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Contents

Front pagesEdit

Junius Henderson
Field Notebook
No. 2
1907 - 1908 Junius Henderson
Boulder, (illegible text)

Field Note Book
No. 2

1907-1908

Fort Collins TripEdit

Fort Collins trip, May 24-25, 1907

Ft. Collins Trip

May 24, 1907  May 24, 1907

Left Boulder   Boulder, Colorado on 9:25 train. Hazy morning, clouding up at train time with an east wind. Train left Boulder 10 min late, rode to Longmont   Longmont, Colorado on seat with Capt McGwire, arrived at Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado at 11:32- 7 min late. Went to Northern Hotel, washed up and at 12:15 went in to dinner. In afternoon went to agricultural college, visited Prof. Lory in Physics laboratory, who showed me about the buildings. Also had a visit with Mr. Bragg in the museum, arranged with a student to accompany me tomorrow. Then went to the Mountain avenue Livery Co.’s stable at 127 E Mountain Ave.   127 E Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, Colorado and arranged for a team for tomorrow, reaching hotel again at 5:15. ((This day’s notes in pencil and somewhat smudged)).

Ft. Collins, Colo., May 25/07

Rained last night. Cool and somewhat cloudy this morning. Had breakfast at 6:30 a.m. Started at 7;10 with O. G. Babcock. A cold rain and fierce wind was blowing chilling us to the bone despites “slickers” and heavy lap robe. We drove through La Porte, thence to the Forks, where we took the right hand road, leaving Livermore to the left, and went about four miles further. It is quite evident that the foothill geology will be much more difficult to work out than further south, as there is much folding, which gives to the formations outcropping very irregular outlines and the folds and general flatness of the dip spreads the formations out over a wide and decidedly variable zone, extending them into the foothills long distances in several places. We fed the team at noon at a point about 9 or 10 miles south of the Wyoming line, then turned back at 2 p.m. Drove by way of Bellevue   Bellvue, Colorado where we found a beautiful anticlinal fold which can be nicely photographed in the Lyons formation. Reached the hotel about 5:30, chilled through and very tired. Retired at 8:15. ((pencil))

Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, May 25 (sic) 1907  May 26, 1907

Cloudy morning, but calm. Arose at 7:15 intending to remain until 2 p.m., but concluded to take the 8 oclock train, so left without breakfast. A little fresh snow on top of the highest foothills, probably about the altitude of Green Mt.   Green Mountain, Colorado At Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. ((pencil))

Trip to Northern ColoradoEdit

Northern Colorado Trip June 6-15, 1907

Trip to Northern Colorado

Thursday June 6, 1907  June 6, 1907

Almost perfectly clear morning at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. About 50 piñon jays   Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus flew over the house at 7 a.m. going nearly north. Clouded up before 9 a.m. Left Boulder at 9:45 for Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado by C & S Ry arriving there at 11:40. Got outfit from freight depot and then went to Tiedman Hotel for dinner. Got loaded by 2 p.m. and started at 2:20 in a driving rain, Dodds and I in the saddle, Ramaley, Robbins and the driver (Casey) in the wagon, the outfit from Tate and Sedgley’s stable. Dodds and I went due west and photographed the fine fold at Belleview, catching the wagon at Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado at 6:30, where we went into camp. Saw the following birds: magpies   Corvidae, redwing blackbird   Agelaius phoeniceus, lark buntings   Calamospiza melanocorys, Arkansas kingbird   Tyrannus , T.T. kingbird   Tyrannus, mourning doves   Zenaida macroura, 1 killdeer   Charadrius vociferus, 1 kingfisher   Alcedines, robins   Turdus migratorius, barn swallows   Hirundo rustica, cliff swallows   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota meadowlark   Sturnella, burrowing owl   Athene cunicularia, goldfinch   Carduelis tristis, Brewer’s blackbirds   Euphagus cyanocephalus. Several birds singing about camp whose songs I do not recognize. Retired at 9 p.m.

Friday June 7, 1907  June 7, 1907

Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado ((drawing in notebook, showing w to E cross-section of ridges, with dips, ridges numbered 1 to 5; no. 4 = Lykins; no. 5 = Dakota)) Ridge 2 strongly crossbedded at top, took picture, found aragonite crystals. At base of 3 is a strong gypsum bed which has been quarried. Arose at 4:30 a.m. Found cliff swallows   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota busy building nests where Owl Creek   Owl Creek, Colorado cuts through ridge No. 1. Nests a little further all finished. We collected mollusca and plants where stream cuts through ridge No. 2 and started on at 9 a.m. At ranch on section line NW of Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado found Fountain conglomerate dipping about 15˚ nearly E. strike about N strongly crossbedded thus ((drawing in field book)) reddish and gray, coarse sand and pebbles up to one inch, just S of ranch house. The exposures to the west between the first and the sharp rise of the micaceous granite hills were arkose; with 2 or 3 inch pebbles toward the base and no crossbedding so far as I discovered in the few moments stop. Has scarcely a tendency toward isolation from the granite into a high ridge as at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. E of Forks Hotel   Livermore, Colorado strike changes to N 120˚ W and dip is about N 45˚ W, dipping about 18˚. The strata swing well west or SW then back a mile or so north, so that the cross section (generalized) E or road from Forks Hotel   Livermore, Colorado is about thus, looking west. (( drawing in field book)). At N end of section granite swings across road well to the east. Camped on Ten Mile Creek   Tenmile Creek, Colorado at 12:20 for lunch. Resumed our journey at 1:30 p.m., Ramaley and Dodds in the saddle. After we left the Laramie road   US Rt. 287 we crossed Fountain formation, but soon got to granite, which continued across South Box Elder   South Boxelder Creek, Colorado to North Box Elder   North Boxelder Creek, Colorado. We camped below Box Elder P.O. a mile or two. The granite weathers into “toadstools” at Box Elder, owing to horizontal resistant zones.

North Box Elder, Saturday June 8, 1907  June 8, 1907

Rained for a little while after breakfast, and was gloomy. I was the last one up, rising when breakfast was nearly ready. At 7 a.m. there were indications of clearing up, so Dodds and I started horseback, crossing over the “Dakota” ridge . Found the “red beds” generally dipping strongly to the eastward and in places folded more or less. The Lykins ? was also folded and considerably crushed in places. In the Jurassic Dodds found some baryta. The “Dakota” exposures consisted entirely of a coarse conglomerate of sand, gravel and igneous boulders up to a foot in diameter with a calcareous cement as shown by its effervescence in acid, at least in the upper part. It was in all perhaps 100 feet in thickness. The upper part reminded me of the “mesa caps” in places north of Boulder   Boulder, Colorado where cemented by a calcareous matrix. Passed northward into Wyoming   Wyoming, thence westward passing around the head of Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Colorado and tributaries except one which we crossed, thence southward to Box Elder P.O.   Box Elder P.O. over the Cheyenne road   US Rt. 87 and on to camp. Found nothing suggesting the limestone containing Carboniferous fossils mentioned by Darton et al. unless at northwest corner of the quadrangular course of the day’s travel. Saw about 75 piñon jays   Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus flying nearly north. Had a very hard day. It hailed about 10 a.m., immense hailstones falling, with very little rain, so that we kept moderately dry, lying under a low cedar   cedar which broke the fall of the hailstones. At 2 p.m. it began to hail and rain furiously and kept it up until we reached camp at 3:15, soaked through and chilled, the ground white with hail. The sun then came out, but it clouded again at 4:30. Among the most common birds at this camp is the Brewer blackbird   Euphagus cyanocephalus. List is as follows: Cliff swallow   Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, violet green swallow   Tachycineta thalassina, Mt bluebird   Sialia currucoides, buzzard   Buteo, red tailed hawk   Buteo jamaicensis, Brewer blackbird   Euphagus cyanocephalus, catbird   catbird, goldfinch   Carduelis tristis, red head (sic) woodpecker   Melanerpes erythrocephalus, cowbird   Molothrus, white throated swift   Aeronautes saxatalis, yellow warbler   Dendroica aestiva, flicker   Colaptes, robins   Turdus migratorius, red wing blackbird   Agelaius phoeniceus, Townsend warbler   Dendroica townsendi,, meadowlark   Sturnella, rock wren   Salpinctes obsoletus, dipper   Cinchlus, Bullock oriole   Icterus bullockii, killdeer   Charadrius vociferus, long crested jay   Cyanocitta stelleri, hummingbird   Trochilidae, Lincoln song sparrow   Melospiza lincolnii, piñon jay   Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, towhee   towhee. Meadowlarks   Sturnella were also common on high plains near Wyoming   Wyoming line.

In evening Dodds + I collected Pisidia   Pisidia in the creek.

Box Elder Creek   Box Elder Creek, Wyoming
Sunday June 9, 1907  June 9, 1907

Cold, windy morning, clearing by 9 a.m. but west wind continuing. Arose at 6 a.m. Dodds + I collected Pyramidula   Pyramidula, Zonitoides   Zonitoides, Vallonia   Vallonia, Pupilla   Pupilla, and Pisidium   Pisidium after breakfast, then shaved and started down stream at 10 a. m. Visited + photographed the upper falls in the granite rear where the creek reaches the sedimentaria + at the very edge of the granite a joint plane suddenly changes the course of the stream at right angles for 50 or 75 feet where it flows through vertical walls about 60 ft high and 10 feet apart thus ((drawing in field book)). The last jump of the falls is sheer over a vertical 60 ft. wall formed by a joint plane in the granite just before leaving the granite. The granite lies on both sides of the lateral valley which cuts in from the north at the lower fall. In other words the lateral drainage cuts back into the granite as it does in the region of Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, instead of cutting along the contact or into the sedimentaries. This is likely due to the fact that the sedimentaries were laid on a surface of weathered granite. ((at some later date Henderson wrote an emphatic “NO.” at this place in the notebook)). At any rate here the upper part of the granite is weathered, while the lower part is unaffected. If the granite were unweathered there seems no good reason why the cutting should not be in the sedimentaries as they are not particularly resistant, so far as chemical and physical conditions. At least there are soft strata and much rock with soft calcareous cement. In afternoon we went over to South Box Elder   South Box Elder and followed it down to junction with the north branch. Its lower course is very steep through granite, with gneiss about 200 or 300 ft back from the edge of the granite. The north branch runs south from the falls between the granite and the sedimentaries and just below the confluence the combined drainage turns eastward and breaks through the sedimentaries. Immediately above the confluence we found an exposure of 75 feet or more of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, varying from dark red to pure white, and extending to the creek bed. ((several lines crossed out with another “NO.”)) The granite cliffs west of the creek are high and steep, from which one may infer the ancient sea wall from which the pebbles were derived, were it not that no large boulders were observed in the conglomerate. The sedimentaries indicate uplift by their eastward dip, which would undoubtedly involve the granite. Following is a generalized section showing their present relations. E and W section across North Box Elder Creek   North Box Elder Creek, Colorado just above confluence with south branch. ((drawing in field book, view to S with east edge on left)). The conglomerate where so well exposed is very friable and not calcareous, but a slight exposure just below the confluence effervesces freely in acid. The conglomerate is much thicker than we supposed, as we discovered a little later, with a harder band a little above the exposure just mentioned, then softer above. It answers to the Fountain formation at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado except that the cement is weak aside from the ones stratum just mentioned, so that it is covered by debris of the talus slope. Above this are the sandstones, limestones etc., which are equivalent to the Lyons formation at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, a resistant sandstone at the top forming an escarpment on the west and sloping away more gently to the east.

North Box Elder Creek   North Box Elder Creek Monday June 10, 1907  June 10, 1907

Strong west wind but warmer than yesterday. Dodds and I started for Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Colorado at 8 a.m. finding a much easier trail over the high Lyons ridge and down to the creek. The east slope of the Lyons escarpment is approximately the same as the dip at the contact between the Lyons and the Lykins formations, the latter lying apparently conformably on the former toward the base of the slope, having been eroded from the upper part of the slope. Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Coloradois nearly dry and the flat sandy bottom about 200 yards wide where we entered it. An elongated (N and S) hill through which Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Coloradocuts about E of our camp is an anticlinal fold in the Lyons formation the west limb dipping very abruptly and the east limb approximately the normal dip for the region. An E and W fold in the same formation occurs about a mile NW of this. North of this hill the entire valley is over 2 miles wide and the anticline and syncline both show beautifully the section being as follows. ((Drawing in field book. I am not sure if this is the same place but similar relations can be seen on US 287 north of Livermore)) E. Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Coloradocuts a trough from N 24˚ E through the N end of anticline then swings over into syncline and cuts through it to junction with W Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Colorado , then both swing E through anticline. The cliff on the S side Sand Creek   Sand Creek, Colorado seems surely Lyons formation. Section as follows, thickness estimated: ((Drawing in field book of layers folded upwards and with descriptions intercalated into the drawing. Numbers from top to bottom)) 1) Sandstone nearly white 10 ft weathers buff massive. 2) Very hard fine pearl gray ? 6 ft massive. 3) Pink thin bedded sandstone, partly cross bedded weathering red 30 ft.? 4 and 5) Very fine grained calcareous sandstone, massive, violetred (?) 30 ft? 6 and 7) Very fine hard clay , slightly effervescent, whitish, 6-10 ft. 8) Pink sandstone, thin bedded weathering red 15 ft massive below. 9) Very fine grained massive sandstone white 9 ft. Apparent dip flatter in actual face of cliff because exposure short.

We measured one face of 20 ft. and from that estimated the whole cliff at 100 ft. Big hill north of fold, in syncline is Lykins at base, dark red and regularly bedded below, lighter red and massive, light pink and very massive in the upper part which forms a bluff. Red and pink massive part about 150 ft in thickness. Above this are about 250 ft. of light colored (mostly gray) limestones and sandstones and clay shales of Morrison age. Above this the slope to the top is covered by Dakota sandstone and conglomerate debris, none in place. Below this exposure we find the red sandstones to the Lyons ridge except for one white band about 20 feet thick everywhere present. Saw 2 white throated swifts on above mentioned hill. On way back we roughly estimated that there is about 200 feet of Lykins below the white zone and about the same above. The white zone itself, including an intermediate reddish zone is 50 ft. or more in thickness. The upper member of the Lyons is eroded back from the edge to make a low ridge and the Lykins still further back, in each case the dip of the strata forming the surface of the hill. Erosion appears to proceed almost wholly at the edges except where drainage breaks through. Wind quieted down very much and it was warm in afternoon.

North Box Elder   North Box Elder Tuesday, June 11, 1907  June 11, 1907

East wind this morning, perfectly clear and hot. Dodds and I started N along the Fountain granite contact. In the gulch coming in to N. Box Elder Creek   N. Box Elder Creek from the N we found the drainage line to be practically on the contact in some places. S of the ranch about a mile N of Box Elder Falls   Box Elder Falls in the lateral N and S valley is a strong outcrop of Fountain out in the valley, while up the slope very close to the granite is an outcrop of thin bedded reddish rock, partly fine grained and partly coarse sandstone, all of the latter outcrop effervescing freely. (This we have not found elsewhere). Between the two is an outcrop of chert containing brachiopods of Paleozoic type, which we were able to trace to where the valley turns westward in Wyoming   Wyoming, but found no more of the underlying calcareous rocks, but did find the Fountain. At the westward turn of the valley near head of creek in Wyoming   Wyoming we found a strong outcrop of Fountain with 6 or 8 ft. of hard gray limestone overlying it, containing numerous fragments of crinoid stems and a few poorly preserved brachiopods. It passed, apparently conformably, beneath the red, thin bedded Lyons ? sandstone (this may be limestone-see tomorrow’s notes), continuing thus northward as far as we could see. We traced the limestone nearly to the Box Elder   Boxelder Creek and reached camp at 6 p.m. with a good load. Saw a night hawk   Chordeiles minor in Wyoming   Wyoming. Jackson and Crawford arrived and camped at Box Elder P.O.   Box Elder P.O. Dodds and I called in the evening and discussed plans.

North Box Elder camp   North Box Elder camp Wednesday June 12, 1907  June 11, 1907

Dodds, Crawford, Jackson and I started down N. Box Elder   North Box Elder Creek, Colorado in the morning. Found the crinoidal limestone just below N Box Elder falls   Box Elder Falls, Colorado well up on talus slope of Lyons escarpment in form of boulders and in one ledge in place, where Dodds and Jackson obtained one brachiopod   brachiopod. It has more of a reddish ting than further north. Just below junction of N and S Box Elder   Box Elder Creek is a strong ledge of limestone resting on typical Fountain conglomerate, with about 20 ft. of Fountain above the limestone. Above the 2o ft. zone of Fountain is the thinner bedded, finer grained Lyons sandstone, limestones etc. The thickness of the Fountain is difficult to ascertain, but we found it extending to the bed of the creek with but a narrow zone of debris intervening between it and the granite. There is not less than 200 ft of Lyons here and probably considerably more. About a mile S of Box Elder   Box Elder is a formation resting on granite which looks as if it were metamorphosed Fountain, but contains no pebbles and no large feldspar crystals. It is full of mica, thin bedded dipping N. 24˚ E. I believe it is weathered shistose (sic) granite. Continuing southward we found it frequently above the hard unweathered granite. At the ranch above mentioned I found Fountain conglomerate resting on granite and at the very contact, with an east slope, found a piece of chert containing brachiopods   brachiopods. Further south on the east side of the valley, up on the escarpment we found the crinoidal limestone in Fountain conglomerate, with several other limestones of similar character above, alternating with conglomerate and sandstone, just as we found it in Wyoming   Wyoming. The thin bedded formation mentioned in yesterday’s notes as overlying the crinoidal limestone may be a limestone as a similar zone here is. We have not found any other outcrop of the limestone beneath the chert at the ranch NE of camp. Where the strike turns westward I found a nonfossiliferous limestone in the Fountain and in a higher horizon found the crinoidal limestone. Strike N. 30˚ E. forming a syncline next to the foothills with axis approximately E., N limb steep, dip about 30˚ bearing S 5˚ W. Dip of S limb very gentle. Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Occupies base of syncline. ((visible from US 287)) Section E of Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Where strike changes to west ((drawing in field book)) Section through Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Where road swings around west of Red Mt in a valley, following the creek, To the N, W and S the sedimentaries have been removed unless it be the base of the Fountain, leaving a gently sloping plain, sloping from the west to the creek bed. We have now traced the chert horizon near the base of the sedimentaries from Wyoming   Wyoming to the place where the strike turns westward toward Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado, finding brachiopods   brachiopods frequently most of the way. Also traced the lower crinoidal limestone to the same point, but found no brachiopods in it after leaving the Box Elder   Box Elder Creek, Colorado. Saw 2 {taxon|Buteo|buzzards}} and 1 red tailed hawk   Buteo jamaicensis at junction of N and S Box Elder   Box Elder Creek, Colorado.

Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Thursday June 13/07  June 13, 1907

Dodds and I started on horseback NW from camp on Ten Mile Creek   Tenmile Creek, Colorado, just S of Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado, to examine the plain to the WNW and SW which appears to be approximately the ancient sea floor, from which most of the sedimentaries have been eroded. On the divide between Ten Mile   Tenmile Creek, Colorado and Lone Tree   Lone Tree Creek, Colorado creeks NW of Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado, we measured dip of Fountain conglomerate and found it to be 6 deg. Bearing N. 30˚ E. The conglomerate covers a considerable portion of the plain. ¼ mi. further N dip is 6˚ S. 13˚ W., a valley occupying the syncline here, the sec. fence passing through the valley. It is probably the Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Syncline. 300 yds further N of last mentioned outcrop is an outcrop of thin bedded limestone resting on Fountain conglomerate and bearing N. 25˚ E. The dip is about 30˚ bearing E, but blocks are tilted in every direction. To the east I failed to find a corresponding dip from the granite westward to form the east limb of the syncline. The relations are about thus: ((drawing in field book)). NW is a white quartz blowout on a high hill on E side Deadman Creek   Deadman Creek, Colorado. It bears N 29˚ W from Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado. And S 25˚ E of Virginia Dale Mt.   Virginia Dale Mt., Colorado The quartz continued on SW as an interrupted ridge and also occurs on S side of this plain, in each case not more than a mile or so into the granite. About a mile S of the first mentioned outcrop, the conglomerate dips 4˚ bearing S 48˚ E. In that vicinity, as usual, the outcrop of Fountain and granite is occupied by a valley. Fountain approaches one quartz blowout very closely. S 40˚ W of Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Is coarse conglomerate, with pebbles up to 4 inches in diameter lying directly on an uneven eroded surface of rotten, deep red granite, contact showing for100 ft., conglomerate dipping 10˚ bearing about E. The center of the plain for some distance back is covered with a thin remnant of Fountain conglomerate thus showing approximately the ancient sea bottom. Another inlet (sic) of the Fountain, including the upper beds extends far west of Livermore   Livermore, Colorado. It is a syncline> At Livermore   Livermore, Colorado dip is only about 20 to 40 bearing NE. Camped at Owl canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado at 6 p.m.

Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, Friday June 14/07  June 14, 1907

Dodds and I started up canyon on foot in morning and in narrow part, west of bridge, in limestone at top of next to top limestone bench found brachiopods   brachiopods of carboniferous type. In a much lower horizon where limestone is a conglomerate laid on an eroded surface. It is in a crushed zone, however, and the apparent nonconformity may be due to crushing. Below the conglomerate just mentioned are red thin bedded slightly calcareous sandstone dipping 10˚ N. 63˚ E., which is in turn underlaid by conglomerate unconformable on lower similar sandstones and then other conglomerates all slightly calcareous in places. Section at Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, top and bottom reversed. -Granite -Covered zone, 25 ft., perhaps weathered granite as at Red Mt.   Red Mt., Colorado Very massive, hard, coarse conglomerate, dip 15˚ bearing N. 63˚ E. 8 ft. same conglomerate appearing at intervals above debris for 200 yds to E with rotten deep red conglomerate in upper 100 yds, of considerable thickness -Covered zone of 200 yds or more with 4 or 5 ft of hard gray limestone about midway -Pinkish gray calcareous sandstone, rather thin bedded. Dip same as above, upper half contains crinoids perhaps may be called a limestone, al moderately fine grained. 25 ft. -Very dark red coarse rotten sandstones and conglomerates with pebbles leaching white 15 ft. -Mostly lighter colored, finer grained, harder and thin bedded sandstones, some zones massive and a little of the coarse dark red 35 ft., forming mild escarpment with the two preceding numbers as the lower part of the slope, on S side of lateral gulch of Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado. -Same as above, planed edges occupying the gentle E slope of escarpment and intervening valley between it and main escarpment, estimated at 25 ft. -Massive pinkish limestone in bed of creek about 5 ft. -Covered, with intermediate massive conglomerate estimated at 15 ft (in creek bottom (sic) -Soft rotten reddish and whitish streaked, remarkably crossbedded, coarse conglomerate with an intermediate thin bedded red sandstone and some strong evidence (of erosion?) above sandstone member 44 ft. -Thin bedded fine grained, hard sandstone 16 ft. Left the section of the main escarpment to be finished by Dodds, upon arrival of Crawford, Underhill and Jackson. We all visited the gypsum beds together. After lunch Crawford, Robbins and Dodds continued measurements of the Carboniferous section, while Underhill, Jackson and I examined the Chugwater and Jurassic. After Underhill, Crawford and Jackson left at 4 p.m. Robbins and I went down to the Niobrara formation on horseback. Found the basal limestone not so massive as at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, containing Inoceramus deformis   Inoceramus deformis, Ostrea congesta   Ostrea congesta and an Ostrea   Ostrea and an Inoceramus   Inoceramus new to me. It is underlaid by 3 or 4 ft. of sandstone, below which is the Benton shale. The Niobrara here divides into two high ridges with a minor one and another still lower in between. In the latter 3 are Ostrea congesta   Ostrea congesta on an unknown large flat Inoceramus   Inoceramus as further south. At camp the upper Lyons passes by transition from limestones and calcareous red, pink and gray sandstones through the pink Ten Sleep sandstone to the dark red Lykins shales, thence to the Jura. Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado section completed by Dodds. -Sandstone, calcareous, pinkish, more massive than below, crossbedded and nearer limestone than sandstone at top, mostly covered with talus 40 ft. -Sandstone, red, medium to fine grained, calcareous, rather thin bedded, crossbedded 36 ft. -Friable, fine-grained sandstones and shale, mostly red 5 ft. -Friable coarse sandstone 1 ft. -Red sandstone, calcareous, rather thin bedded, with flagstone appearance 1 ½ ft. -Red sandy shale 1 ft. -Sandstone, calcareous, red, fine-grained partly massive or thick bedded and partly flaggy, some strata friable, some crossbedding, estimated 20 ft. -Sandstone, coarse, crossbedded, friable, dark red 2 ft. Varies in thickness and unconformable on surface below. -Sandstone, calcareous, banded red and white, very hard, flaggy, like Lyons 1 ½ ft. -Shale, sandy, red ferruginous, interlaid with lenticular bodies of gray limestone, becoming conglomeratic at top 6 ft. -Sandstone, pink, calcareous, coarse, laminated in color, not in apparent structure, but weathering into thin beds 15 ft. -Sandstone, fine, massive red or mottled 17 ft. -Limestone, gray, massive, ridge maker, 6 ft., making lowest bench -Sandstone, red, thin bedded, cross bedded, upper part usually massive, estimated 30 ft. crinoidal -Limestone, gray, massive, very hard, strong ridge maker, first real ridge maker, containing brachiopods   brachiopods 15 ft. -Sandstone, pink, medium grained, thin and cross bedded, like Lyons 20 ft. -Limestone, massive, gray, very hard strong ridge maker, highest ridge here, 24 ft. -Sandstone, fine grained, pink, mostly thin bedded, partly massive, near bottom making weak ridge; thin bedded part cross bedded, mostly weathering rapidly 50 ft. lies on E slope of escarpment -Sandstone, gray or yellowish, coarse or medium, rather strong making low escarpment 2 ft. -Sandstone, red, thin bedded, one zone dark and rather shaley, all fine grained, weathers readily 33 ft. -Chugwater or Lykins red shales, with strong Gypsum zone -Jurassic buff and gray sands and shale -Dakota sandstones with intercalated shales -Benton shales (found no limestone bands) -Niobrara in several ridges.

All below the Chugwater effervesces freely in acid, unless the lower conglomerates. The base of the sedimentaries consists of coarse conglomerate, gray to dark red and hard to friable. They are not sharply divided from the Lyons beds above, but pass into the latter by a zone of alternating coarse sands and conglomerates and fine grained sandstones, gradually becoming more calcareous. The Lyons equivalent differs from the beds near Boulder   Boulder, Colorado in containing limestones, and in being more easily eroded and softer in general, more or less calcareous. The Lyons grades into the Lykins by an alternation, the pink sandstone being overlaid by a few feet of deep red clay, then another few feet of pink sandstone, then the red beds begin in earnest. The North Poudre Ditch   North Poudre Ditch turned into the {{place}Box Elder Creek, Colorado|Box Elder}} has started a period of deep erosion which is extending up the lateral gulches by headward progression.

Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado, Saturday June 15, 1907  June 15, 1907

Left for Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado at 7:30 a.m., Robbins and I in the saddle. Visited the Belleview fold on way down. Found it was Lyons formation, very narrow, the dips on the west limb very steep (estimated at 60˚), the Poudre cutting through it, while Belleview occupies the syncline to the west. Reached Collins   Ft. Collins, Coloradoat 11:15 and had boxes ready etc. for shipment at 11:45. Dined at hotel and took 2:05 p.m. train, reaching Boulder   Boulder, Colorado at 4 p.m. It has been a very hot day with a hot wind.

Magnola-Rollinsville, South Boulder Canyon, Left Hand CanyonEdit

Trips Aug and Sept. 1907



Magnolia   Magnolia, Colorado-Rollinsville   Rollinsville, Colorado Aug. 22, 1907  August 22, 1907

Dr Ramaley and I started by team at 7 a.m. On divide SW of Magnolia   Magnolia, Colorado we stopped and collected mollusca and plants, with a few scale insects etc. Then drove to the lake beyond the school house. In the lake we collected leaches, crustacea, water beetles, frogs etc. and the following mollusca: Lymnaea palustris   Lymnaea palustris Calyculina sp.   Calyculina Planorbis exacuous (sic)   Planorbis


In the quaking aspen   Populus tremuloides groves and willows   Salix along the divide we collected the following mollusca:

Pyramidula cronkhitei anthonyi   Pyramidula cronkhitei anthonyi - common Vallonia cyclophorella   Vallonia cyclophorella- scarce, only found at Pine Glade School Succinea cf. avara   Succinea ? a few Vitrina alaskana   Vitrina alaskana common Zonitoides arboreus   Zonitoides arboreus common Euconulus trochiformis   Euconulus trochiformis common Cochlicopa lubrica   Cochlicopa lubrica 1 specimen Pupilla   Pupilla or Bifidaria sp.   Bifidaria

Reached home at 6:45

South Boulder Canyon   South Boulder Canyon Via Flagstaff road Aug 24, 1907  August 24, 1907

Dr. Ramaley and I started for South Boulder   South Boulder, Colorado by team at 7 a.m. and stopped at Kossler ranch   Kossler Ranch, Colorado and he collected plants while I collected mollusca. In aspens   Populus found Vallonia cyclophorella   Vallonia cyclophorella common Vitrina alascana (sic)   Vitrina alaskana a few Succinea cf avara   Succinea a few Zonitoides arboreus   Zonitoides arboreus common Pupilla sp.   Pupilla a few Euconulus trochiformis   Euconulus trochiformis

In the edge of pine forest under pine boughs (Pinus scopulorum   Pinus scopulorum) found Z. arboreus   Zonitoides arboreus and Vallonia cyclophorella   Vallonia cyclophorella sparsely. On South Boulder below the Longridge Mill   Longridge Mill, Colorado found also Agriolimax campestris   Agriolimax campestris. Not good collecting ground for mollusca. Pyramidula   Pyramidula notably absent, though common SW of Magnolia   Magnolia, Colorado. Saw 50 nighthawks   Chordeiles minor flying S by SW in a scattered flock S of Kossler ranch   Kossler Ranch, and 20 piñon jays   Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus by roadside near head of Gregory Canyon   Gregory Canyon, Colorado.

Saturday Sep. 6, 1907  September 6, 1907 Left Hand canyon   Left Hand Creek, Colorado

Started with Nellie Rust, Lillian McCracken and Mrs. Henderson at 8:10 for mouth of Left hand Canyon   Left Hand Creek, Colorado with team and surrey from Fields and Lucas’ stable. Took Red Hill   Red Hill, Colorado road and reached Left Hand   Left Hand Creek, Coloradoat 10:15. Fountain conglomerate and sandstone there several hundred feet thick and well exposed north of creek just above where we reached Left Hand   Left Hand Creek, Colorado. Chiefly hard, coarse red sandstones with bands of coarser conglomerates in places very rich dark red with white patches as if from leaching out of iron oxides. S of creek dip N. 63˚ E = 30˚ near contact and 38˚ near top of Fountain. N of creek Fountain exposure is 150 paces horizontal extent E and W with dip 30 to 40 degrees easterly. Formation strongly arkose, with some traces of lime on some exposed surfaces. Down creek a short distance below where the stream turns northward about 200 ft (156 ft measured, balance estimated) occurs east of stream beneath the Lyons or part of it. It appears not as hard as that west of creek and is comparatively free of feldspar crystals. In the creek bed between these two exposures is a bed of thin bedded rather fine grained intensely red (dark) sandstone, 8 or 10 ft.? The relations are about thus ((drawing in field book)). The upper friable conglomerate is exactly like that on N. Box Elder   North Box Elder Creek, Colorado just above junction with S fork   South Box Elder Creek, Colorado, but is not at all effervescent. At Box Elder   Box Elder, Colorado, however, there is no hard conglomerate beneath it. It rests on the granite. I am inclined to believe the hard stuff is older and begins to come in at Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado where I found it in contact with the granite. After dinner I found outcrops of the conglomerate in the creek bed and west of the creek in such position as to practically connect the different conglomerates through the covered zones. The clear exposure of conglomerate E of creek measured this morning has a pinkish appearance due to the intermingling of white and red, making a well defined difference in color from the evenly reddish overlying Lyons sandstone. The conglomerate passes gradually into the Lyons by variable beds, varying in thickness from minutely to coarsely crossbedded, very irregular in stratification, with undoubted evidence eddying shore currents. The main body of the Lyons forms a nearly vertical face of the escarpment above the fountain slope and is rather uniformly thin bedded and fine grained. The east slope of the escarpment about follows the dip. Lyons has strong regular crossbedding instead of irregular as in the Fountain thus ((drawing in field book)). The directions of dip are often exactly reversed.

Geology Society AccountingEdit

Geological Survey Account Oct 2, 1907  October 2, 1907 Fare 2.50 " 4 " Hotel & stable Livermore   Livermore, Colorado 5.00 " " " Train ___ Ave

Fort Collins Trip 2Edit

Fort Collins Trip 2 Oct. 2-27, 1907



Ft Collins, Colo.   Ft. Collins, Colorado Wednesday Oct. 2, 1907

Left Boulder   Boulder, Colorado at 5:20 p.m. on time arrived Ft Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado 7:30, 10 minutes late, 45 miles. Day closed cloudy and threatening, but clouds showed westerly air currents. Went to Northern Hotel, and had supper. Nellie accompanied me.

Thursday Oct. 3, 1907  October 3, 1907

A cloudy gloomy morning and cool, with a north wind. We started by team for Livermore   Livermore, Colorado at 7:30 a.m. Stopped to examine and map the fold north of La Porte   La Porte, Colorado in Dakota sandstone. In this region the escarpments and dips are such that folds can be detected at great distance by changes in the strikes of ridges. The Jurassic is well up on the slope of the Dakota escarpment except just inside cache La Poudre Canyon   Cache la Poudre Canyon, where it occupies the valley or a portion of it. Heard meadowlarks   Sturnella singing all along the road. Saw one good sized flock of bluebirds   Sialia and many sparrow hawks   Accipiter. Along the “Lykins” valley from the La Porte fold to Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado there are two light colored low ridge making sandstones at the Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado end of the area and one at the southern end. Made coffee and ate lunch at Owl canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado at noon. At 12:45 it cleared off rapidly. Hitched up and drove out to the mouth of the canyon at 1 p.m. In the sandy shales between the two sandstone ridges of the Dakota we found a 4- inch stratum literally filled with Ostreidae   Ostreidae, but in very poor condition. Collected a lot, hoping that some of them might prove determinable. Reached Livermore   Livermore, Colorado at 5 p.m., stopped at Ramer House, C. W. Ramer, proprietor. Alt 5733, B.M. ((bench mark)) in sidewalk in front of hotel.

Livermore, Colo.   Livermore, Colorado Oct. 4, 1907  October 4, 1907

White frost this morning. I arose at 6 a.m. and looked around a little before breakfast. Drove west. About a mile west of Livermore   Livermore, Colorado just N of road is an apparent fault through contact of Fountain and Lyons, SE side of fault dipping NW 50˚ and NW side dipping NE thus ((drawing in field book)). Upon more careful examination I found it was plainly a very sharp fold, thus ((drawing in field book)). Other changes in dip immediately west, then dip becomes normal and continues so to the granite. NE of where Rabbit Creek   Rabbitt Creek, Colorado emerges from the granite the Fountain appears to butt squarely into the abrupt slope of the granite granite thus: ((drawing in field book)). Lunched at Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado at noon and started on at 1 p.m. 1st gulch S of Engleside (sic) I left the team with Nellie and started back of the Lyons ridge on foot. In Fountain-granite contact just S of gulch is a white quartz outcrop, strike N of W, large chunks of quartz rolling down over the Fountain. It makes a ridge. Fountain and Lyons same here as at Owl Canyon   Owl Canyon, Colorado, Fountain barely standing up on granite slope. From there south to where the strike changes abruptly to the west the Fountain, if it exists west of the thread of the valley, is covered with soil on the granite slope. It appears at the base of the Lyons escarpment all along, but, as northward, is weak and usually but little seen in the valley or the granite slope. Reached Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado at 5:20. After supper called for Kittle, J. L. Bartlett and Mrs. Collins by phone at Greeley   Greeley, Colorado and Boulder   Boulder, Colorado but did not reach Mrs. Collins. Saw 29 crows   Corvus in on((e)) flock near Ingleside flying SE. Bright warm day.

Ft. Collins, Colo.   Ft. Collins, Colorado Oct. 5  October 5, 1907

I started for La Porte   La Porte, Colorado and Belleview   Belleview, Colorado at 7:45 on horseback, leaving at the hotel Nellie who expects to go to Greeley   Greeley, Colorado on the morning train, where she will join the Kittle auto party for Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. Where the road to Belleview   Belleview, Colorado crosses the “Dakota” sandstone it is divided into two distinct and massive members with a covered interval of 100 yds or more. Back (west or NW) of that, in the middle Lykins, we find the same light colored, crossbedded ridge making sandstone so persistent further north. At N end of Belleview   Belleview, Coloradofold on west slope the dip is 30˚ W by N, that limb not having been entirely eroded away by the Cache a la Poudre   Cache la Poudre River, but the stream is now undermining it into the bluff at one place thus, looking south ((drawing in field book)). In the bay NW of Belleview fold, where the road running W on the N side of river passes the end of the Lyons ridge, and a lot of rock is thrown out, the formation is very red and massive. Dip N 6˚, 25˚. Along the stream which flows east of the ridge, but S of the road, the light colored crossbedded Lykins sandstone follows the W side of the stream, dip 20˚. S of the river this sandstone makes a high ridge, and they have quarried the massive red Lyons sandstone. I lunched, fed the pony and rested at 12 n. to 1 p.m. Where I rested the tree sparrows   Spizella arborea and chickadees   Poecile were abundant. I saw a killdeer   Charadrius vociferus. Meadowlarks   Sturnella were singing here as the house finches are in town. Very few outcrops in the bay NW of Belleview fold, but enough to show the relations of formations The normal Lyons monocline next to granite is much more like typical Lyons further south, but still with some limestone bands (thin) and calcareous sandstones, as shown by effervescence. At Belleview light colored Lykins sandstone is good building stone and flagging, particularly the latter. The Belleview anticline is an elongated dome NW and SE. The river has cut through the Lyons and very deep into the Fountain, which is well exposed in the escarpment on E side of the river but covered in the valley. West of Lyons normal monocline escarpment, NW W and SW of Belleview the Lyons outcrops in very few places, but is occasionally exposed on the western slope of the valley, and on the south bank of the Cache a la Poudre   Cache la Poudre River nearly the whole series is exposed. The E and W cross section W of Belleview: ((drawing in field book, W to left and E to right)). SW of Belleview, again, again I found the uniform decidedly red (not as deep red as the Lykins except the crossbedded sandstone) Lyons, but not even a narrow white limestone band as a mile or so further N. N to the Wyoming   Wyoming line and also in the Belleview anticline the Lyons is variegated, banded broadly by alternating pinkish or reddish and grayish or whitish zones. Nothing of this kind appears SW of Belleview and but a narrow band of gray a mile north of that locality. The Lykins remains very deep red, thinbedded, with the white ridge making member, always strongly crossbedded, in about the middle of the series. Hot and dry, and bright day.

Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 6, 1907  October 6, 1907

Left Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado on the 8 a.m. train, arrived in C about on time. Hot and bright.

Ft. Collins, Colo.   Ft. Collins, Colorado Tuesday, Oct. 8, 1907  October 8, 1907

Left Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, on 9:28 train, about 15 minutes late. Bright, beautiful morning. Dined at Northern Hotel, then drove north past Terry lake to Rocky Ridge reservoir No. 1   Rocky Ridge reservoir No. 1, about six miles. Found Fossil Creek sandstone just E of Terry Lake   Terry Lake, Colorado. The road practically follows the ridge made by the sandstone. It is just as at Fossil Ridge, S of Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, sloping gently on the east side of the ridge and more steeply on the west side. At Rocky ridge Reservoir No. 1   Rocky ridge Reservoir No. 1 it forms steep, much dissected, bluffs, which give to the reservoir its name. The dip changes rapidly at the latter place. Along the ridge from Terry Lake   Terry Lake, Colorado northward the dip is easterly and only about 5˚. Then it changes to N and then N by NW (remains about 4˚ or 5˚) and swings around to the north end of Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1   Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1, the strike changing in response to change of dip. There is a series of reservoirs about which large flocks of ducks and numerous large gulls were flying. The sandstone, as at Fossil Ridge, contains large numbers of Inoceramus oblongus   Inoceramus oblongus and some of the other Inoceramus   Inoceramus found at Fossil Ridge, but I only saw two or three Pinna lakesii   Pinna lakesii and Baculites compressus   Baculites compressus, one Callista   Callista, one Scaphites nodosus   Scaphites nodosus, and a very few Ostrea cf. O. inornata   Ostrea. Anomia raetiformis   Anomia raetiformis is common and there are some Halymenites major   Halymenites major. I saw no Placenticeras   Placenticeras or other fossils except those mentioned. The formation is practically the same as at Fossil Creek   Fossil Creek, gray sandstone containing numerous ironstone concretions, some several feet in diameter, the formation having a tendency toward forming an escarpment on the west side of the ridge and a gentle slope on the east side.

Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct. 9, 1907  October 9, 1907

Started for mouth of Owl canyon   Owl Creek Canyon at 7:55 (25 minutes late on account of slowness of livery man) with team and driver from Mt. Ave. stable. Took the road running north from La Porte   La Porte, Colorado, following the Niobrara ridge most of the way. Found Benton formation mostly covered in a valley west of Niobrara, but outcropping in places as a calcareous sandstone just below Niobrara limestone, indeed forming a trans-tion zone to the limestone. Niobrara about as elsewhere, the three ridges usually showing, the eastern one often making an abrupt slope to the Pierre valley. No Pierre exposed so far as I saw, occupying a rather flat undissected valley. To the east could see Fossil Creek sandstone extending northward from where I traced it yesterday. Niobrara contains I. deformis   Inoceramus deformis and O. congesta   Ostrea congesta in about the usual condition as from Boulder   Boulder, Colorado northward. Arrived where Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado breaks through Dakota ridge at 10:45. I got out and the driver went to the Forks   Forks Hotel, Livermore, Colorado to get his dinner and feed the horses. In the upper Niobrara I noticed some tendency toward minor folds where the big ditch cuts through it 4 or 5 miles S of Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, but I did not examine the region particularly, merely noting a few dips. At Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado(mouth of) found great numbers of Ostrea   Ostrea and Inoceramus   Inoceramus. The latter look very much like I. labiatus   Inoceramus labiatus. They occur in calcareous bands about half way down the west slope of the upper sandstone member of the Dakota ridge. Beginning at top of ridge we find, not the usual hard, thick bedded sandstone, but a softer thin bedded sandstone, weathering rapidly, perhaps 20 feet thick with numerous fucoids ? Below this are possibly 50 feet of sandy shales, including fossiliferous calcareous bands, the pure sands not at all calcareous. Below this 30 ft. or more of noncalcareous, thin bedded black and gray shales, much like those of the Benton and Pierre, non-fossiliferous extending to bottom of lateral gulch. Below this, on east slope of west ridge, friable sandstone. This is underlaid by typical hard “Dakota” sandstone and conglomerate which forms the crest of the second ridge thus: ((drawing in field book)). Nearly a mile north of the road there is either a fault or fold in the Dakota, N and S, thus (( drawing in field book)). Exposures too poor to determine the exact condition. Nearly a mile north of the road there is either a fault or fold in the Dakota, N and S, thus (( drawing in field book)). Exposures too poor to determine the exact condition.

Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 10, 1907  October 10, 1907

Left hotel   Forks Hotel, Livermore, Colorado at 7:30 on a horse from the stable back of Bell’s which makes a specialty of saddle horses. Road west on road which crosses the railroad at the Passenger depot. At mouth of gulch found Niobrara and Benton in usual position, all covered except basal Niobrara limestone, which makes a low ridge. The lower Benton, however, has been rather extensively quarried for brick making south of the road, making a fair exposure, in the upper part of which I found a thin bed of Ostrea   Ostrea, apparently the same undescribed species found at Six Mile   Six Mile, N of Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, and in the same condition, with other thin limestone strata above it. Here the Dakota forms 3 distinct benches. The Lykins has a dip of 27˚, the medial ridge making member rises nearly as high as the Lyons, with the valley consisting of a lateral running each way from the pass, but not very deep at the pass thus: ((drawing in field book)). The Lykins and the Lyons are both quarried, the former to a limited extent, the latter extensively. The Lyons furnishes large, fine blocks of flawless sandstone of a uniform red color, not very intense red. It is much thicker here than a short distance northward, massive and uniform, sharply differentiated from the Fountain in the escarpment both in texture and color, but conformable. The basal and (?) third beds 15 or 20 ft thick are strongly crossbedded in the escarpment where it faces SW, thus: ((drawing in field book. Caption= Fountain purplish red coarse sand and conglomerate)). A large part of the Fountain here is quite calcareous, in places might be called limestones almost. It passes abruptly into noncalcareous fine red sandstone above, but conformably. Could find no fossils. There are probably over 200 feet of Fountain and same amount of Lyons up to Ten Sleep sandstone. There is a little lime in Lyons in places above base but no well defined horizons and no limestone. In Lykins above the cross bedded sandstone is a limestone band similar to that at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado which has been burned for lime. The Dakota has been quarried a little at one place. The Fountain is friable and occupies a north and south valley as northward with tendency to harden at very base as at Owl Canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado. Cross bedding in Lykins ridge at Spring Canyon   Spring Canyon, Colorado thus ((drawing in field book)). The Morrison from where I struck foothills south for at least several miles is covered with talus except in one or two places, which show its existence plainly. At Stout   Stout, Colorado, in Spring Canyon   Spring Canyon, Colorado there is a 6 foot stratum of hard crystalline limestone near top of Lyons, just below Ten Sleep sandstone. The formation is much thinner than where I struck the foothills 4 ½ miles north, not really so massive, and separated from Fountain by the same sharp line, though 40 ft down in the conglomerate is a 10 foot band not distinguishable from the Lyons above. On the whole the appearance of the escarpment is much more like that at Owl canyon   Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado than it was at Belleview   Belleview (not the fold) or 4 ½ miles north of here. Southward found a good exposure of Morrison on slope of Dakota ridge, consisting, as usual of soft, variously tinted sandstones and shales, underlaid by Lykins thin bedded, red sandy shales, including massive layer in which Fenneman thought he had found fossils at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado (containing concretions of some sort) and the Morrison overlaid by “Dakota” conglomerate. A little further south about 25 or 30 feet of hard limestone is exposed at top of Morrison and formation seems much thicker. This limestone probably exists at first outcrop, but if so is covered by talus. Finished the Ft. Collins quadrangle and not having the Loveland sheet with me and the horse being tired, I came home reaching the hotel   Forks Hotel, Livermore, Colorado at 4 p.m. very tired. Worked hard all day. Following is a list of birds I have seen here last week and this week. Meadowlarks   Sturnella- abundant and singing in the valley as far west in the mountains as I have been, 4 miles west of Livermore   Livermore, Colorado. Robins   Turdus migratorius- Common in valley in flocks. Have not noticed them closely, but this morning noticed one M. migratorius   Turdus migratorius migratorius with flock of M. m. propinqus   Turdus migratorius propinquus. Mt. Bluebird   Sialia currucoides- Saw a large flock at Ingleside and another (yesterday) in the valley.
Sparrow Hawk   Accipiter- abundant
Marsh Hawk   Circus cyaneus- have seen a number, always singly
Red Winged Blackbird   Agelaius phoeniceus – quite common, have seen no large flocks yet.
Brewer blackbird   Euphagus cyanocephalus- a few
Vesper sparrow   Pooecetes gramineus- a few
Shore larks   Eremophila alpestris- common, especially in the mountains (foothills).
Gulls- probably ring billed   Larus delawarensis – numbers on Rocky Ridge Reservoir   Rocky Ridge Reservoir
Ducks- same as gulls
Great Blue Heron   Ardea herodias-one
House finches   Carpodacus mexicanus- singing in town
English sparrow   Passer domesticus- in town
Killdeer   Charadrius vociferus- common
Mourning Dove   Zenaida macroura- not common.
Yesterday and today there was frost in the morning. Yesterday it was cool riding all day. Today it was quite hot. Both days were bright.

Loveland, Colo.   Loveland, Colorado Oct 11, 1907  October 11, 1907

Left Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado at 8 p.m. and reached Loveland   Loveland,Colorado at 8:30, put up at Bushnell Hotel   Bushnell Hotel. Got team at ---- ((left blank)) stable and drove up Big Thompson   Big Thompson Creek, Colorado thence up Buckhorn Creek   Buckthorn Creek, Colorado to plot the Arkins fold. West limb of anticline, “Dakota” sandstone and Niobrara dips SW 70˚ to 75˚. W limb of syncline much more gentle as also E limb of anticline. The Dakota forms a high narrow dyke of the hard sandstone. The Fountain is in escarpment. The valley west of granite intrusion is covered, mostly. The upper Lyons is hard, light colored, exactly as in the quarries NW of Colorado Sanatorium   Colorado Sanatorium at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. I have not made copious notes on the Arkins anticline and syncline, because they are normal en echelon folds and the map gives about all the data. At the northern end of the syncline however, east, northeast and northwest of Masonville   Masonville, Colorado, a peculiar condition exists. East of Masonville   Masonville, Colorado is a fold (anticline) in the Lyons and Fountain which is cut of entirely from the strata east and west. A cross section from Masonville   Masonville, Colorado east through Redstone Canyon   Redstone Canyon, Colorado and on to the plains is as follows: ((drawing in field book, W to left)). At Masonville   Masonville, Colorado the Dakota, Lykins and Lyons butt squarely into mica schist and play out. The Dakota does not appear to be dragged up, nor does the Jura, but the Lykins is dragged up sharply thus: ((drawing in field book)). The two schist mountains shown on the map tower far above the sedimentaries flanking them. The dip of cleavage planes is very steep, dipping west, with a strike a little W of N, approximately the same as the sedimentaries to the west, and so pronounced as to make the mountain in places look as if composed of stratified rocks. The western formations are a normal monocline. The anticline east of Masonville   Masonville, Colorado seems to have overturned and developed into a thrust fault which has carried it up over the Dakota, and all the formations above the Lyons have been planed off. It seems likely that these formations formerly extended over the high mountain and joined the corresponding strata to the east in the present monocline, or rather that the strata were continuous in a more nearly level position before the development of the fold. Reached hotel at 6:15 very tired, having done a large amount of rapid climbing on foot and driven over 32 miles. Had a fine team, though skittish and headstrong. Following birds were overlooked in Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado list made yesterday. Crows   Corvus- saw some several times in the valley and 29 in one flock in the foothills. Long crested jay   Cyanocitta stelleri- abundant in foothills Magpie   Magpie- common in valley and foothills Towhees   Towhees- spurred or arctic, do not know which, abundant along foothills in brushy places A large hawk- probably Swainson’s   Buteo swainsonii or red tailed (western)   Buteo jamaicensis Flicker   Colaptes- common

Loveland Colo.   Loveland, Colorado, Oct 12/07  October 12, 1907

Started with team and driver at 8:15 a.m., west on road that leads from south part of town west to foothills. At S end of anticline the lower Niobrara forms a beautiful semi circular ridge like a broad railroad grade. Basal limestone on E limb of fold dips E by SE 25˚, on W limb W by S 40 degrees. Upper shales of W limb 80˚ and overturning for upper foot by creek. Benton shales here steeper than basal Niobrara. Near Loveland   Loveland, Colorado settling Plant (S of it) is an anticline in the Lyons and Fountain. In the center I found an outcrop thus: ((drawing in field book; caption= flat at base)). The western escarpment here is crowned by the Lykins, the Lyons forming a bench on the west slope of escarpment, the Fountain beneath it and sharply differentiated as at Spring Gulch   Spring Gulch, Colorado. The Fountain also extends up the slope of the mountain. The latter consists of mica shist, as described at Masonville   Masonville, Colorado yesterday, the Fountain resting upon it thus: ((drawing in field book)). There is a fine exposure west of Loveland   Loveland, Colorado Filter Bed and Dam. Lyons is quite thin, Fountain thick and much as at Left Hand, 150 ft. (estimated) west of drainage line upturned 15˚ on granite (shist) and about the same amount below to Lyons in escarpment. The lower half – that west of the medial line of the valley – is not at all calcareous, but some horizons in the upper half are slightly , others highly, calcareous, almost limestone. Reached hotel at 6:30 after a hard days work . Mapped a number of folds, including those around Loveland   Loveland, Coloradofilter bed and two S of Dry Creek   Dry Creek, Colorado.

Berthoud, Colo.   Bertoud, Colorado Oct 15, 1907  October 15, 1907

Left Boulder   Boulder, Colorado at 5:50 p.m., 35 minutes late, reached Berthoud   Bertoud, Colorado at 6:50, 25 minutes late. Rode to Longmont   Longmont, Colorado in seat with F. M. Downer. Got supper at hotel and arranged at livery stable for team for tomorrow, being unable to get saddle horse. Stopped at Grand View Hotel, W. M. Brady, proprietor.

Berthoud   Bertoud, Colorado Oct 16, 1907  October 16, 1907

Started with team at 7:30 a.m. West of Stever Reservoir   Stever Reservoir found Tepee Buttes   Tepee Buttes with Baculites compressus   Baculites compressus, Ostrea inornata   Ostrea inornata and Lucina occidentalis   Lucina occidentalis in quantities but in poor condition. There were many fossil fragments. Did not stop to collect any. Found also Inoceramus barabini   Inoceramus barabini, fragments of a large Heteroceras   Heteroceras and probably a medium sized Ptychoceras   Ptychoceras. 150 yards W of the buttes The Hygiene sandstone is found dipping east about 15˚, not at all calcareous. To the west the basal Pierre shales and Niobrara dip E 42˚, the Benton shales are somewhat crushed and the boulder mesa cap over the Benton is well consolidated. Just within the canyon the Dakota is badly tangled. A section of the medial shales is thus: ((drawing in field book)). A big fold in addition to several small ones spreads the “Dakota” over much territory here. The strong capping limestone of the Morrison can be followed around the north end of the syncline via Carter Lake   Carter Lake, Colorado. The west limb of the anticline, as usual, is steeper than the east limb, from 55 to 80 degrees. The pink krinkled sandstone with limestone bands can be traced around the main syncline in the Lykins at head of Carter Lake   Carter Lake, Colorado. It is much as at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. The medial gray sandstone of the Lykins is very hard and resembles the Lyons sandstone of the quarries NW of Colorado Sanitarium at Boulder   Boulder, Colorado. (query, is the latter Lyons?) In the underlying red sandstones of the Lykins at one place just west of the head of Carter Lake   Carter Lake, Colorado I found numerous casts of fossil bivalves   bivalves, but unrecognizable in a coarse sandstone. ((the following parenthetical statement added later by JH “(these are casts of concretions)”)). The Fountain extends well across the west valley at Chimney Hollow   Chimney Hollow. Carter Lake   Carter Lake, Colorado has no outlet now. It may be due either to deformation or an outwash dame of debris, probably the former. Old terraces indicate that the water once rose some feet higher and that at one time there was an outlet at the S end. The S barrier is not now very high. In afternoon I collected fossils in the Benton. Found Inoceramus cf. I. labiatus   Inoceramus labiatus just below middle of formation, with undetermined cephalopods   cephalopods and an undescribed oyster   oyster found near Boulder   Boulder, Colorado and west of Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado. In two or three thin limestones in the upper half of the formation I found the usual abundance of I. labiatus   Inoceramus labiatus and a few cephalopods   cephalopods. Reached hotel at 5:30. It has been very warm in the sun today.

Berthoud   Bertoud, Colorado, Oct 17, 1907  October 17, 1907

Started with sorrel team at 7:30. Drove W and then S. Just before reaching Little Thompson   Little Thompson Creek, Colorado on road next to foothills found a sandstone E of typical Hygiene. It was soft and fine grained below with a with a two foot hard and coarse stratum of darker color than the other. On E side Rabbit   Rabbit Creek, Colorado we have an unusual case of an anticline with E limb much steeper than west limb. Killed a rattlesnake   rattlesnake on Dakota Ridge W of Lykins ranch   Lykins Ranch. Struck an outcrop SW of town and E of the Hygiene (1 ½ or 2 mi.) which looks much like concretions of Fossil Creek sandstone, but decidedly lime concretions. Contained a few Inoceramus sagensis   Inoceramus sagensis and probably I. barabini   Inoceramus barabini. Collected Vallonia cyclophorella   Vallonia cyclophorella, Oreohelix strigosa   Oreohelix strigosa, Zonitoides arboreus   Zonitoides arboreus and Pupilla sp.   Pupilla where little Thompson   Little Thompson Creek, Colorado breaks through the “Dakota” ridge. Went south nearly to St. Vrain   St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Reached Hotel at 5:30. Cloudy, with raw wind early forenoon, warm and bright afternoon.

Berthoud, Oct 18, 1907

Started at 8:30 driving west and north. Hazy over the mountains and a cold northerly breeze blowing, changing later to easterly. North of Lone Tree Lake I found a strong outcrop of typical Hygiene sandstone dipping SE, 15˚, continuing NE to SW corner of Loveland. Its strike continued SE would about meet the outcrop west of Berthoud. No fossils. Returned to the hotel for dinner at noon, and packed the fossils from W and SW for shipment. In the afternoon started north at 2 p.m., then east to E line of Loveland Quadrangle around twin Mounds   Twin Mounds, thence S of Little Thompson   Little Thompson Creek, Colorado , where I found Fox Hills strata containing Cardium speciosum   Cardium speciosum etc. E of road and S of creek. Reached hotel at 5 p.m. Took 6:25 train for Loveland   Loveland, Colorado arriving practically on time and after engaging the little black team I used last week I went to the Bushnell Hotel   Bushnell Hotel. Nearly in collision with runaway car as we pulled into Loveland   Loveland, Colorado.

Loveland   Loveland, Colorado, Oct 19, 1907  October 19, 1907

Started by team at 7 a.m. Drove up above Masonville   Masonville, Colorado and traced out sedimentaries to where they ended. In the schist E of the fault plane there has been some prospecting. Then crossed into Redstone Canyon   Redstone Canyon, Colorado and traced the Fountain, Lyons and Lykins up about 3 ½ miles to where they ended. Fed the horses here at just noon. Reached the hotel at 3:15 p.m. having driven about 45 miles with a fine team. Reached Boulder   Boulder, Colorado at 5:55 p.m.

Boulder   Boulder, Colorado, Oct. 22, 1907  October 22, 1907

Left Boulder   Boulder, Coloradoat 9:45 a.m., 25 minutes late, reached Loveland   Loveland, Colorado at11 a.m. with G. S. Dodds. He went on to Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado by train while I got off and started north on foot with the idea of meeting Dodds at Fossil Creek with horse and buggy. At intake S end of Loveland Lake   Loveland Lake, Colorado I found Hygiene sandstone with usual characters including some greenish yellow strata, dipping east, 8˚, one stratum containing numerous Inoceramus barabini   Inoceramus barabini, I. oblongus   Inoceramus oblongus and Anomia rectiformis   Anomia rectiformis, all poorly preserved. I have now no doubt of its identity with the Fossil Ridge sandstone . Passing thence around the east side of the lake the Inoceramus oblongus   Inoceramus oblongus increased rapidly in numbers and I found several Scaphites nodosus   Scaphites nodosus. Found no outcrop at extreme north end of lake . Thick sheet of clay exposed. In bottom of outlet ditch there appears to be a soft sandstone, probably the same one as at the south end. Along east side sandstone is unmistakably the Fossil Ridge formation. The fossils at Fossil Ridge are mostly in upper part (eastern part of exposure) as here. Passed northward then along RR track. Saw occasional evidence of the sandstone on both sides of the track and believe the ridge east of track all the way is composed of it as at Fossil Ridge. Reached Trilby Schoolhouse road   Trilby Schoolhouse Road road at 4:45 and found Dodds with horse and buggy. We reached Hotel Northern   Hotel Northern at Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado at 6 p.m. There seems now no possible doubt about the Fossil Ridge sandstone being continuous with the Hygiene.

Ft. Collins, Colo.   Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 23, 1907  October 23, 1907

Started S at 8 a.m., collected fossils where Fossil Creek   Fossil Creek, Colorado breaks through the ridge and crosses the road, then drove S to Trilby schoolhouse   Trilby Schoolhouse and turned east visiting the sandstone outcrop 1 ½ miles east. It dip E 8˚ and is indistinguishable from the Fossil Ridge sandstone, but contains no fossils except a few Inoceramus cf. barabini   Inoceramus barabini. (see below). Probably represents upper member of Hygiene sandstone as found further south, but much further from the lower member. Upon further search found quite a number of fossils, all of which were I. oblongus   Inoceramus oblongus, but small specimens, and Dodds found Halymenites major   Halymenites major. The concretions are just as at Fossil Ridge   Fossil Ridge. It is possible that it is a fold. N of Trilby schoolhouse   Trilby schoolhouse we found a good exposure just S of Brickyard and E of RR track. At base there is a transition zone from shale to sandstone . Above this are about 40 feet of rather soft, irregularly bedded sandstone, then a covered zone of a few feet, above which is he hard, massive, concretionary, fossiliferous sandstone about 50 feet, the whole dipping easterly 9˚. Reached Hotel at 6 p.m. I have been ill all afternoon having sever intestinal pains. Got a shave and haircut in evening and at 8 p.m. Chas. A Lory called on us.

Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 24, 1907  October 24, 1907

Started N with team at 8 a.m. On W side of reservoir system, Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1   Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1, found a greenish, coarse, friable, impure sandstone, irregularly bedding, dipping E 12˚ and in passing N changing to NE 20˚, thus passing under the typical Fossil Ridge sandstone E of the reservoir. Proceeding E along the ditch bank half way to the Fossil Ridge sandstone, found impure sandy shale all the way dipping NE 18˚ to 20˚. Going W and N around head of Douglas Reservoir No. 10   Douglas Reservoir No. 10 is a typical massive sandstone with a tendency toward greenish gray color, containing hard and darker concretions just as at Fossil Ridge. Fossil less numerous than further south and consist only of Halymenites major   Halymenites major, Inoceramus barabini   Inoceramus barabini, Callista deweyi   Callista deweyi, Anomia rectiformis   Anomia rectiformis, and Cardium speciosum   Cardium speciosum. Collected a few fossils at Rocky Ridge Reservoir No----   Rocky Ridge Reservoir No---- and reached livery bar at 4 :15. It was cloudy at daylight, but not cold. Temperature fell during the day. At noon it began to sprinkle and at 4 p.m. developed into light rain. Prepared a box of fossils for shipment before supper. Still drizzling at bedtime.

Ft. Collins   Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct. 25, 1907  October 25, 1907

Still gloomy, damp and muddy, but not raining this morning. Spent the forenoon at hotel waiting to see what the weather would do to us. Started to Windsor   Windsor, Colorado by train at 11:40, late as usual. Went to American Hotel   American Hotel and had dinner, then started for bluffs on S side Cache a la Poudre   Cache la Poudre River, Colorado SE of Windsor   Windsor, Colorado. 3 mi. S and 1 ½ E found bluffs about the same as at our 1906 camp 2 miles further east. Massive greenish, yellowish sandstones above, quite friable, with hard dark colored stratified concretions and concretionary zones, and darker colored shales below. Found Mactra   Mactra and numerous gastropods   gastropods above and Veniella humilis