleontology of the Fox Hills sandstone, getting some fine specimens, While Dodds took care of his plants and Markman skinned birds. Had a hasty lunch at noon and started for Greeley   Greeley, Colorado at 1:30 where we arrived at 4:30 – 12 miles or more. Saw Jim Bartlett and Judge Southard, interviewed blacksmith, bought some supplies, got our mail and went into camp on the Cache la Poudre   Cache la Poudre, at what is said to be City Park. It looks more like a private driving park, the only improvements being a race track, pavilion and stables. The other men printed and developed velox postal cards in the evening. County Attorney Carpenter and another attorney (cousin of Harry, name forgotten) called on us and promised us a map and letters to ranchers north and northeast of here. Has been clear and hot today.

Tuesday, June 19, 1906  June 19, 1906 The other three went to town to get supplies and have the wagon repaired. As the load is evidently too heavy for the wagon, they took the 10 gauge gun and ammunition, the cots, two suit cases and some other things to leave with Max Clark until our return, in order to lighten. I have cleared up all the dishes, compacted our load dredged the stream, which is very muddy here (finding a single dead Planorbis bicarinatus   Planorbis bicarinatus and one poor valve of a Pisidium   Pisidium) and now (11:30) have everything ready to load on the wagon as soon as it arrives. We will probably feed the horses, eat a hasty lunch, and start. I find we have lost my box containing fine dissecting, egg blowing and other instruments, fossils and mollusk catalogue, mollusk boxes etc. a serious loss. (Found later). We left Greeley   Greeley, Colorado at 2:30, changing our route for a longer trip. Drove through Eaton   Eaton, Colorado to Ault   Ault, Colorado , arriving at latter place at 7 p.m.. Had a cold piercing gale all afternoon and were chilled with our slickers on. Camped at edge of town.

Wednesday June 20, 1906  June 20, 1906

Left Ault   Ault, Colorado at 7:50 going north. Intended to drive past Boyd’s Big Springs   Boyd’s Big Springs, but missed the ranch. Drove through another ranch where there were water holes then on to the NE for Eastman’s Lake   Eastman’s Lake. Roads generally much better than from Boulder   Boulder, Colorado to Greeley   Greeley, Colorado. Occasional pass over hills covered with water worn debris from the mountains just like the mesa caps near Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, but not flat. Intermittent channels are also strewn with boulders and gravel and the soil generally sandy but hard. Saw plover   plover with young, doves   dove, horned larks   Eremophila alpestris, meadow larks   Sturnella, burrowing owls   Athene cunicularia and lark buntings   Calamospiza melanocorys. At 1 p.m. we arrived at Spee’s homestead   Spee’s homestead a mile west of where Eastman’s Reservoir   Eastman's Reservoir, Colorado is placed on our map and were informed that the reservoir is fully 7 miles further east, so we cut it out and started up Owl Creek   Owl Creek, Colorado for Slayton’s Ranch   Slayton's Ranch, Colorado, that also being incorrectly mapped as being on Eastman Creek   Eastman Creek, Colorado. Collected Physa   Physa at ranch 2 miles S of Slayton’s and reached Slayton’s   Slayton's Ranch, Colorado at 6 p.m.

Thursday June 21, 1906  June 21, 1906

Harry and Markman obtained a team and light wagon from Slayton and started back for Eastman’s Reservoir   Eastman's Reservoir, Colorado this morning and Dodds and I took our wagon and started for Chalk Bluffs   Chalk Bluffs, Colorado ((underline added later)). Had to drive over rough prairie for three miles, with no road, but fortunately found wire fence down and thus arrived some distance. We both walked several miles, Dodds went ahead and found the spring in a ravine in the bluffs. Camped, got dinner at 1:30 and started East on foot to examine formation at 2:15. First visited the isolated conglomerate butte a couple of miles east of camp. Conglomerate consists of pebbles of granite and other igneous rocks, limestone, sandstone, quartz, agate etc., very similar to those we have found lying on the prairie all day yesterday, but here cemented with a highly calcareous cement. This suggests the former extension of the forma ation southward and eastward, the loose pebbles being residue from the decomposition of the conglomerate and the washing away of the softer and finer portions. The conglomerate is not generally very well set, crumbling readily under the hammer, with a disagreeable odor somewhat resembling dog fennel, very irritating to the nostrils. It is about 60 ft. in thickness overlying the soft calcareous mud which characterizes the formation in general, the latter, with some harder bands, extending as deeply as erosion has reached- certainly not less than 100 ft. The conglomerate is strongly cross bedded in places, and some of the pebbles are 6 or 8 inches in diameter, though it is mostly coarse sand and gravel. Am unable to correlate this bed with any of the conglomerates in the bluff proper, though it may represent the cap of the bluffs, which is, generally speaking, thoroughly disintegrated leaving only beds of pebbles etc. In the bluffs east of camp where our informants, messrs Carpenter and Baker had indicated fossils on the map and told us they stood out prominently in vast numbers, we found only peculiar concretions, several inches in horizontal diameter and sometimes several feet in vertical dimensions, forming all sorts of peculiar shapes and sometimes running into each other, weathering horizontally into terraces of from 2 to 10 feet in height and vertically into fantastic shapes, often resembling bones of large animals. They are much harder than the formation in general and the terracing suggests their segregation by waters moving along planes represented by the terraces. True bedding planes are not noticeable where the formation has become entirely concretionary and even in many other places the formation is massive, but in other places it is well stratified. We returned to camp at 4:30 and busied ourselves about camp. Harry and Markman came in just before dark on foot and very tired. We saw them crossing the prairie and had a hot supper of fried ham and potatoes ready for them and us. After dark we loaded plateholders and got to bed at 10:30. Harry and Markman got nothing except some fossil wood and cannonball concretions.

Friday, June 22, 1906  June 22, 1906

Got up at 6 a.m., shaved and took some pictures before the others were up. Harry not very well. After breakfast Dodds and I started west, over the terraces. Found the thick conglomerate of Conglomerate Butte outcropping in a number of places, but not at all continuous through the entire formation. In one exposure W of camp giving nearly a complete section it is entirely wanting, while on the next butte east it is well developed. To the northward of the latter it is seen on the first hills but not beyond. A thinner bed lower down seems more continuous here, but it plays out a short distance to the west. Some of the numerous terraces throughout the formation are conglomeratic but most of them are concretionary. Marls greatly predominate, quite soft except in concretions, effervescing strongly under acid throughout, including conglomerate. Numerous caverns are formed under overhanging ledges by dissolution of the marl beneath the conglomerate. In one place a cavern extended 18 feet back and numerous chimneys admitted storm waters, making underground drainage for some distance. Streams are sand creeks, water from springs disappearing at once, flood waters from storms choked with sand, forming almost flat beds, with steep walls, almost perpendicular. In one place a strong conglomerate passes within three or four feet into marl, with no signs of faulting. Beds are approximately horizontal, but in one place on escarpment the thick conglomerate shows a decided dip to SE. However it appears to have pitched forward into that position. W of camp there is a decided unconformity between the thick conglomerate and the marl. At first sight this seemed possibly the result of the conglomerate pressing into the soft mud, but the strata above continuing unbroken and straight vetoes this idea unless the boulders and gravel pressed in as they were deposited ((drawing in field book)). At the NW (lefthand end of section) conglomerate rapidly passes into marl, not by thinning out, but by intercalation of strata of marl between narrow strata of conglomerate. Here as elsewhere, the line dividing the conglomerate from the underlying marl is abrupt, no gradation. The two places in above section marked by circles are occupied at base by boulders. In many places the conglomerate as well as the marl are concretionary. Went down to the conglomerate butte east of camp about 11 a.m. and photographed it and the concretions north of it. Broke camp at 2 p.m. and arrived at deserted ranch west of Gault P.O.   Gault, Colorado at 6 p.m. where we went into camp. After supper several neighboring ranchers called at camp, including A. B. Hilton, to whom I had letters of introduction from Herbert Baker and Chas. E Southard. Wind blew all night last night and for a while this morning, shaking the wagon in which I slept. About noon it rained at intervals and on the road to Gault   Gault, Colorado it rained and hailed hard several times, with a cold, disagreeable northeast wind. Harry and I went home with Mr. Hilton to see his specimens, and at 9 p.m. it was raining hard and very dark so we remained all night.

Saturday, June 23, 1906  June 23, 1906

Arose at 5:30 a.m. and Harry and I started for camp with fresh milk and eggs which Mr. Hilton gave us. Very cold northeast wind. Cloudy. Broke camp at 8:35 a.m. and started east Reaching Grover   Grover, Colorado on the B and M RR at 3 p.m. a distance of 16 miles in 6 hours and 25 minutes. We had a cold head wind and rain all the way and poor roads. Camped in the lee of the school house barn at Grover   Grover, Colorado and turned horses into school yard. We were all wet and thoroughly chilled. Had a good dinner of salmon loaf covered with peas, then went to store, then built a fire in the camp stove at entrance of tent and sat somewhat comfortably in the tent. All retired at 8 p.m.

Sunday June 24, 1906  June 24, 1906

Rained nearly all night, quite hard at times. Hard wind part of the night. Sun shining this morning but still cloudy, wind changed to westerly. Rained again while we were getting breakfast of mush and milk and crackers. At 10:30 we started to move camp. Very heavy roads. Had occasion to reprove Harry for his impatience and loss of temper. I walked all the way from Grover   Grover, Colorado. Dodds and I left the trail about 5 miles from Grover   Grover, Colorado, and examined the bluffs north of the road. The formation appears to be the same as the base of the Chalk Bluffs   Chalk Bluffs, Colorado, but the escarpment is more nearly vertical, instead of being so markedly terraced by conglomerates and concretionary bands. The upper part of the bluffs, however, are irregularly concretionary and in many places the underlying marls have assumed a whitish color and are very soft, the irregularity of the white bands strongly resembling unconformity, the dividing lines being very abrupt. The debris slope is a gentle curve to the south, as at Chalk Bluffs   Chalk Bluffs, Colorado, winding ravines 10 to 25 ft. in depth, with steep walls extending out for a mile or so until they shallow to nothingness, leaving the prairie beyond free from ravines. All slopes of marked grade, however, are terraced, the terraces being a few inches in height, making the best travelling along the beds of the swales below the terrace line. The bluffs here have a decided tendency to weather into circular towers with nearly vertical walls. The ravines leading out through the debris slope generally have flat bottoms, but in one or two there was a secondary ravine perhaps caused by the washing out of cattle trail along the center. We reached camp at Davis ranch   Davis ranch at 5:30, much sooner than we expected. Are camped in one of the ravines which extends back into the bluffs. Loaded plateholders after dark

Monday June 25, 1906  June 25, 1906

Got up early and went to work. I worked all day in the hot sun and found nothing worth bringing in. At noon Dodds brought in a good fossil jaw bone and some teeth. Is not yet in this evening (5:30). Formation here resembles Chalk Bluffs   Chalf Bluffs, Colorado, but the conglomerates are composed more largely of waste of underlying rocks with less debris from the mountains. Am terribly fatigued with so much hard climbing and being on my feet since 6 a.m., so gave up at 5:30. Dodds came in at 6 p.m. with nothing more. Harry arrived at 8 p.m. with part of a jaw and Markman came later. It rained after Markman arrived, wind north. Had mush and milk for supper.

Tuesday, June 26, 1906  June 26, 1906

I started west with Dodds and Harry and worked along the cliffs. At last point of the bluffs but one to the west Dodds found a small turtle in clay about 1/3 of way to top and we chiseled it out ((.)) around the point to northeastward he found a portion of a jawbone in about the same horizon and near by I found a turtle   turtle. We got out the former but the latter was too badly shattered. Further east in the base of the conglomerate I found another turtle   turtle and Dodds and I worked on it until 6 p.m., when we had it uncovered for 3 ft in length and 2 « in width and quit for the night. It is on the hanging wall, where the conglomerate overhangs so we may not be able to extract him. The formation is not favorable to extraction. Near where we got the first turtle we encountered a beautiful little spotted adder   Bitis schneideri as we walked along a narrow ledge. Harry was in advance. I passed him the big gloves and the cyanide bottle and we collected the snake. Further along I killed a big rattlesnake   rattlesnake, the first one I have seen on this trip. Mockingbirds   mockingbird are common here, as also the Arkansas kingbird   Tyrannus verticalis, Say phoebe   Sayornis saya, barn   Hirundo rustica and cliff swallows   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, white throated swifts   Aeronautes saxatalis and meadowlarks   Sturnella. Harry had some rhubarb pies made and Markman had a salmon loaf ready when Dodds and I arrived in camp, very tired. Has been a very hot day with a few fleecy clouds.

Wednesday, June 27, 1906  June 27, 1906

Arose at 6 a.m. Hot morning. Dodds and I went work on the fossil turtle, while Harry started to hunt the missing mare and Dodds ((Markman?)) skinned birds. Harry got Mr. Davis to hunt the mare and joined us at 1 p.m. We got the turtle nearly cut out, resting with carapace downward on a pinnacle of rock at 5:30 and began pasting cheesecloth around it, starting for camp at 6:30. Wind blew all afternoon, filling our eyes with dust as we worked and making it very disagreeable. Found the mare at camp when we returned and Markman had supper ready. It was very hard work digging in cramped quarters all afternoon.

Thursday June 28, 1906  June 28, 1906

Not quite so hot this morning on account of cool easterly breeze. Sun very bright. Yesterday morning with a very heavy load, including 1 gallon of water, camp bottle of paste, bolt of cheese cloth in camp pack, big pick, heavy hammer, light picks, chisels boards etc. It took Dodds and me 1 ¬ hours to walk over here. This morning with 1 two quart canteen of water and a few crackers I walked it in 45 minutes. The turtle   turtle is near the base of concretionary stratum at top of cliff. The others soon joined me and we padded beneath the fossil all around with a moss like chickweed   Cerastium and the tender young shoots of mountain mahogany   Cercocarpus. Then while the three steadied the fossil I chipped away the supporting pinnacle. It dropped easily onto the cushion just as we had planned. We easily turned it over. Then Dodds started to Grover   Grover, Colorado to order lumber and sawdust, Harry started to look at his mammal traps and Markman and I finished encasing the turtle   turtle in tissue paper, cheesecloth and gunny sacks, completing this at 11 a.m. Then we began prospecting for more fossils. Came in at 3:30, had a lunch and then I went to work collecting, pinning and labeling insects, while Markman and Harry went out for birds. Harry caught a hairy tailed rat   hairy tailed rat in his traps. Twas fairly cool in the morning, exceedingly hot in the afternoon and just before sundown a wind too cool for comfort sprang up. Markman killed a rattlesnake   rattlesnake. We average about one a day. Brewer’s blackbird   Euphagus cyanocephalus is common here. There are hundreds of abandoned hawks   hawks nests in these cliffs and many still in use. Last night Dodds left his collecting bag at the big turtle   turtle and this morning the shoulder strap was eaten through by small rodents   Rodentia. They did not injure the straps of the camp pack nor the paste, which latter was in a bottle covered with gunnysacks, nor did they nibble the layers of cheese cloth pasted on the fossil.

Friday, June 29, 1906  June 29, 1906

Dodds and Markman took the wagon around to the fossil turtle this morning, while Harry and I walked across the hill, examining his traps and collecting insects on the way. Found two {taxon|rats}} in traps. We boxed the turtle   turtle with the two inch planks which Dodds got yesterday, sawing the planks with my small trimming saw. We used the dry moss-like plants of the vicinity for packing, graded a road on the face of the cliff just below the conglomeratic shelf, to a point where the debris slope was smooth, then let it down to where we could back the wagon up to an embankment and loaded it on the wagon. Harry and Markman then took it to Grover   Grover, Colorado for shipment, finding that it weighed 640 pounds as boxed. Dodds and I collected plants and insects on our way to camp. At camp I took a bath and changed my underwear and shirt, then labelled and pinned about 75 insects finishing at 8:45 p. m., while Dodds was getting supper ready to go into the stove. The boys came with the wagon at 9 p.m., and a few moments afterwards we had a good supper- salmon loaf covered with peas and crackers, cake and cocoa. The last few days have been altogether too strenuous. We are all sore and tired and very thankful the big turtle   turtle is off our hands.

Saturday June 30, 1906  June 30, 1906

Left camp without load in wagon at 9 a.m.. Reached Pawnee Buttes   Pawnee Buttes, Colorado at 12:30, via Joe Dolan’s place. Fed horses and ate lunch , then went on SE. Markman found fossil jaw bone at the West Butte   West Butte, Colorado. Formation about the same as at Davis ranch   Davis Ranch, Colorado. Below buttes country more cut up by erosion than valley at Davis’ but no dissected escarpment. We passed Martha Sebosky’s shack on the way to Fitche’s   Fitche's Ranch, Colorado and as Hilton had urged, we made a very hasty search for fossil teeth but found none. Then went to Fitche’s   Fitche's Ranch, Colorado where we arrived at 4:40 and did no work. Started back by a more southerly route. The formation around Martha Sebosky’s has a decided tendency to change from yellowish to whitish, passing rather abruptly from one to the other and the upper part is emphatically a sandstone. (By the way, the formation where we dug out the turtle   turtle put an abrupt point on the picks in digging.)

Sunday, July 1, 1906